NHM372Test2.pdf NHM 372
Popular in Intro to Food Service Management
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NHM 372 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Denise DeSalvo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see Intro to Food Service Management in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for NHM372Test2.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/28/15
Test date 10215 NHM 372 Test 2 Chapters 6 9 Chapter 6 Food Production Food production is a key element in the TRANSFORMATION PROCESS Functional Subsystem Food Production FOOD PRODUCTION preparation of menu items in the needed quantity and the desired quality at a cost appropriate to the particular operation Quantity in foodservice is what makes it different than food prepared at home Production Decisions Production Forecasting FORECASTING art and science of estimating events in the future which provides a database fro decision making and planning uses historical records intuition andor complex models Forecasting Models time series most common moving average forecasting model first point is average of number of portions sold for x number of times second point is dropping the first number and adding the most recent number and calculating a new average repeat for desired number of points exponential smoothing forecasting model causal subjective Delphi technique OVERPRODUCTION production of more food than is needed for service not cost efficient UNDERPRODUCTION production of less food than is needed for service Test date 10215 good managers have a ready back up for most of their centeroftheplate items Production Scheduling time sequencing of events required by the production subsystem to produce a meal 1 look at what s on your menu 2 assign your menu to different production areas 3 separate production areas further 4 within those areas subdivide work to employees PRODUCTION SCHEDULE written plan for production for a specific date and or meal employee assignments preparation time schedule menu item over and underproduction quantity to prepare substitutions actual yield additional assignments special instructions and comments prepreparation BATCH COOKING cooking smaller quantities of menu items as needed for service preserves the quality of the food if you re going to be serving food for a long period of time Ingredient Control INGREDIENT ROOM ingredient assembly area designed for measuring ingredients to be transmitted to the various work centers advantages cost control and ingredient control Test date 10215 works well in large operations not as well in small operations STANDARDIZED RECIPE recipe that consistently delivers the same quantity and quality of a product when followed precisely Recipes formulas by which weighed and measured ingredients are combined in a specific procedure to meet predetermined standards recipe cost can be easily computed because ingredients and amounts are the same each time recipes usually include the following information name of food item total yield portion size and number of portions cooking time and temperature if required list of ingredients in order of use amount of each ingredient by weight measure or count procedures panning or portioning information serving and garnishing suggestions food safety guidelines RECIPE STANDARDIZATION process of tailoring a recipe to suit a particular purpose in a specific foodservice operation 1ven ca on 2 product evaluation Is it acceptable 3 quantity adjustment factor method percent method direct reading tables Test date 10215 standardized vs quantity recipes a standardized recipe is not always a quantity recipe quantity recipe serves at least 25 people HANDLING LOSS decrease in the yield of a recipe because of preparation process Quantity Food Production SWEET SPOT point of best value at lowest cost Objectives of Food Production food is cooked for 3 primary reasons destruction of microorganisms makes food safer increased digestibility especially celluloserich items enhancement of flavor form color texture aroma Methods of Production CONDUCTION transfer of heat through direct contact from one object or substance to another CONVECTION distribution of heat by the movement of liquid or vapor may be either natural or forced RADIATION generation of heat energy by wave action within an object INDUCTION use of electrical magnetic fields to excite the molecules of metal cooking surfaces MOIST HEAT METHODS heat is conducted to the food product by water or steam steaming crockpot boiling braising dry heat examples ovenbaking grilling frying broiling HEAT TRANSFER RATE the amount of heat from one substance to another in a given amount of time in a given space measured in British thermal units Btu PSI pounds per square inch used to measure steam pressure Test date 10215 HEAT RECOVERY TIME amount of time for oil in fryer to return to optimum cooking temperature after food is added Production Controls Product Yield yield the amount of product resulting at the completion of the various phases of the procurementproductionservice cycle as purchased AP amount of food bought before processing to give the number of edible portions required to serve a specific number of customers edible portion EP weight of a menu item without skin bones and fat available to serve the customer after it is cooked Cooking losses account for decrease in yield of many foods primarily because of moisture loss Handling loss occurs during production and portioning for service Quality control Quantity control CARRYOVER COOKING the increase in internal meat temperature after removal from the heat source PORTION CONTROL service of same size portion to each customer many portion control utensils are on the market to help foodservice employees accurately and consistently portion foods dishers spoodles ladels OPERATING IN THE BLACK when