Study Guide for test #1
Study Guide for test #1 GEOG 1112
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Clarke on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1112 at University of Georgia taught by Knox in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to weather and climate in Geography at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
GEOG 1112 Possible Exam 1 Questions visual question means mathrelated F e m l 7 a x JL 4g 4 Milly says good MEIH l nu39ll do great Here is a picture of my dog wishing you goodluck What did people get for the what is the 2 angle if the earth is tilted 34 degrees I got 0 It was 0 1 What is the weather today Stratus fog Are there clouds in the sky Yes What kind of clouds Stratus Is it raining No It is very humid or very dry Humid 2 Geographic map literacy can you find Georgia on a map Iowa Wisconsin Nevada What is the latitude of Athens or of the North Pole Athens 34 degrees N 8338 W North pole 90 degrees N 0 W 3 Current EventsClass DiscussionFacebookSyllabus Discussion TF Buildings can roast unsuspecting pool bathers in Las Vegas by focusing the Sun s rays on them TRUE TF This year s El Nino is one of the biggest in recent decades TRUE Who discovered sunspots Why do sunspots matter for GEOG 1112 Galileo Sunspots are zits on the surface of the sun with an 11 year cycle that are cooler than the rest of the sun However more spots means the sun is hotter which can affect the climate of the Earth SunEarthseasons TF The theme of this semester in 1112 is LOOK GOOD False it s LOOK UP 4 What is the study of shortterm weather called What is the stuely ef shert term weatheeea ed What is the study of longterm atmospheric averagesextremes called Meteorology climatology 5 What gas accounts for nearly 80 of the Earth s atmosphere What gas makes up almost all of the other 20 Nitrogen Oxygen Way to remember this NOAHgnore the H In order Nitrogen 7808 Oxygen 2095 and Argon 1 Atmospheric comp 6 What s a trace gas Which gas is bubbling up from the sea floor and thawing permafrost Which gas is 04 of the atmosphere A trace gas is a gas that is generally less than 1 of the atmosphere by volume Methane water vapor Atmospheric comp 7 Why are scientists concerned that methane concentrations could go up rapidly in the future What s dragon breath see lecture notes As the ice meltsocean warms more and more methane is being released into the atmosphere Dragon s breath is abnormally high observations of atmospheric concentrations of methane Atmospheric comp 8 What two substances in the Earth s atmosphere are needed for the formation of clouds Hint one of them is weird Water and aerosols 9 TF carbon dioxide concentrations go up and down during a year because more people in the US travel in summer FALSE C02 concentrations go up and down during the year because of the natural life cycle of plants In the spring and summer plants use C02 for photosynthesis reducing C02 concentrations but then in the fall and winter the plants begin decomposing increasing C02 concentrations Atmospheric comp 10 TF in Abe Lincoln s day CFCs were abundant but their concentrations were reduced through the Emancipation Protocol FALSE CFCs were abundant in the early to mid 1900 s and were phased out through the Montreal Protocol because of how damaging they were to the ozone layer Atmospheric comp 11 In the water cycle which process occurs when water vapor turns to liquid When liquid turns to vapor Condensation Evaporation should probably know what every phase change is caHed 12 What are the four main layers of the Earth s atmosphere Which atmospheric layer contains most weather Why does the stratosphere exist From the ground up Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Troposphere contains the most weather the stratosphere exists because the ozone layer absorbs energy from the sun thus creating a warmer layer of atmosphere Atmospheric structure 13 Which atmospheric layer contains the ozone layer About what of the atmosphere is in this atmospheric layer Recall reseating exercise Ozonestratosphere 20 Atmospheric structure 14 TF the lower thermosphere is about as far away from us in the vertical as Atlanta is from Athens in the horizontal TRUE Atmospheric structure 15 What is the name of the dividing line between the troposphere and the stratosphere About how high is it in the tropics Tropopause 16km in the tropics 10km in the polar regions Atmospheric structure 16 What is kinetic energy vs potential energy If air is brought down to the ground from high up what happens to its temperature Kinetic is the energy of motion potential is the energy of position The air would warm as potential energy was converted to kinetic 17 Explain why the global avg temperature changes how it changes and roughly how much it changes as you go up in the troposphere The temperature decreases by about 60 degrees celcius as you go up the troposphere This is because the sun warms the ground which then warms the air but also because the air expands and cools as the pressure decreasesThe atmosphere is transparent to the Sun s energy and is instead heated by the Earth s surface like a pot of water on the stove 18 Think about this You take a tightly closed water bottle with some air in it on a trip from sea level to Pike s Peak