Exam 3: Complete Study Guide
Exam 3: Complete Study Guide ANT 220
Popular in Intro to Cultural and Linguistic Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael McDonald on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 220 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Dr. Bridget Hayden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural and Linguistic Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
2 Why would soap operas tell us something about culture and patterns of family relations when we know that they are not realistic They depict individuals with choices to make that affect others Reveal character motivation and development Because in some way people who watch the shows have to be able to relate to one of the characters 0 Look at composition of family 0 How it is formedmaintained 0 How sexuality love and wealth are dealt with what kind of issue and con icts disrupt family life 3 What contrast is there between US and Brazilian soap operas What does this difference suggest about the cultures 0 Brazilian 0 Themes of class mobility such poor marrying rich 0 Love is dangerous and unrequited 0 Family of Orientation Family group that consists of father mother self and sibling 0 US 0 Illicit love incest cheating greed and family con ict 0 Family of Procreation Husband wife and their children 4 What characterizes US kinship How does this contrast with the other cultures discussed 0 Americans consider themselves equally tied to both their mother and father and each of their kin 0 Bilateral kinship tracing their descent through both parents 0 Americans make no distinction between their maternal aunts and uncles and their paternal aunts and uncles Nor do they distinguish between their cousins on each side 0 Nuclear Family Consisting of a father mother and their children whether biological or adopted 0 Other societies Emphasize ties to one parents matrilineal and patrilineal 0 Only people from their mother or father s side are considered family I However rarely is kinship from the irrelevant side ignored Simply labeled differently 5 Use the table below to make sure you know how family and marriage contrast in the three groups discussed JuWasi Trobrianders Chinese Peasants Your Culture Economy Type Political Organization Democracy Family Composition Bilateral Matrilineal Patrilineal Bilateral Men s Marry Age A little older older initiation rite first Women s Marry Age Girls may marry very young younger Marriage 1St marriage is Matchmaker On your own Adopt a boy or girl Arrangements arranged Women to keep name going may resist or so forth Preferred marriage Single man Clan exogamy Wealthy good partner characteristics hunter different Job educatlon and Why responsible matrilineage generous not closely related or same last name Marriage ceremony Eat together Formal Ceremony Formal Ceremony Postmarital Residence Neolocal Household Nuclear come Extended three or Married couple Nuclear Composition and go from more generations married sons camps as please daughter inlaws and unmarried daughters Divorce Feasibility Easy Easy Difficult Complex process Men gain through A lover marriage Women gain through A lover marriage Marriage paymentgift Bride Service Bride Wealth Dowry goods to None Woman s brother exchanges requirements that grooms family the groom work for the bride s parents gives yams Major threat to Name not carrying family Key Relationship Husbandwife Brothersister Fatherson Roles of sexuality Not worried about love wealth Sexuality Other facts as you Pregnancy from Women gain status read eg taboo spirit of lineage through son entering the womb httpswwwumanitobacafacultiesartsanthropologykintitlehtml 7 What does Robbins mean when he says that the Chinese patrilineage exists as much in time as space p 115 Why are sons so important 0 Identity of a male is defined by his relations to the dead as well Social worth is a re ection of his ancestors Sons are a living proof that a man s line will continue 8 Why do health workers combatting HIVAIDS need to understand people s attitudes towards sexuality love and family 0 Families have a code of silence in Mexico about sex Women are also expected to be submissive to the man Request for condom may carry implication of distrust 10 How is the following not illustrating either matrilineal or patrilineal relationships What does it show Chapter 6 1 What are social identities 0 Views that people have of their own and others positions in society Individuals seek confirmation from others that they occupy the positions of the social landscape they claim to occupy 0 Whenever we interact with others we have to be able to distinguish them as from just any other person ie friends 0 We avoid not knowing how to behave by categorizing each other 0 For example you might curse in front of your friends but not your parents 0 2 How can names reveal how people in a culture conceive of themselves and their relationships with others 0 Names can describe how we perceive another 0 In American business culture we greet each other with first names last names and business titles revealing how they are connected to their organization I Believe