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Study Guide Exam 2

by: Hayley Lecker

Study Guide Exam 2 BIOL 1306/1106

Hayley Lecker
GPA 3.42
Organismal Biology
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi

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Organismal Biology
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi
Study Guide
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hayley Lecker on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1306/1106 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Biology Week 4 Important Information Professor s Email aidarrouzetnardiutepedu or anthonvdnutepedu Chapter 19 Bacteria Archaea and Viruses 191 Life Consists of Three Domains That Share a Common Ancestor All organisms have Plasma membranes and ribosomes Metabolic pathways Semiconservative DNA replication DNA that encodes proteins These shared features indicate that all life is related but major differences have also evolved PWN Three domains of life are bacteria archaea and eukarya Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes and Eukarya are eukaryotes Prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes because they are unicellular divided by binary fission not mitosis DNA is often circular and not in a nucleus and there are no membraneenclosed organelles Genetic studies show that the three domains had a single common ancestor Some eukaryote genes are most closely related to those of archaea while others are most closely related to those of bacteria Mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotes originated through endosymbiosis with a bacterium Table to compare Bacteria Archaea Eukarya TABLE 191 3 431 Mil39239 531 lf tfllllljll DOMAIN CHARACTERISTIG BACTERIA AROHAEA EUKABYA Membraneenclosed nucleus Absent Absent Present Membraneenclosed organelles Few Absent Many Peptidoglycan in cell wall Present Absent Absent Membrane lipids Esterlinked Etherlinked Esterlinked Unbranched Branched Unbranched Ribosomesquot 708 708 805 Initiator tRNA Formylmethionine Methionine Methionine Operons Yes Yes Rare Plasmids Yes Yes Rare RNA polymerases One Oneb Three Ribosomes sensitive to chloramphenicol and streptomycin Yes No No Ribosomes sensitive to diphtheria toxin No Yes Yes a70 ribosomes are smaller than 803 ribosomes bArchaeal RNA polymerase is similar to eukaryotic polymerases PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Table 191 0 2012 Sinauer Associates Inc Before microscopes the study of prokaryotes was not possible And before DNA sequencing classification was based on phenotypic characters such as the shape color motility nutrition and cell wall structure Most bacteria cell walls contain peptidoglycan which is a unique trait to bacteria Antibiotics target peptidoglycan because eukaryote cells don t have it so antibiotics don t harm human cells Bactera can be grouped by the Gram stain response which is based on differences in cell wall structure If the bacteria appear blue to purple they are Grampositive bacteria If they appear to be pink to red they are Gramnegative bacteria A is Grampositive and B is Gramnegative B owequot Outside of cell Outsrde of cell quot membrane l I a of cell I I9 envelope In pm 4 t f I l l I Periplasmic space 39 WrI 39 I 7 quot W my 1 p quot layer I o Periplasmic space lg ll 9 Plasma Rwy k I I Wm membrane 5 pm 222mb Inside of cell Made of cell Cell wall peptidoglycan PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 192 Part 1 ZUIZ Smaue Associates Inc PRINCIPLES OFLIFE Figure 192 Part 2 3quot212 ZSinJn Andcola In Common bacteria cell shapes are 1 Sphere coccus plural cocci occur singly or in plates blocks or clusters 2 Rod bacillus plural bacilli 3 Spiral or helical helix plural helices Rods and helical shapes may form chains or clusters Other bacterial shapes form filaments and branched filaments Below is an image with example with the cell shapes Helices Bacilli 050nm PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 193 I2 7012 Sinauer Associates Inc Sequencing of ribosomal RNA rRNA genes is useful for phylogenetic studies because rRNA was present in the common ancestor of all life all freeliving organisms have rRNA lateral transfer of rRNA genes among distantly related species unlikely rRNA has evolved slowly Whole genome sequencing has revealed that even distantly related prokaryotes sometimes exchange genetic material Transformation conjugation and transduction allow exchange of genetic information between prokaryotes without reproduction n lateral gene transfer gene move sideways from one species to another When sequenced genes trees will not match the organismal tree Genes that result in new adaptation that confer higher fitness are most likely to be transferred Genes for antibiotic resistance are often transferred among bacterial species Many prokaryote species and perhaps whole clades have not been described by biologists Many have resisted efforts to grow them in pure culture Biologists now examine gene sequences collected from random samples of the environment Many new dequences imply there are thousands more prokaryotic species 192 Prokaryote Diversity Reflects the Ancient Origins of Life Prokaryotes are the most successful organisms on Earth in terms of number of individuals The number of prokaryotes in the ocean is perhaps 100 million times as great as the number of stars in the bvisible universe They are found in every type of habitat on Earth LowGC Grampositives Firmicute Low ratios of GC to AT base pairs in DNA Some are gramnegative and some have no cell wall Some produce heatresistant endospores that can