What happens to the bottle The pressure outside the water bottle decreases causing the air inside the bottle to expand and potentially explode 19 How does atmospheric density change as you go up from the ground Does it increase rapidly decrease rapidly or not change decreases exponentially 20 Why do meteorologists use the station model Be able to decode the station model example in your book temp dew point pressure It s in the reading and in the lecture notes We will go over this at the review Station model how meteorologist represent a weather on a map instead of writing it in words Average pressure at the surface of the earth is about 1000 millibars Temperature at the top left dew point is bottom left and the pressure is on the right you will probably have to add a 10 in front of the number for pressure because pressure has to be around 1000 millibars so if on the graph the pressure is 138 then it would be 10138 wind direetien temperature wind speed f 539 Fp reeeure eurre nt 133 weather 55 preeeure tendeneyr dew peint eleud eever 21 Why do you think meteorologists always talk about sea level pressure even though we aren t at sea level You also want it standardized Sea level is way to do thatlE Denver 8075 mb 22 What time is it right now in San Francisco California How about Greenwich England How do scientists tell time Sanfran is 3 hours behind Georgia and Greenwich is 4 hours ahead Scientists use UTC time in order to standardize 23 About how hot is the Sun round numbers in Kelvins Very roughly about how hot is Earth in Kelvins The sun is 5800k Earth is about 288K 287 Kelvins at the surface 24 Would season exist if the Earth s orbit was perfectly circular Would seasons exist if the Earth s tilt was zero Yes because the tilt causes the seasons No 25 When is the Sun farthest away from the Earth early January or early July What is the special name for this day Farthest away in July aphelion and closest in January Perihelion 26 The tilt of the Earth affects the amount of solar energy reaching a location on Earth for two reasons in two ways What are the two reasons During summer the sun is higher in the sky at noon compared to during the winter Days are longer during summer shorter during winter for the northern hemisphere 27 What is the solar zenith angle in Athens Georgia on June 21 Dec 21 March 21 Sept 22 What does it mean physically It s just the difference between where the sun is shining directly overhead at noon and the latitude you re at Athens is 34 degrees north so 34235105 and 34235575 the second 235 is negative because it s in the southern hemisphere find it easiest tojust think of it as the distance in degrees between the two points so that I don t have to worry about positives and negatives It s probably in the sunearthseasons lecture slides June 21 105 degrees Dec 21 575 degrees Mar 21Sept 22 34 degrees 28 What s the solar zenith angle at the North Pole on June 21 Dec 21 March 21 Sept 22 Do you get some weird numbers Interpret June 21665 degrees Dec 21 1135 degrees this is weird because the sun is shining over the southern hemisphere meaning the sun in the north pole is over the horizon AKA the sun doesn t rise at 90 degrees north on December 21st what lecture side or page number talks about this I guess just the slides about the sun Dec 21 means the sun is directly overhead at 235 degrees south which is obviously very far from 90 north March 21Sept 22 90 degrees 29 TF at the equator the noontime sun is in the northern sky all year long Think about lt False 30 At 42 N about how many more hours of sunlight do you receive on July 1 vs January 1 See your book Figure 2 16 Page 51 6 Hours difference Explain please 31 Sand warms up and cools down quickly while it takes a long time to boil water What property explains this Specific heat the amount of energy it takes to change the temperature of something Radiation 32 What are ve types of energy transfer mechanisms Which one requires direct contact vertical mixing in a fluid Conduction direct contact Convection vertical mixing Advection horizontal mixing Electromagnetic radiation Latent heating Radiation 33 Are water waves a form of electromagnetic radiation Are sound waves Are radio waves Water no Sound no Radio yes Radiation 34 TF The StefanBoltzmann Law says only glowing objects give off electromagnetic radiation If not what is this Law FALSE Wien s law does explain it though because it deals with the relationship between temperature and wavelength Radiation 35 If I m three times as hot as you are in terms of Kelvin temperature how much more energy am putting out vs you StefanBoltzmann law uses temperature to the fourth power so 3Tquot481 times more energy that you are giving off Radiation 36 TF Wien s Law says that the hotter you are the longer the wavelength of radiation you emit FALSE the hotter you are the SHORTER the wavelength Radiation I thought he said in class that short wavelengths were light and long wavelengths were heat so wouldn t this be true The hotter the object the more energy it has so the wavelength is shorter 37 If my temperature is 290K what is the wavelength in microns at which my energy emission will peak Is this light or heat Equation 2900temp so 29002901O microns heat Radiation equation is quotLmax bTempquot b constant