a person is the same in character no matter their position or age so they keep the same name always resulting in a very individualistic society O Moroccans when traveling give their names and hometown as their idea of self is embedded in their origins and family 0 Gitskan of British Columbia name is inseparable from your social position 3 What is the distinction between sociocentric and egocentric senses of self How are the United States and Japan examples How does this difference manifest itself in the ways that we interact with others in those cultures How is it manifested in language Two distinct ways in which a person is conceived in different societies 0 Sociocentric A view of the self that is context dependent there is no intrinsic self that can possess enduring qualities 0 Instead of he is generous you would say he gives money to his friends 0 Egocentric Self that defines each person as a replica of all humanity the locus of motivations and drives capable of acting independently from others 0 US Individual is viewed as the center of awareness a distinct whole set against other wholes 39 Social relations as contracts between autonomous freely acting beings Japan and US 4 Identity tool box What are the most important characteristics How do cultures vary in the traits used to create identity What other traits might you find in the identity tool box 0 Differences and similarities among people are the materials from which we construct social relationships that allow us to distinguish individuals from one to another 0 From these we construct our social identity 0 Toolbox features of a person s identity gender age appearance etc that he or she chooses to emphasize in constructing a social self 0 Family gender and age are used in every society as categories of a social code 0 Others such as skin color ethnicity and wealth figure only in some societies 0 Work ethic willingness to achieve health grade behavior dress 0 Kinship In traditional societies kinship is central organizing principle the main determinant of one s social identity ie anthropologists are adopted by a family therefore assigning them a social identity through which others can approach them 0 To have no kinship or designation is to have no place within that society 0 Language essential for the maintenance of a group identity 0 Even the way the same language is spoken can say a lot ie southern Mississippi vs Englanders 0 Religious Affiliation In Northern Ireland being protestant or Catholic is the most important defining feature of social identity 5 Positive and negative identity what are they Come up with your own examples 0 In two separate groups the things group 2 does becomes negative attributes to group 1 0 Positive Identity attribution to people of personal characteristics believed to be desirable 0 Negative Identity Attribution of personal characteristics believed to be undesirable 6 Why do we say gender is a cultural creation or construct How do we socialize children into gender 0 Gender Construction different standards apply to being male and female It is a construct based on the roles behaviors activities and attitudes specified for each gender in US only man and woman 0 US Gender assignment begins at birth with the determination of boy or girl then the baby is given a genderspecific name and dressed in genderappropriate clothing 0 Language diminutives and innerstate words more common with baby girls cutie happy sad sweeties I More prohibitives No No with boys 0 Teach children that is manly to be tough I Boys discouraged from expressing emotions and encouraged when they can withstand it I Girls comforted when they re hurt Taught to be caring and helpful encouraged to take part in feminine behavior 7 What are third genders Why does Whitehead think that Americans have a hard time recognizing a third gender 0 Native Americans Berdache and Nadle O Berdache Cheyenne and Lakota I Lakota males learned that they could choose the dress and work of a women and even have sex with men Nadle Navajo O A biological male who does not fill the standard male roles Sometimes revered I In US such people seen as deviant abnormal nonconformist O Whitehead suggests that Americans have difficulty because they make ethnocentric assumptions about what characteristics are most important in defining gender roles I Define gender largely by sexual preference whether a person prefers to have sex with a make or female 0 Cisgender assigned sex and felt gender line up 0 Transgender O Intersex O 8 How can people use language to create social identities and boundaries What does Lakoff suggest about how women in our society often speak How can language be used to construct the identities of other people 0 Children unconsciously lower or raise the pitch of their voice to conform 0 Feminity O Lisp no profanity 0 Lakoff says women are encouraged to suppress their expression of opinion with very linguistic devices 0 Tag questions this is terrible isn t it Kinda probably hedges O Represent the relative powerlessness of women To speak as a woman requires avoiding firm commitment or expressing strong opinions and in general being constrained to