survive unfavorable conditions Some can survive for 1000 years This included Clostridium and Bacillus Bacillus thuringiensis The image to the left shows the concept of endospore Bacteria use this method to become inactive to survive Endospore Bacillus anthracis produces an exotoxin that causes anthrax The endospores have been used as bioterrorism agent Staphylococcus staphylococci are abundant on skin and cause boils and other skin problems S aureus can also cause respiratory intestinal and wound infections A I quotV Staphylococcus epidermis 139 pm PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 196 ZCII blllawl Associates Inc Mycoplasmas have no cell wall are extremely small and have a very small genome They have less than half as much DNA as other prokaryotes which may represent the minimum amount of DNA needed for a living cell adv Myc plasma sp 0 PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 197 n m 2 merAw1rln39r1lw HighGC Grampositives Actinobacteria Higher ratio of GC to AT base pairs Branched filaments and some form of reproductive spores at filament tips Most antibiotics are from this group Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis the oldest known human pathogen Branch point Actinomyces sp m PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 198 5A1 mmm v wsnrhnquot Irv Hyperthermophilic bacteria Live at extreme high temperatures known as extremophiles these places include hot springs volcanic vents and underground oil reservoirs High temperatures may have been the ancestral condition on Earth when prokaryotes evolved Monophyly of this group is not well established Hadobacteria These are extreme thermophiles Deinococcus survive cold as well as hot temperature and are resistant to radiation They can consume nuclear water Cyanobacteria Photosynthetic and has bluegreen pigments Many species fix nitrogen Chloroplasts of eukaryotes are derived from an endosymbiotic cyanobacterium Some colonies differentiate into vegetative cells spores and heterocysts specialized for Nfixation Spirochetes Gramnegative motile Unique axial filaments modified flagella that rotate Many are human parasites some are pathogens syphilis Lyme disease others are free living Chlamydias Can live only as parasites in cells of other organisms Gramnegative extremely small Can take up ATP from host cell with translocase Complex life cycle with two forms elementary bodies and reticulate bodies Proteobacteria is the largest group of bacteria Mitochondria of eukaryotes were derived from a proteobacterium by endosymbiosis Some are photoautotrophs that use light energy to metabolize sulfur some are Nfixers Rhizobium Escherichia coli is one of the most studied organisms on Earth Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease of plants and has a plasmid used in recombinant DNA studies The proteobacteria include many pathogens Separation of Archaea domain from bacteria and eukaryotes is based on genome sequencing Many archaea live in extreme habitats high temperatures low oxygen high salinity and extreme pH Many others are common in soil and in the ocean 193 Ecological Communities Depend on Prokaryotes Many prokaryotes form complex communities Biofilms cells bind to a solid surface and secrete a sticky polysaccharide matrix that traps other cells Cells in biofilms are hand to kill Can form on any surface including contact lenses artificial joint replacements metal pipes etc Dental plaque and stromatolites are biofilms The long evolutionary history of prokaryotes has led to a great diversity of metabolic pathways They have evolved huge variation in use or nonuse of oxygen energy and carbon sources and waste products produced Anaerobic vs Aerobic metabolism Anaerobes do not use oxygen as an electron acceptor in respiration Obligate anaerobes oxygen is poisonous Aerotolerant anaerobes not damaged by oxygen Facultative anaerobes use both aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways Obligate aerobes require oxygen i I in Nutrltlonal categorles my I I 11147 rljifj xm 39 quot 1 quotquot739 J 39 Photoautotrophs perform NUTRITIONAL CATEGORY ENERGY SOURCE CARBON SOURCE photosynthESiS use C02 as carbon source Cyanbacteria use chlorophyll Photoautotrophs Light Carbon dioxide found in all three a and produce OZ Other use d ma39quots bacteriochlorophyll and produce Ph t heter tr l hs L39ght 03993quotquot sulfur Hydrogen sulfide H25 is the some bacteria compounds I t d Chemolithotrophs Inorganic Carbon dioxide e ec ron onor39 b t 39 b t zrnearg aig 5 s ances Photoheterotrophs use light as an Chemoheterotrophs Organic Organic energy as an energy source bUt EEt found in all three compounds compounds carbon from organic compounds d ma39 s made by other organisms Sunlight provides the ATP through PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Table 192 photophosphorylatlon Chemolithotrophs get energy by oxidizing inorganic substances and use it to fix carbon Inorganic compounds oxidized include ammonia nitrite hydrogen gas hydrogen sulfide sulfur and other materials Chemoheterotropes get both energy and carbon from organic compounds that have been synthesized by other organisms Most known bacteria and archaea are chemoheterotrophs as are all animals fungi and many protists Prokaryotes play a major role in the cycling of elements Many are decomposers they metabolize organic compounds in dead organic material The inorganic products such as C02 are returned to the environment Other prokaryotes oxidize inorganic compounds and also play key roles in element cycling Nitrogen Fixers convert NZ to ammonia Ammonia is a form