of proportionality 2897x10quot3 m K I believe Lmax supposed to be lambda max is the max wavelength 38 In meteorological jargon is light shortwave SW or longwave LW radiation What is heat LW or SW See Fig 2 19 Light is SW heat is LW Radiation 39 Think If the Earth s atmosphere absorbs most of the radiation from the Sun in the visible channel what would the daytime sky look like It would be very dark since there wouldn t be any light for us to see Radiation 40 Name three things that can happen to EM radiation coming into the Earth s atmosphere hint think ARTistically It can be absorbed reflected or transmitted also it can be scattered but he said to ignore that for now Radiation 41 TF Albedo is the of the Sun s heat energy that is transmitted by the Earth s atmosphere amp surface False albedo is the of the sun s energy that is reflected back towards the sun Radiation 42 If 70 of light is absorb ed and 20 is reflected by an object then what is its albedo And what is transmitted ignoring scattering Albedo20 Transmitted 100702010 transmitted Radiation 43 See Fig 2 19 does the atmosphere absorb most incoming visible light Does it absorb much heat Atmos heat absorption is called Visible light no It absorbs some heat greenhouse gases trap the heat in earth s atmosphere Atmospheric heat absorption is called greenhouse effect Dr Knox confirmed on FB Radiation 44 What is odd about the energy budgets for the polar vs the equatorial regions What phenomena spread the wealth Polar regions run massive energy deficits but equatorial tropical regions run massive surpluses Ocean currents and weather systems spread the wealth Energy Balance atmosphere and oceans play robin hood 45 TF on a sunny windless day the maximum temperature occurs when the sun is highest in the sky See your book FALSE it occurs later in the afternoon around 4 though it varies throughout the year Temperature 46 On a clear windless daynight when is the temperature normally the lowest Why then Think about energy budgets Typically the lowest right before the sun rises because the sun has been gone all night causing an energy deficit Temperature 47 Think On a cloudy windy day when will the highest temperature be Impossible to know without more information 48 Name and explain five factors that significantly control temperature Which one is the most important for sealevel locations 1Latitude higher means there is more seasonality most important for sea level I think yes 2Altitude colder as it increases then altitude is second 3Surface type higher albedocooler low specific heatwide range of temperatures 4Proximity to water being closer to water negates temperature changes to an extent 5Cloud cover cloudy areas are warmer in winter and cooler in summer Oceans affect temperature a bit but not enough to be worth acknowledging Temperature 49 Global temperatures can be affected on the time scales of a few years by these natural explosive phenomena Fig 316 Volcanoes gt can actually cause cooling Temperature 50 Name some reasons Dr Knox says water is weird Why is water densest in the liquid phase at 4 C Water is weird because it boils and melts at much higher temperatures than molecules that are similar to it It s naturally present in all three phases on earth which is not the case for any other hydrogen containing molecules Water is densest in the liquid phase because the molecules can get closer to each other Atmospheric Moisture 51 Define evaporation condensation freezing melting sublimation deposition Which two processes do we talk about most and why Evaporation Liquid to vapor Condensation Vapor to liquid We talk aboutquot those two the most because they require massive amounts of energy Freezing Liquid to solid Melting Solid to liquid Sublimation Solid to gas Deposition Gas to solid Atmospheric Moisture 52 How do infrared and microwave energy affect a water molecule differently You are allowed to dance like Dr Knox Infrared energy stretchesbends water molecules microwaves rotate them Atmospheric Moisture 53 Define saturation in terms of relative humidity and the values of temperature vs dew point which one s bigger Saturation is when relative humidity is 100 the air has as much water as it can possibly hold Temperature is always greater than the dew point When the dew point and the temperature values are close together this means the air feels more humid to us 54 TF Warmer air can hold more water vapor than cold air because the air expands to make more room for water False Atmospheric Moisture Warmer air can hold more water vapor but warm air contracts not expands 55 Name an absolute measure of moisture in the air Name a relative measure Which one relates most closely to sweating Absolute Vapor pressure Relative relative humidity related to sweating Atmospheric Moisture 56 If the air in Athens is 2 water vapor and the total air pressure is 1000 mb what s the vapor pressure 20 mb 1000 x 02 20 Atmospheric Moisture 57 What is the relationship between saturation vapor pressure and temperature Sketch this curve Explain how the curve relates to the amount of water vapor that air can hold at different temps Why is hold in quotes Warmer air has a higher saturation vapor pressure Curve is on page 102 of the textbook and at the end of the first set of water notes The