revenue minus expenses is a positive value Emergency Preparedness table top drill Sustainable Production Practices Foodservice operations generate 8 to 16 ounces of waste per meal served reducing waste production monitoring recycling composting pulping food dona on Test date 10215 Energy and Water Energy used in foodservice operations can be 510 of building costs Energy Star equipment Restaurants average 300000 gallons of water a year Watersense equipment designation COMPOSTING decomposing organic material into soillike material Energy Use DIRECT ENERGY energy expended within the foodservice operation to produce and serve meals INDIRECT ENERGY energy expended to facilitate functions that use direct energy Energy and Water Conservation Energy Management Chapter 7 Distribution and Service part of the transformation subsystem Functional Subsystem Distribution and Service DISTRIBUTION movement of food from production to service SERVICE presentation of food to the customer Distribution depends on type of production system conventional cookchill etc degree of meal preassembly prior to service physical distance between production and service time between completion of production until the time of service need to keep food safe and maintain quality Test date 10215 As time between completion of production and time of service increases andor distance between the two increases options for distribution practices and equipment also increase Assembly centralized of decentralized Categories of Service table service American style French style some of meal is prepared table side family style counter service selfservice tray service Many hospitals are shifting their service from a centrally assembled tray service process to an ondemand room service program takeout service delivery Service Management a philosophy a thought process a set of values and attitudes and a set of methods TQS total quality service Delivering consistent quality service requires having a welltrained staff cross training satisfaction of employees The secret of getting customers to return is to make them feel special 4 basic patterns of customer service Freezer poor procedural and personal service Factory skewed toward procedural efficiency employees are cold and impersonal Friendly Zoo employees are friendly genuine and caring but service is slow inconsistent and disorganized Test date 10215 Quality Customer Service personal and procedural dimensions are handled well Experience Economy consumers are looking for authenticity Natural authenticity percieved as authentic because it is in its natural state Original authenticity percieved as authentic because of its original design or being first of its kind Exceptional authenticity perceived as authentic because what they do is done exceptionally well Referential authenticity perceived as authentic because of the inspiration from human history or shared memories Influential authenticity perceived as authentic because of influence exerted on others calling human beings to a higher goal Chapter 8 Safety and Maintenance Functional Subsystem Safety Sanitation and Maintenance Employee Safety Safety results from good maintenance and a good cleaning schedulesystem ACCIDENT unexpected event resulting in injury loss or damage OSHA Occupational Health and Safety Act allows a compliance officer to to enter a facility to determine adherence to standards and to determine if the workplace is free of recognized hazards needed to start a fire oxygen fuel heat reduceeliminate oxygen to suppress a fire Classes of Fires Class A wood paper cloth cardboard plastics Class B grease liquid shortening oil flammable liquids Class Ceectrica equipment motors switches frayed cords Types of Fire Extinguishers Test date 10215 Dry Chemical contains an extinguishing agent uses a compressed nonflammable gas as a propellant typically rated for multiple classes of fire Water contains water uses a compressed nonflammable gas as a propellant for Class A fires only Carbon Dioxide contains compressed liquid carbon dioxide for Class B and C fires Personal Protective Equipment PPE use when working with chemicals using equipment protecting against heat cleaning up body fluids blood isolation rooms areas of importance for employee safety lifting storage repetitive motion Workplace Violence The restaurant business is more susceptible to workplace violence because of interaction with the public the exchange of money robbery money motive delivery services Types criminal intent customerclient workeronworker personal relationship ERGONOMICS study of how workers interact with their work environment Customer Safety many of the same concerns as for employees Food Safety FOODBORNE PATHOGEN virus microorganism or other substances that cause disease 10 Test date 10215 SPOILAGE denotes unfitness for human consumption due to chemical or biological causes Contamination is the presence of harmful substances in food Biological microorganisms pathogens are harmful FAT TOM identifies ideal conditions for food borne microorganism growth F food specifically carbs and proteins A acidity pH of 46 to 75 is ideal PH VALUE degree of food s acidity or alkalinity T temperature growth is best between 41 F and 135F T time limit amount of time that food is in the temperature danger zone O oxygen some need it others do not M moisture water activity of 085 or higher is ideal for growth POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOODS timetemperature control for safety food food items that require temperature control because they are capable of supporting growth of pathogenic microorganisms or toxin formation THERMAL DEATH TIME time required at a specific temperature to kill a specified number of vegetative cells or spores AEROBIC BACTERIA bacteria that need oxygen to grow ANAEROBIC BACTERIA bacteria that reproduce without oxygen