of nitrogen that is useable by organisms Nitrogen fixation is vital to life and is done only by certain prokaryote species Nitrifiers are chemolithotrophic bacteria that oxidize ammonia to nitrate Nitrate is the form of nitrogen most easily used by many plants Denitrifiers are bacteria that use nitrate N03 as an electron acceptor in place of 02 in anaerobic conditions They release NZ to the atmosphere They play a key role in nitrogen cycling Many prokaryotes live on or in eukaryotic organisms Animals have many prokaryotes in their digestive tracts Bacteria in the rumen of cattle produce the enzyme needed to digest cellulose Humans have thousands of bacterial species on their skin and in their guts Gut bacteria help digest and absorb nutrients and produce vitamins Only a small percentage of bacteria are pathogens In spite of the many defense mechanisms of potential hosts some bacteria are very successful pathogens Because they form biofilms pathogens can be hard to combat Consequences of bacterial infections depend on invasiveness of the pathogen ability to multiple in host s body and its toxigenicity ability to produce toxins Endotoxins are released when certain Gramnegative bacteria lysisburst rarely fatal they cause fever vomiting and diarrhea Exotoxins are released by living bacteria highly toxic often fatal 194 Viruses Have Evolved Many Times Although viruses are not cellular they have many characteristics of living organisms Virus phylogeny is difficult to resolve small genomes restrict phylogenetic analysis rapid mutation and evolution rates cloud evolutionary relationships there are no fossils Instead viruses are grouped based on genome structure Viruses are obligate cellular parasites but many may have once been cellular components They have be quotescapedquot components cells that now evolve independently of their hosts Biology Week 5 Important Information Professor s Email aidarrouzetnardiutepedu or anthonvdnutepedu Chapter 20 The Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes 201 Eukaryotes Acquired Featured from Both Archaea and Bacteria Eukaryotes that are not plants animals or fungi have traditionally been called protists The term does not describe a formal taxonomic group but is a convenience term Eukaryotes are monophyletic They are thought to be more closely related to Archaea than to Bacteria But mitochondria and chloroplasts are clearly derived from bacterial lineages Events in the origin of the eukaryotic cell Cell wall was lost Cytoskeleton formed Nuclear envelope developed Digestive vacuoles appeared Mitochondria formed by endosymbiosis quot 7 Cell wall Chloroplast Mitochondrion Nucleus PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 201 Part 2 PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 201 Pan 1 u mu SInamrAsmrlam mg 39 n Anuliales lm Loss of cell wall Flexible cell surface allowed infolding and increased surface area cell could be larger Endocytosis is possible pinching off bits of the environment and bringing them into the cell Development of cytoskeleton Simple cytoskeletons probably evolved in prokaryotes Greater development of microfilaments and microtubules gives support and allows changes in shape distribution of daughter chromosomes and movement of materials Microtubules may have led to eukaryotic flagella Nuclear envelope Developed early in eukaryote evolution May have arisen from DNA attached to the membrane of an infolded vesicle Prokaryote DNA is attached to the inner plasma membrane Phagocytosis and Digestive Vacuoles Gave the ability to engulf and digest other cells Endosymbiosis A proteobacterium was incorporated and evolved into mitochondrion The original function of mitochondria might have been to detoxify the 02 that was being produced by cyanobacteria reducing it to water Later this became coupled with formation of ATP Development of chloroplasts occurred in a series of endosymbiosis Primary endosymbiosis a cyanobacterium was engulfed Chloroplasts have two membranes Remnants of peptidoglycan cells wall can be found in glaucophytes Primary endosymbiosis also gave rise to chloroplast of red algae green algae and land plants Secondary endosymbiosis a eukaryote engulfed a green alga cell which because a chloroplast Tertiary endosymbiosis a dinoflagellate took up another protest that already had its chloroplast through secondary endosymbiosis Host cell nucleus Chloroplast A Primary endosymbiosis Eu karyote l Cyanobacterium Cyanobacterium outer membrane Peptidoglycan Chloroplast containing eukaryotic cell Cyanobacterium inner membrane B Secondary endosymbiosis Host cell nucleus 339 Chloroplast Host a eukaryotic Fm ce 0 PRINCIPLES OF UFE Figure 202 Part 1 PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 202 Part 2 1 sun Smauer Assocuates Inc AU 2 Smauer Assoclates Inc 202 Major Lineages of Eukaryotes Diversified in the Precambrian There are five major clades of protistan eukaryotes There is enormous diversity with these groups Most are unicellular and microscopic but some are multicellular and some are quite large eg gaint kelp Protists were traditionally classified on the basis of life histories and reproductive features Today electron microscopy and gene sequencing reveal more evolutionary patterns Lateral gene transfer may be a complicating factor 1 Alveolates a Sacs called alveoli lie just beneath plasma membrane All unicellular most are photosynthetic Dinoflagellates Apicomplexans Ciliates i Dinoflagellates mostly marine photosynthetic important primary producers in the oceans Some species cause red tides Some are endosymbionts with invertebrates eg