curve indicates that the amount of water vapor the air can hold increases exponentially with temperature Hold is in quotes because it implies that the warmer air expands to make more room for the water vapor but in actuality the air is just in equilibrium aka the rates of evaporationcondensation are equal 58 Dew point what is it If you see dew forming on a glass of iced tea what is the air s dew point temp at least Think about it Dew point is the temperature that air must be cooled to in order to become saturated The dew point must have been at least as cold as the glass of tea Atmospheric Moisture 59 On a windy cloudy day when would you expect the highest RH What about on a clear calm day Impossible to know on a clear day in the morning Water 2 60 If a parcel of air has a temperature of 20 C and its saturation vapor pressure is 40 mb what is its RH if the vapor pressure is 10 mb RH 1040 x 100 25 didn t need temp 61 Why do handhair dryers and car defrosters blow hot air Why is there no such thing as afternoon dew If the air is heated up then the saturation point is increased which allows the water vapor to stay in the air rather than condensing on your windshield or staying on your handshair Afternoon dew Typically relative humidity at a location is highest around daybreak when temperatures are coolest and lowest during the heat of the afternoon 62 What two factors does the Heat Index take into account Why do we care what the temperature feels like to humans Temperature and relative humidity We care because when the relative humidity is higher it s harder for our sweat to evaporate and sweating is the way our bodies cool down 63 What is a lapse rate How does temperature usually change as you go up in the troposphere lapse rate the change of temperature with height usually decreases as you go UP 64 Name four ways air can go up in the atmosphere With which one do we focus on environmental lapse rates Orographic lifting up a mountain Convection lapse rates Frontal lifting don t worry about it right now Convergence also don t worry about it Atmospheric stability 65 How does the temperature of unsaturated air change as it rises Why does it change What is an air parcel and who invented this idea last name Temperature decreases by about 10 degrees Ckm There are two ways to think about why it changes 1 There is less pressure being exerted on it as it rises because less of the atmosphere is above it and so the parcel expands releasing energy and cooling down or 2 As the parcel rises the kinetic energy is converted to potential energy and since kinetic energy is what gives something temperature the temp decreases A parcel of air is an idea invented by meteorologist Lewis Fry Richardson in a famous book of his in 1922 An air parcel is a coherent piece or bubble of air carried along by the wind It is large enough to contain many molecules but small enough that its properties are uniform Atmospheric stability 66 Demo question how does the temperature of a can of compressed air change when you spray it Why Relate this to how temperature changes in air as it rises up Then relate that last part to potential and kinetic energy Basically the same answer as 65 The temperature of the can gets very cold because the air inside the can expands There s more potential energy inside the can instead of kinetic energy so it cools 67 What is the dry adiabatic lapse ratein words and as a number round number KNOW IT Relate the DALR to pressure change with height Again very similar to 65 Dry air cools at about 10 Ckm the 39dry adiabatic lapse rate39 while moist air usually cools at less than 6 Ckm WE ARE USING 5 Cle FOR THE TEST 39moist adiabatic lapse rate39 The DALR is change in temperature of a parcel as it rises or descends in the atmosphere The SALR is the change of temperature of a rising moist parcel of air with height 68 TF air that is denser than its environment will rise by convection TF Moist air is denser than dry air FALSE dense air sinks FALSE Moist air is less dense than dry air H20 is lighter than both N2 and 02 so air that contains more water vapor molecules consequently has less of the heavier Nitrogen and Oxygen molecules because H20 replaces nitrogen and oxygen 69 What is conditional instability Use this concept to explain how atmospheric moisture helps convection happen Conditional instability is when the lapse rate is in between 5 and 10 degrees Ckm Dry air parcels will rise cool and sink back to the ground making them stable However saturated air parcels will continue to rise into the atmosphere forming tall clouds and thunderstorms page 115 Moisture changes the way air parcels risefall saturated vs dry which helps convection happen Kind of a bad explanation I ll probably ask Dr Knox for a better one 70 Is an environmental lapse rate of 8 Ckm conditionally or absolutely unstable See applet link in lec notesWhat is a temperature inversion Conditionally unstable Temperature inversion is when in a layer of the atmosphere the temperature increases as you go up the stratosphere More specifically a temperature inversion usually refers to the same phenomenon but in the troposphere Temp inversions are usually found on clear calm nights when the Earth s surface loses heat due to radiactive cooling These inversions reach