FOODBORNE INFECTION caused by activity of large numbers of bacterial cells carried by the food into the gastrointestinal tract FOODBORNE INTOXICATIONS caused by toxins formed in food prior to consumption Physical Contamination Chemical Contamination pesticides detergents sanitizers excessive quantities of additives preservatives spices Test date 10215 acidic action of foods with metallined containers contamination of food with toxic metals CROSSCONTAMINATION transfer of microorganisms from one food product to another HAZARD unacceptable contamination of food CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS locations in the food product flow where mishandling of food is likely to occur STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES SOPs written stepbystep instructions for routine tasks BIOTERRORISM intentional use of biological agents or germs to cause illness Maintenance There are regulations for building and renovating foodservice operations Nationals Sanitation Foundation and Underwriters Laboratory set standards PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE keeping equipment and facilities in a good state of repair ex cleaning schedules Risk Management RISK possibility of loss or injury RISK MANAGEMENT discipline dealing with possibility that some future event will cause harm to an organization Risk manager evaluate organizations and look for hazards They are usually someone outside of the organization Risk management is relatively new in foodservice Risk Assessment Matrix make an assessment of something bad happening what is the probability and what would the impact be very low gt critical probability on one axis and impact on the other Chapter 9 Management Principles 11 12 Test date 10215 The Management Process Authority responsibility and accountability are major components of management MANAGEMENT process of integrating resources fro accomplishment of objectives ORGANIZATION group of people working together in a structured and coordinated way to achieve goals AUTHORITY delegation from top to lower levels of management and the right of managers to direct others and take action because of their position ACCOUNTABILITY a state of being responsible to one s self to some organization or even to the public EFFICIENCY doing things right EFFECTIVENESS doing the right things Types of Managers Roles of Managers Management Functions PLANNING management functions of determining in advance what should happen PROCEDURE chronological sequence of activities POLICY general guide to organized behavior developed by toplevel management METHOD details for one step in a process RULES specification of action stating what must or must no be done ORGANIZING management function of grouping activities delegating authority and coordinating relationships horizontally and vertically STAFFING management function of determining the appropriate number of employees needed by the organization for the work that must be accomplished DIRECTING management function of directing human resources for the accomplishment of objectives Test date 10215 CONTROLLING management function ensuring that plans are being followed Organizational Structure 13 CORPORATE CULTURE organizational culture shared philosophies values assumptions beliefs expectations attitudes and norms that knit an organization together Positive cultures integrity building trust between people in the organization bottomup style of management involving employees as part of the team having fun community involvement emphasis on physical health and fitness Vertical division of labor is based on the establishment of lines of authority facilitates communication CHAIN OF COMMAND clear and distinct lines of authority within an organization who reports to whom Horizontal division of labor groups employees at similar levels in the organization allowing them to work together more easily Team Matrix RESPONSIBILITY obligation to perform an assigned activity or see that someone else performs it DELEGATION process of assigning job activities and authority to a specific employee within the organization SPAN OF MANAGEMENT span of control number of employees that can be effectively supervised by one manager FORMAL AUTHORITY authority that exists because of position in the organization ACCEPTANCE AUTHORITY authority based on the employee s acceptance of that authority 14 Test date 10215 AUTHORITY OF COMPETENCE authority based on a manager s competence or expertise DEPARTMENTALIZATION process of grouping jobs according to some logical arrangement LINE POSITION a position in the direct chain of command STAFF POSITION position intended to provide expertise advice and support for line positions COORDINATION process of linking activities of various departments in the organization Emerging Management Issues SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY an organization s responsibility to society that extends beyond its profit generation GLOBALIZATION interaction among people and organizations of different na ons TARIFFS government taxes on products shipped internationally SUBSIDY government payments to domestic producers to make their product more competitive in the market QUOTA a specified amount that can be produced POLITICS art or science of influencing others or holding control This study guide was uploaded on Monday September 28th The instructor has not finished covering the material for chapter 9 however I have included definitions and notes from the book If you would like the extra information on chapter 9 I will have it available after class on Wednesday Feel free to email me and I will get it to you You can reach me at regandoughertygmailcom rmdoughertyf crimsonuaedu through Backboard messaging Let me know if you have any questions Good luck and happy studying
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'