corals ii Apicomplexans obligate parasites Apical complex organelles at the tip of the cell help it invade host tissue Elaborate life cycles featuring asexual and sexual reproduction and life stages in different hosts Plasmodium is the causative agent of malaria iii Ciliates numerous hairlike cilia identical to eukaryotic flagella Heterotrophic some have photosynthetic endosymbiosis Complex body form The ciliate Paramecium is covered by flexible pellicle with trichocytes defensive organelles that can explode as sharp darts Cilia provide precise locomotion Lives in fresh water contractile vacuoles excrete excess water taken in by osmosis Also has digestive vacuoles 2 Excavates Diplomonads Parabasalids Heteroloboseans Euglenids Kinetoplastids a Euglenids and kinetoplastids have flagella mitochondria with discshaped cristae Some euglenids are always heterotrophic some are photosynthetic but can lose their pigments and feed on organic matter i Kinetoplastids mitochondrion has a kinetoplast that contains multiple circular DNA molecules Trypanosomes are pathogens that can change cell surface recognition molecules frequently making them hard to control 3 Stramenopiles Rows of tubular hairs on the longer of their two flagella Some lack flagella but are descended from ancestors that possessed them Diatoms Brown algae Oomycetes i Diatoms unicellular but some species associate in filaments Lack flagella except in male gametes Deposit silicone dioxide in twopiece cell walls intricate patterns are unique to each species Reproduce both sexually and asexually Abundant in oceans and fresh waters and are major photosynthetic producers ii Brown algae brown color from the carotenoid fucoxanthin Multicellular marine Attached forms develop holdfasts with alginic acid to glue them to rocks Alginic acid is used by humans as an emulsifier in ice cream cosmetics and other products Giant kelp may be up to 60 meters long 4 Rhizaria Unicellular and mostly aquatic have long thin pseudopods Make up large component of ocean sediments Cercozoans Forminiferans Radiolarians i Forminiferans external shells of calcium carbonate Threadlike branched pseudopods exten through microscopic holds in the shell and form a sticky net used to catch smaller plankton Accumulations of shells have produced much of the world s limestone 5 Ameobozoans Amoeboid body form iobeshapred pseudopods Loboseans Plasmodial slime molds Cellular slime molds i Loboseans Feed by phagocytosis engulfing smaller organisms and particle with pseudopods Many are adapted to living on the bottoms of lakes and bonds Testate amoebas live in shells made from sand grains or secreted by the organism 203 Protists Reproduce Sexually and Asexually Asexual reproduction among the protists Binary fission equal splitting by mitosis followed by cytokinesis Multiple fission splitting of one cell into more than two cells Budding outgrowth of a new cell from the surface of an old one Sporulation formation of specialized cells that can develop into new individuals Offspring from asexual reproduction are genetically identical to their parents clonal lineages Reproduction in Paramecium Two types of nuclei one macronucleus and one to serveral micronuclei Asexual production all nuclei are copied before the cell divides Conjugation two individuals fuse and exchange genetic material a sexual process but not reproductive Macronucleus Micron ucleus PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 2018 2012 Sinauer Associates Inc Some protists have alternation of generations A multicellular diploid sporeproducing organism gives rise to multicellular haploid gameteproducing organisms n Fenmzanon mmmnmummmmnmnmmmmnn hh oms mnmmmnn 1 Eggs EDEN 15 Adult Heteromorphic the two generations differ morphologically somorphic the two generations are similar 204 Protists Are Critical Components of Many Ecosystems Phytoplankton are important primary producers The diatoms perform about 15 of all carbon fixation on Earth about the same amount as the rainforests Some microbial eukaryotes are pathogens Plasmodium is a parasite in human red blood cells and causes malaria one of the world s most serious diseases Plasmodium has a complex life cycle that includes mosquitoes as an alternate host Plasmodium is an extracellular parasite in the mosquito and an intracellular parasite in the human host Many microbial eukaryotes live as endosymbionts Some photosynthetic dinoflagellates live as endosymbionts in corals If the dinoflagellates die or are expelled the coral is said to be bleached If the corals don t acquire new endosymbionts they usually die or are damaged due to reduced food supply Diatoms store energy as oil Over millions of years diatoms have died and sunk to the ocean floor They become petroleum and natural gas Sedimentary rock composed mostly of the silica cell walls of diatoms used for insulation filtration metal polishing and to kill insects Formaminiferan shells make up extensive limestone deposits and some sandy beaches The shells as fossils in marine sediments are used to estimate past sea temperature Chapter 21 Primary endosymbiosis is a shared derived trait or synapomorphy of the Plantae The first clades to branch off after primary endosymbiosis are all aquatic common name algae The ancestor of Plantae may have been similar to modern glaucophytes Glaucophyte clhoroplasts retain some peptidoglycan between the membranes as in cyanobacteria A key synapomorphy of the land plants is an embryo that is protected by tissues of the parent plant They are also called embryophytes There are ten major clades of land plants Nonvascular