their peak right before the sun comes up since the surface has been running an energy deficit all night 71 KNOW THIS ONE If an air parcel with a temperature T of 20 C and a dew point Tcl of 10 C is lifted up a 2 km mountain and then forced down the other side what is its T and Tcl at the surface on the other side of the mountain Assume a DALR of 10 Ckm and a SALR of 5 Ckm and that the dew point is a perfectly absolute measure of water vapor In other words dew point doesn t change with altitude unless it s forced to by the cooling of the parcel This is to make the problem simpler See eLC Review Sheets folder for Mountain Problem an animation of it you start with an unsaturated air particle and then you take it up to where it becomes saturated as soon as you get to the top of the mountain the air compresses the temp goes up but the dew point stays the same mountain problem is on elc cools at 10 as you go up 5 once it39s saturated once cloud gets to other side of the mountain temp starts going back up and it also gets dryer End Result 25 degrees C5 degrees C confirmed e 72 San Francisco is cool and wet Nevada is warm and dry Why Hint lnbetween are high mountains and the wind blows from west to east Basically apply the answer to the previous question The air is warmer and moister on the western side and it gets pushed up the mountain which cools it and causes rain Then as it goes back down the mountain the dry air parcel warms up making nevada warm and dry 73 When the RH 100 in an air parcel what forms ls energy taken from the parcel at that moment or released into it A cloud Energy is released into the parcel because of the phase change from vaporgtliquid 74 What are three basic types of clouds the dwarfs give their Latin names too What s a precipitating cloud called generic prefixsuffix Be able to visually ID different cloud types such as cumulus cirrus cumulonimbus cirrostratus This is not hard easy points on test PAGE 116 IN THE BOOK HAS DESCRIPTIONS OF ALL THE CLOUDS SO LOOK AT THAT Wispy cirro has ice crystals High Height Cirro Lumpy Cumulo Medium Height Alto Sheetystrato Low Height Strato Nimbusprecipitation httpwwwpurposegamescomgamecloudtypesquiz helped me get a decent understanding 75 What is the name for a cloudatground seen often in the morning Why does it form then Think about RH Fog forms because the temperature reaches the dew point making relative humidity around 100 making the cloud from across the ground 76 TF cloud droplets freeze at 0 C and form snow TF Sleet and hail are the same thing Both false Snow requires the temperature to be below freezing all the way to the ground and it s made up of clumped together ice crystals Sleet is tiny ice pellets formed when snow melts and then refreezes before it hits the ground 77 Name four main types of precipitation Namedescribe two mechanisms that explain precipitation Video game and more dancing allowed Rain snow sleet freezing rain Bergeron process water vapor is attracted to ice crystals ignoring water entirely a precipitation Collision Coalescence When larger drops of water collide with smaller drops forming a bigger drop 78 What is the type of precipitation that most often causes ice storms What vertical temp profile leads to them Freezing rain precipitation Temperature inversion causes freezing rain Temperature at Envirenment Enew enmpnletelznr melte Drape eupereeel Til e Tl 3 TH 1 Layer 79 If you have a 10inch snowfall about how much rain in inches is that roughly equivalent to One inch of rain1O inches of snow because of how light and fluffy snow is However the ratio can vary depending on temperature 80 See eLC notes applet in App lication Rain Turns to Snow lf precip falls into unsaturated air how does air s T RH precip type change 1 As the rain falls into the dry air it evaporates Evaporation requires a lot of energy This cools the air a lot 2 If the cooling air doesn t reach saturation until the temperature is at or below 32 degrees F the rain can turn to snow Overall decrease temp RH increases and rain turns to snow 81 See lec notesbook TF the SE US is the wettest large region of the US Also In which of these locations does the most rain fall central Canada north Africa equatorial Pacific Why True Equatorial Pacific because saturated air parcels are pushed up the sides of mountains on the west coast dumping their water there and making inland areas on the leeward side of the mountains dry 82 Weather Observations Part One What instruments are used to observe temperature pressure RH wind precipitation What s the acronym forthe method by which American surface weather observations are made today Why use it Also What s a radiosonde What does it measure The A808 in the United States observes and records surface temperature humidity pressure wind precipitation cloud ceiling and visibility data as often as once a minute Rawinsondes provide twice a day observations of temperature humidity and wind from the surface into the stratosphere Wind anemometers measure wind speed and wind vanes measure wind direction Precipitation measured by rain gauge Pressure measured by mercury barometer Temperature measured by resistance Thermometer Radiosonde An instrument package carried upward by weather balloons to measure the vertical profile of atmospheric