use a powerless language 0 Identity judgements about race are coded in the way we speak 0 Black typically have a negative meaning 0 rivalries O 9 What is a rite of passage and what are the stages identified by Van Gennep Come up with examples Why might it be that there are more marked and difficult ones for boys than girls as they become adults in many cultures 0 Rite of passage rituals that mark a person s passage from one identiy or status to another 0 Ritual separates the person from their existing identity I Typical with funerals 0 Transition phase I Childhood to adulthood I Puberty 0 Changes are incorporated into a new identity I Marriage ceremonies 0 Manhood 0 Test of courage 0 At beginning of life there is a subliminal identification with the mother and men must make greater strides to differentiate themselves from this connection 10 What three things stand out in Sanday s study of one fraternity What does she conclude that fraternity initiation rituals do Why would people who are decent on their own sometimes do things even they might think objectionable when in a group or in the context of an initiation 1 There is a heavy emphasis in frats on male bonding behavior selfesteem and identity are dependent on entry into a frat and being accepted by the brothers Provides reassurance security and a readymade identity 2 Sex constitutes a major status and identity marker Masculinity demonstrated through sexual conquest Even arranged for brothers to watch them 3 Attitudes towards women women were seen as sex objects to be abused Female s identity among the frat was based on her sexual interactions with them frigid cockteasers sluts One reason males bond is to achieve power and domination males feel are owed to them Wroonnng 4 Phallocentrism deployment of the penis as a concrete symbol of masculine social power and dominance In the context of the frat gang rape is the outcome of a process of identity formation Rituals cleanse the frat brothers of their nerd sin or innocence Prove trust Solidifies a frat guy s identity by separating him from his previous identity as a member of a family and perhaps separating him from his mother Degradation of female identity through sexual conquest and physical abuse of women leading to male bonding 11 How do we communicate identity through things 0 Are interactions with others by making statements about who we think we are or who we want to be The clothes we wear cars we drive and people we re friends with are all used to display an identity that we think we have or desires If gender distinguishes individuals there must be way to display sexual differences 12 Principles of exchange reciprocity how the production and distribution of commodities in the market creates different relationships than reciprocity and redistribution What is the difference between a commodity and a gift How do we deal with this when we give mass produced commodities as gifts in our society 0 Principle of reciprocity Social princippl that giving a gift creates social ties with the person receiving the gift who eventually is obliged to reciprocate 0 If of equal value equality 0 Who gives better gift higher status than receiver 0 Production and distribution of goods have become impersonal that has alienated objects and relations 0 Commodities goods that carry little personal meanings O Possessions associated in a personal way with their producer 0 Difference A sells to B and exchange is over vs gift exchange a permanent link is established between giver and receiver They are bound to each other in some way 0 We appropriate the commodity What is right for them Marketers label products with distinct identities 13 What is the kula ring What is making moka 0 Kula ring circulation of gifts among the Trobriand Islanders Serves as a concrete representation of the ties between individuals Any changes in the pattern of gift giving re ects a change in the nature of social ties O Necklace moves clockwise armbands the opposite 0 Making Moka is a form of ceremonial gift exchange in which a man makes an initial gift to a trading partner and then receives in return more than he gave 0 Establish and maintain inks between individuals and groups as well as rank 14 Identity struggles and come up with your own example 0 What is it I Discrepancy between identity a person claims and the one attributed to that person 0 Positive 39 Self Esteem 0 No I Attribution of positive traits 0 Yes 0 Negative I Attribution of negative traits to a group or individual Because you don t a lot of money they must be in expensive stores to steal 15 What is fat talk Is it the same for everyone Thinness is good fatness is bad and dieting is the way to get in shape Northern Ireland The Troubles 0 Late 1960 s to 1998 Sectarian ie Catholic vs Protestant identity Social Divisions 0 Different neighborhoods social networks schools 0 Economic aspect discrimination against Catholics unemployment Social Cues for people to identify each other 0 E g name residence school attended Stereotypes O Protestant military triumph Great Britain neat clean 0 Catholic true Irish decency
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