plants some have conduction cells but no tracheids Not a clade Vascular plants tracheophytes well developed vascular systems with tracheids Land plants first appeared 400 to 500 mya They had to adapt to dry conditions Develop transport systems and structural support New ways to disperse gametes and progeny Adaptions of land plants Cuticle a waxy coating that slows water loss Stomata closable openings that regulate gas exchange Gametangia organs that enclose gametes and prevent them from drying out Embryos young plants contained within a protective structure Pigments that project against UV radiation Spores with thick walls containing sporopollenin this prevents drying and resists decay A mutually beneficial association with fungi that promotes nutrient uptake from the soil Land plants have alternation of generations this includes a multicellular diploid stage and a multicellular haploid stage Gametes are produced by mitosis spores are produced by meiosis Spores develop into multicellular haploid organisms Sporophyte the multicellular diploid plant Cells in the sporangia produce haploid spores by meiosis Spores develop into the gametophyte the multicellular haploid plant Gametophyte produces haploid gametes by mitosis Fusion of gametes produces a diploid zygote which developed into the sporophyte Nonvascular plants liverworts mosses hornworts live in moist habitats and have thin cuticles Mostly small they have no vascular system to transport water so size is restricted Small enough that minerals can be distributed throughout their bodies by diffusion Liverworts green leaflike gametophytes Sporophyte remains attached to the larger gametophyte Most liverworts can reproduce asexually and sexually Mosses have stomata Have cells called hydroids which die and leave a channel through which water can move Hornworts have sporophytes that look like small horns Cells contain one chloroplast Sporophyte grows from basal region capable of indefinite cell division Have a symbiotic relationships with cyanobacteria that live in internal cavities and fix nitrogen n nonvascular plants the gametophyte is photosynthetic The sporophyte is nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte and remains attached to it Gametes are produced in the antheridium and archegonium The sperm must swim or be splashed by water to reach the egg Vascular plants A vascular system consists of tissues specialized for transport of water and material from one part of the plant to another Evolution of vascular tissue allowed land plants to spread to new environments and diversify rapidly Xylem conducts water and minerals from soil to aerial parts of the plant Phloem conducts products of photosynthesis from production sites to use or storage sites A cell type called tracheid evolved in sporophytes and was critical for invasion of land Tracheids allow transport of water and materials Lignin in the cell walls provides structural support allowing taller growth Get more sunlight and disperse spores more effectively Vascular plants also developed a branching independent sporophyte generation Branching allows more spore production and complex growth patterns Invasion of land by vascular plants made the terrestrial environment more hospitable to animals Arthropods vertebrates and other animals moved onto land only after vascular plants because established there Phyniophytes earliest vascular plants None exist today No roots were anchored in soil by rhizomes like ferns today Dichtomous branching pattern Lycophytes club mosses True branching roots have leaklike structures arranged spirally on the stem Dichtomous branching sporangia in clublike clusters called strobili Monilophytes horsetails and ferns Within this clade horsetails are monophyletic ferns are not A synpomorphy left gaps in stem where leaves emergy Also have differentiation between main stem and side branches Horsetails all in genus Equiseturm Reduced true leaves in whorls true roots independent sporophyte and gametophyte Silica deposits in cell walls made them useful as quotscouring rushes Gametophyte is small and shortlived sporophyte can be very large and can sometimes survive for hundreds of years Sporangia are borne on a stalk in clusters called sori on the undersurfaces of the leaves Overtopping growth one branch differentiates from and grows beyond the others an advantage in competition for light Megaphylls more complex leaf may have arisen from flattening of a branch tip Seed plants gymnosperns and angiosperms A secure and lasting dormant stage for the embryo Can be dormant for many years even centuries In the seed plants the gametophyte develops partly or entirely white attached to and nutritionally dependent on the sporophyte Seed plants evolved independence from water for getting the sperm to the egg allowing them to colonize drier habitats The male gametophyte is a pollen grain the walls contain sporopollenin which prevents drying and chemical damage Pollination arrival of pollen grain near a female gametophyte A pollen tube grows from the grain and digests its way toward the megagametophyte where fertilization occurs The diploid zygote divides to form an embryonic sporophyte then enter a dormant stage A seed contains tissues from three generations A seed coat develops from tissues of the diploid sporophyte parents Haploid tissue from the female gametophyte provides nutrients for the developing embryo The embryo is the new diploid sporophyte generation Many seed remain viable for long periods Seed coats protect from drying potential predators and other damage Many seeds have adaptations to aid