temperature relative humidity and pressure from the surface into the stratosphere 83 What observation method produces gt 99 of all data being used in today s weather forecasts What does CoCoRaHS measure and how Weather satellites CoCoRaHS Community Collaborative Rain Hail and snow network measures precipitation using rain gauges WxObs 84 Weather Observations Part Two Contrast passive vs active remote sensing What are the two different types of satellite orbits rhyming nicknames and which orbit is best for seeing large parts of the world say a hemisphere all at the same time Active Sensors emit energy into the atmosphere and then measure the energy that returns Passive Sensors measure the radiation emitted by the atmosphere the Earth s surface or the Sun Passive take in what you see Active send out signal and see what comes back ex echo Geo orbits are better for seeing a large part of the world all at the same time Leo orbits are better for seeing all regions of Earth in one day and its coverage of weather is hit and miss because it flies over midlatitude and tropical regions twice a day only 85 Important Satellite Stuff How is an infrared image more useful than a visible image How is a water vapor image more useful than either visible or infrared What kinds of clouds show up better in infrared vs visible Infrared images have 24 hour coverage Water vapor images can see details everywhere 247 even in noncloudy air For infrared very cold high cold clouds show up best from lecture slides For visible stratus cumulus thick cirrus clouds show up best 86 In normal not clearair mode is 20 dBZ heavy rain or light rain on weather radar Is 60 dBZ a light shower or a heavy thunderstorm What weather phenomenon is Doppler radar used to detect and how What do the red and green colors mean What is dualpol radar and why is it better than previous radars What is dualpol radar being used to detect which is helping with tornado warnings 20 dBZ is barely any rain trace 6O dBZ is a heavy thunderstorm 8inhr Doppler radar is used to detect wind inside storms by using the Doppler effect the observed change in the frequency of sound or electromagnetic waves due to the relative motions of the source and observer Red means wind outward away from the radar site while green means wind towards the radar When there is a small couplet of red and green close together that means winds that are toward and away from the radar are close together in proximity vortex DualPol Radar works by emitting polarized beams in vertical and then horizontal directions very quickly This helps the radar figure out the difference between different Shaped objects hail VS rain VS etc 1 Dualpol radar is being used to detect tornadoes and other storm systems It detects information about the horizontal and vertical dimensions of precipitation particles and these are better than previous radars because they increase our lead time on storms 87 Atmospheric Optics See Table 51 know the different phenomena and their causes What interaction between atmospheric molecules and electromagnetic radiation causes blue skies and red sunsets What property of light partly explains rainbows amp mirages Blue skies and red sunsets are caused by scattering of light For blue skies oxygen and nitrogen causes the scattering For red sunsets it is caused by multiple scattering of light by small particles in the atmosphere think of milk and light demo Rainbows are caused by light being refracted and reflected in raindrops refraction spreads out the colors of the rainbow by bending different colors at different angles Mirages are created by refraction of light by air 88 If you look at a tree across a hot sandy beach you may see a superior inferior mirage If you look across a cold lake on a warm day what do the treesbuildingscows on the other side look like and what causes this Inferior The treesbuildingscows appear above the true position of the object Light rays passing upward through the warm air in the inversion refract downward toward the surfacePg 168 in textbook 89 Optics TrueFalse Blitz TF coronas can be colored due to the same process that causes CDs to appear colored TF sundogs are caused by refraction TF the green flash is due to reflection off of forests TF refraction causes stars to twinkle TF Scattering makes clouds white Coronas False a corona is a fuzzy whiteish region around the sun or moon due to water droplets diffracting sunlight or moonlight Sundogs True sundogs are refracted by ice crystals in thin cold clouds Green flash False green flashes are due to refraction of the sunlight at sunset by the air Stars True refraction of light by air Clouds True white clouds are caused by multiple scattering of light by larger particles like water droplets and all wavelengths of light are scattered evenly 90 Who was Snowflake Bentley Where did he live Read the Ch 5 introduction and the end of the Summary of Ch 5 if you didn t already Several years ago I taught a UGA student named Bentley she s a direct descendant of this guy Snowflake Bentley grew up in Jericho Vermont He is well known for photographing more than 5000 snow crystals with the same equipment He is the reason why we now know that no two snow crystals are exactly alike
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