in dispersal When the embryo begins to grow it draws on nutrients stores in the seed Seeds are one of the major reasons for the evolutionary success of seed plants Secondary growth increasing diameter from root and stems by growth of xylem forms wood Older wood becomes clogged with resins but provides support and allows plants to grow to great heights Many plant groups have lost the woody growth habit Gymnosperms seed plants that do not form flowers or fruits Ovules and seeds are not protected by ovary or fruit tissue Have only tracheids as the waterconducting and support cells within the xylem Four group Cycads tropical earliest diverging clade Gingkoscommon in Mesozoic today only one species Gingko biloba Gnetophytes some characteristics similar to angiosperms Conifers conebearing plants Conifers dominant forests at high latitudes and high altitudes Cones contain the reproductive structures Angiosperms reproductive organs in flowers seed enclosed in fruits Female gametophyte very reduced usually only seven cells Synpomorphies of the angiosperms Double fertilization Nutritive tissues called the endosperm Ovules and seeds enclosed in a carpel Germination of pollen on a stigma Flowers and Fruits Phloem with companion cells Reduced gametophytes Vessel elements specialized watertransporting cells in xylen Fibers cell type in xylem that provide structural support Double fertilization two sperm in one pollen grain One combines with egg to form the zygote The other combines with two other haploid nuclei of the female gametophyte to form a triploid cell Triploid cells give rise to the endosperm All flower parts are modified leaves Stamens bear the male microsporangia Ovules and seeds are enclosed in a modified leaf called a carpel The pistil is one or more fused carpels containing the ovaries Perfect flowers have both megasporangia and microsporangia Imperfect two flower types male and female Monecious male and female flowers occur on the same plant Dioecious male and female flowers are produced on different plants Evolution of flowers earliestdiverging clades have many tepals carpels and stamens Carpels may have evolved from leaves with sporangia on the margins Carpels fused and became more buried in receptacle tissue Floral organs changed positions from bottom to top of ovary Most angiosperms are pollinated by animals and they have coevolved Flower structure has diversified under the selective pressure of pollinators Fruits develop from the ovaries after fertilization fruits protect seeds and aid in dispersal Angiosperms zygote develops into an embryo with one or two cotyledonsSeed leaves Cotyledons can absorb and digest the endosperm or enlarge and become photosynthetic Lecture Notes Reference Table for Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes F ro karyotes Euka ryotes Membranebound NO YES organelles Cell size in general 15 pm 10100 pm Nucleus NO YES Cell wall YES peptideglycan Yes plants cellulose No animals Genetic material Single circular lVlultiple chromosomes ohrom oeome 11 000 as much DNA as eukaryotes Plasma membrane YES YES Riboeomes Vesicles Flagella OFTEN SOME Reference Table for Major Nutritional Modes Mode of Energy Carbon Nutrition Source Source Types of Organisms Antotroph Photo Light 02 Photosynthetic prokaryotes antotroph including cyanobactcria plants certain protists algae Chennai Inorganic 302 Certain prokaryotcs for antotroph chemicals example Sulfoiobus Heterotroph Photo Light Organic Certain prokaryotcs hatcrotroph com pounds Cherno Organic Organic Man prokaryotes and hctcrotroph com 7 com 39 protists fungi animals pounds pounds sonic parasitic plants copyrighi Pearson Education inc publishing as ijarnln Cummings Aerobes use 02 oxidative respiration Anaerobes do not use 02 fermentation Reference Table for Bacterial Pathogens Disease Pathogen Area affected Transmission Eotuiism Clostridium botulinum Nerves Improperly preserved foods Salmonella Salmonella intestine Contaminated food amp water Dental cavities Streptococcus so Teeth Bacteria enter mouth from env t Strep tihroat Streptococcus Upper respiratory Persontoperson Pycgcccs tract skin ioioocl contact or aerial Tuberculosis Myobacterlum Lung bones Persontoperson Wilctcwosum other organs by coughs Lyme s disease Borrella burgdorferl Skin joints heart Tick bite Tetanus Clostridium tetani Nerves at Contaminated synapses wounds Basal eukaryotes a number of eukaryote lineages that branched very early in eukaryote evolution still exist today These groups can help inform us about the early evolution of eukaryotes Metabolic Diversity of Protists Heterotrophs ingestive or parasitic Ciliophora ciliates Apicomplexa eg Plasmodium Trypanosomes Slime molds Rhizopoda amoebas Actinopoda Foraminifera Heteterotrophs by absorption Water molds Photoautotrophs some are also heterotrophs Chlorophytes Green Algae Rhodophytes Red Algae Phaeophytes Brown Algae Chrysophytes eg diatoms Dinoflagellates Euglenophytes Euglenoids can also be hetero Please look at powerpoint lecture 8 the teacher included everyone who made a powerpoint of the last class activity into it Reference Table for Fungal Phylogenetic lm Cl EEUED E mima ia CHquotICIEITICIEDEI Nucleariida anel ida M ll li39Cl SEED li39 d El Ehytridin mycnta ILJmiHm mta lh l i lla Fungil l HERE WE Menca imaatignmycnta Ella Stuc adinmyc Eliza Ennpagnmycntima Hickxel pmyc ntima Emtnmnphthnm mymtima Mucnmmymtima Gunme39rnmycnta SE El WEE pita Eaaidinmyc Eliza Mycelium The vegetative part of fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae Hyphae A long branching filamentous structure of a fungus with high surface area and absorptive capachy Chitin A longchain polymer that is a component of fungal cell walls as well as arthropod exoskeletons Fungal Spore Microscopic reproductive structures of fungi serving a plant similar purpose to that of plant seeds Saprobe An organism that absorbs nutrients from dead organic matter Lichens Composite organisms consisting of algae or cyanobacteria or both living among filaments of fungus in a symbiotic relationship Below is an example of lichens Upper layer of V if hyphae viewsmalt 2 Photosynthetic quot 34395l3301 H 53 v I cell layer J 4 1 1 1 v Q i Looselayerof i 59quot Q quot397 A 39 513939 quot1 t m39 39 I qi r quotv r quot3195tiwzehvew ut Lower level of 39 nth i i I g h gnaw5ynum k s t g3 4 1r 55 wcp V a T39l r U39M 1 quota a 39fo ak quot J u O a quot 39 5 39 7 5 hyphal l hlZOldS a m 396 fuf ov vino 7La 5 1f4g h n i ggg m algal car a 39 39 u 15 ny a quot 4 quotowc 939 9 99 4 v ampd0 or I 1 m 25 wg gl y gs f f i gfilth 513434 ff 3weexr ljh ff 91 a 3 sixo 0 v39 I V a 39g quot39v PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 22 Flgurn 229 39 20M Sz39veuv39 Anolelcx 5w Mycorrhizal fungus A fungus that colonizes the roots of a plant and lives a symbiotic relationship with the plant Fungus use digestive enzymes are secreted outside the body to break down large food molecules in the environment The small molecules are then absorbed into the cells Year are freeliving single cell fungi while most fungi are multicellular Biology Week 6 Important Information Professor s Email aidarrouzetnardiutepedu or anthonvdnutepedu Chapter 22 The Evolution and Diversity of Fungi Alveolates Stramenopiles Rhizaria Excavates Plantae Ch 21 Amoebozoans Fungi Ch 22 Ophisthokonts Choanoflagellates r1 Ch 23 Animals Precambrian Paleozoic Mlozoic to 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 0 45 bya Billions of years ago PRINCIPLES or LIFE Figure 203 C 2012 Sinauer Associates Inc Fungi live by absorptive heterotrophy Digestive enzymes are secreted to break down large food molecules in the environment Saprobes absorb nutrients from dead organic matter Parasites absorb nutrients from living hosts Mutualists live in intimate associations with other organisms that benefit both partners Modern fungi probably evolved from a unicellular protest with a flagellum Evidence suggests that fungi choanoflagellates and animals share a common ancestor Collectively called opisthokonts flagella are posterior Most fungi are multicellular but singlecelled species yeasts occur in most groups quotYeastquot refers to a lifestyle that has evolved several times Yeasts are used in the laboratory as model organisms for eukaryotes Flagellum if present is single and posterior Choanoflagellates Commorh ancestor protist Animals gt Opisthokonts FUNGI Absorptive heterotrophy chitin in cell walls PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 221 s 2012 Sinauer A5500 es Inc B Vessel in xylem Fungal hyphae A Multicellullu39 fungi Fruiting Body mycellum structure Hyphae individual tubular laments Vegetative portion PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figun 22 Pan 2 4911 Sruor hammm hm Septate species hyphae are subdivided by incomplete crosswalls called septa Organelles can move between compartments Some species are coenocytic no septa but many nuclei from mitosis without cytokinesis Nuclei Cell wall PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 223 Pan 3 iquot POI Smaller Assoclates Inc Mycelia can grow very fast and may cover a wide area to forage for nutrients Some species produce sexual spores in fruiting structures Mycelia have very large surface areatovolume ratio excellent for absorptive heterotrophy But they can dry out rapidly fungi are more common in moist areas Some fungi can live in hypertonic environments and some can tolerate temperature extremes Fungi are very important to ecosystem functioning They decompose dead organisms and wastes and recycle mineral nutrients Fungi are the main decomposers of cellulose and keratin Without fungi the carbon cycle would fail Most carbon would be buried instead of being returned to the atmospheres as C02 During the Carboniferous period saprobic fungi declined Dead plants built up into peat which formed coal deposits But fungi flourished through the extinctions during the Permian When food becomes scarce fungi produce spores Spores are tiny and spread by wind or water They can spread over great distances Parasitic fungi Facultative parasites can grow on living organisms or by themselves Obligate parasites can grow only on their specific living host Hyphae are well suited to absorbing nutrients from living plants Hyphae can enter through stomata wounds or by direct penetration of epidermal cell walls Some produce haustoria branching projections that push through cell walls invaginate into the cell membrane and absorb nutrients A Hyphae of fungal mycelium Leaf cel I 5 Plasma mem bra ne Sto m a of leaf Stoma Spore PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 225 Part 1 PRINCIPLES or LIFE Figure 225 Part 2 gt 3920l2 Sinauer Associates Inc 2012 Summer A sssssss s Inc Pathogens Fungi are especially lethal to people with comprised immune systems such as AIDS patients Amphibians around the world have been attached by a chytrid fungus Originating in South Africa it may have spread with the African clawed frog Once used in human pregnancy tests Fungi are the most important plant pathogens black stem rust of wheat Predatory Fungi Some trap microscopic protists or animals They secrete sticky substances and hyphae quickly grow into trapped prey Nematode Fungal hyphae PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 226 20125 iiii erA sssssss slnc Symbiotic relationships the partners live in close permanent contact with each other Mutualistic the relationship benefits both partners Lichens associations of a fungus with a cyanobacterium a photosynthetic alga or both Found on exposed surfaces such as rocks and can live in harsh environments Fungal hyphae of the lichen absorb mineral nutrients and provide a moist environment for the photosynthetic cells The fungi receive fixed carbon Lichens can reproduce by fragmentation of the vegetative body or by soredia one of a few photosynthetic cells surrounded by hyphae that disperse on air currents The fungal partner may undergo sexual reproduction the spores disperse alone Lichens are often the first colonists on bare rock and grow very slowly They acidify the environment slightly which contributes to rock weathering When dry they become highly insensitive to extremes of temperature Upper layer of hyphae Photosynthetic ceHlayer Looselayerof hyphae Lower level of hyphal rhizoids PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 228 t 2012 Sinauer Associates Inc 21 a al 39 y J a Muf nquot 3quotu quot k 139 thud ll 5quot 1 91I 2 s wquot flank NF n i l39e39o pu39 Qx I 5quot 4 Q A 3 35 39 amp 6 1 i i waair v a wvfl39lwuywm aquot a dili i nh cq43 v na V 8 i o at i y 39 9 05502rp39 u Bag 4 I39Efv 39v ag5113141quot 39 d 5 of 9quot 39 1 In 1 cwg 99 MW quotgunkN Manquot I 33998 t w 393 i m 1393 ma a flaw may A zizzfiwwgwe 39v Iv39iicatt go 327M g9h 7 mnfi zm7s 32572313973 yc Mycorrhizae associations of fungi and plant roots Ecutomycorrhizae the fungus wraps around individual cells in the root but doesn t penetrate the cells An extensive web of hyphae penetrates the soil around the root The hyphae expand surface area for absorption of water and minerals Arbuscular mycorrhizae penetrate root cell walls forming arbuscular treelike structures inside the cell wall but outside the plasma membrane The mycorrhizal fungus obtains organic compounds from the plant The plant s ability to absorb water and mineral nutrients is enhanced The fungus may also provide some growth hormones and protect roots from pathogenic microorganisms Endophytic fungi live in aboveground parts of plants but don t harm the plant Fungi produce alkaloid compound that are toxic to animals some may not benefit the plant or harm it TABLE 221 39QE f TIE ejl of new 39 GROUP COMMON NAME FEATURES Microsporidia Microsporidia Intracellular parasites of animals greatly reduced among smallest eukayotes known polar tube used to infect hosts Chytrids paraphyletica Chytrids Mostly aquatic and microscopic zoospores have agella Chytridiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Blastocladiomycota Zygomycota paraphyleticquot Zygospore fungi Reproductive structure is a unicellular zygospore with many diploid nuclei in a Entomophthoromycotina zygosporangium hyphae coenocytic usually no fleshy fruiting body Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina Zoopagomycotina Glomeromycota Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Form arbuscular mycorrhizae on plant roots only asexual reproduction is known Ascomycota Sac fungi Sexual reproductive saclike structure known as an ascus which contains haploid ascospores hyphae septate dikaryon Basidiomycota Club fungi Sexual reproductive structure is a basidium a swollen cell at the tip of a specialized hypha that supports haploid basidiospores hyphae septate dikaryon The formally named groups within the Chytrids and Zygomycota are each thought to be monophyletic but their relationships to one another and t0 Microsporidia are not yet well resolved PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Table 221 C 2012 Sinauer Associates Inc Forms of asexual reproduction Haploid spores produced in sporangia Haploid spores conidia form at tips of hyphae Cell division or budding by yeasts Simple breakage of the mycelium Microsporidia Unicellular obligate intracellular parasites of animals infect insects crustaceans fishes and mammals including humans A polar tube grows form the spore and the contents of the spore are injected into the host cell Chytrids One fungi with flagella at any life stage Reproduce both sexually and asexually some species have alternation of generation Flagellated spores and flagellated gametes May be parasitic or saprobic Sac fungi Many are the fungal partners in lichens hyphae with septa produce haploid spores in sacs called sci In some species asci are in a fruiting structure ascoma Some sac fungi are unicellular yeasts including baker s or brewer s yeast They metabolize into ethanol and C02 by fermentation Reproduce by budding and sexual reproduction Penicillium species Produce the antibiotic penicillin Club fungi The fruiting structures include puffballs and mushrooms Bracket fungi are saprobic and are important in the carbon cycle Some are plant pathogens including rusts and smuts Others are fungal partners in ectomycorrhizae Lichens are highly sensitive to air pollution they can t excrete toxic substances they absorb Lichens are not found in large cities or heavily industrialized areas They can be used to gauge air pollution around cities and to track pollutants and their effects When deforestation removes trees the populations of mycorrhizal fungi decline quickly Reforestation projects must also restore the mycorrhizal community A planned succession of plant growth and soil improvement is often necessary before forest trees can be replants


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