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Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

by: Samah Kobeissi

Chapter 2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chem 111

Marketplace > La Salle University > Chemistry > Chem 111 > Chapter 2 Atoms Molecules and Ions
Samah Kobeissi
La Salle
General Chemistry 1
David J. Cichowicz

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General Chemistry 1
David J. Cichowicz
Study Guide
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This 37 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samah Kobeissi on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 111 at La Salle University taught by David J. Cichowicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at La Salle University.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Chapter 2 Atoms Molecules and lens Chemistry and the Elements Element A substance with its own set of physical and chemical properties that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances Chlorine Bromine Iodine Chemistry and the Elements Main groups Main groups 1 Atomic Number 18 Periods 1A Chemical symbol 8A 2 13 14 15 16 17 1 2A Transition metal groups 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A He 2 3 4 l 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 N F Ne Metals 11 12 3 3B 48 SB 68 7B 88 18 28 P S 4 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Br Kr I 6 55 56 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 87 88 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 Nonmetals 7 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Lanthanldes 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 Actinides Inner Transition Metals Chemistry and the Elements The First 36 Elements and Their Symbols Hydrogen H Neon Ne Potassium kalium K Nickel Ni l Helium He Sodium natrium Na Calcium Ca Copper cuprium Cu Lithium Li Magnesium Mg Scandium Sc Zinc Zn Beryllium Be Aluminum AI Titanium Ti Gallium Ga 1 Boron B Silicon Si Vanadium V Germanium Ge Carbon C Phosphorus P Chromium Cr Arsenic As Nitrogen N Sulfur S Manganese Mn Selenium Se I Oxygen O Chlorine CI Iron ferrum Fe Bromine Br Fluorine F Argon Ar Cobalt Co Krypton Kr Properties of the Elements Physical Properties Characteristics that do not involve a change in a sample s chemical makeup lntensive Independent of sample size Extensive Dependent on sample size Chemical Properties Characteristics that do involve a change in a sample s chemical makeup Some Chemical Properties of the Elements 8 3A 4A 5A 3A 7A Click to play Some Chemical Properties of the Elements 4 4A 3 an TA Alkaline earth metals 1 Some Chemical Properties of the Elements Metals Left side of the zigzag line in the periodic table except for hydrogen 3A 4A SA 6A 7A Metals I Some Chemical Properties of the Elements Nonmetals Right side of the zigzag line in the periodic table 1A 8A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A Nonmetals Some Chemical Properties of the Elements Semimetals metalloids Tend to lie along the zigzag line in the periodic table Semimetals 3A 4A 3A hA 7A 325 g 332 g 657 g A H9N03280 2KNEW HQ2S 2KN03867 k J V 455 g 202 g 657 g Law of Definite Proportions Law of Definite Proportions Different samples of a pure chemical substance always contain the same proportion of elements by mass By mass water is 888 oxygen 1 1 2 hydrogen Water is always H20 Law of Multiple Proportions Law of Multiple Proportions Elements can combine in different ways to form different substances whose mass ratios are small whole number multiples of each other Carbon amp oxygen can combine to form CO or CO2 Hydrogen amp oxygen can combine to form H20 or H202 Nitrogen amp oxygen combine to form NO or N02 or N20 Dalton s Atomic Theory Elements are made up of tiny particles called atoms Each element is characterized by the mass of its atoms Atoms of the same element have the same mass but atoms of different elements have different masses Dalton s Atomic Theory The chemical combination of elements to make different chemical compounds occurs when atoms join in small whole number ratios Chemical reactions only rearrange how atoms are combined in chemical compounds the atoms themselves don t change Atomic Structure Atom Smallest particle that retains all the chemical properties of the element electron QU UOH nucleus hiass Charge Particle Grams u Coulombs c Electron 9109382 x 10 3quot 5485 799 x lo quot Ml62176 x 10 quot l Promquot 1672 622 x 10 3quot 1007 276 1602 176 x 10 W 1 Xmumn 1674 927 x 10 quot 1008 665 0 0 Atomic Structure Pmton p mtu v x hquotng I n i i Neutron v k 39LITKC gt lt lt gt ppruunlul Iquot In Appn mnmwh H n nlumc upuxi by ncgatn cly g hargcd electrons Atomic Numbers Atomic Number 2 Number of protons in an atom s nucleus equivalent to the number of electrons around an atom s nucleus Mass Number A The sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in an atom s nucleus Niass nun1ber nun1bcr of protons plus neutrons 12 C 6 S39Vn1l1l it Clt 39lt l t Atomic nun ibcr number of protons or electrons 6 lt Atomic nunIbcr m bol 12011 lt Atomic 111855 Atomic Numbers Isotope Atoms with identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers ie different number of neutrons Isotopes of Hydrogen Protium Deuterium Carbon1 4 Mass number 14 6c Atomic number Tritium 6 protons 6 electrons 8 neutrons Atomic Mass Atomic Mass or Average Isotopic Mass A weighted average of the isotopic masses of an element s naturally occurring isotopes Atomic Masses and the Mole Avogadro s Number NA One mole of any substance contains 6022 x 1 023 formula units Molar Mass The mass in grams of one mole of any element It is numerically equivalent to its atomic mass Atomic Masses and the Mole A pre1 982 penny weighs 31 1 9 How many moles of Copper MW 6355 does it contain How many atoms of copper does it contain Atomic Masses and the Mole How much will 6730 moles of copper weigh in grams Mixtures and Chemical Compounds Mixtures and Chemical Compounds 02 21 12 gt 21120 lt33 Two oxygen Four hydrogen Two water molecules atoms atoms H20 a chemical compound Covalent Bonds and Molecules Covalent Bond Results when two atoms share several usually two electrons Typically a nonmetal bonded to a nonmetal of matter that by a s a d Molecule The unit r y results when two or more atoms denvgtn hlundc 39tcr nrnunm lcthanc ltll HAN ll ll Hz Ionic Bonds and Ions Ionic Bond A transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another A strong electrical attraction between charged particles Typically a metal bonded to a nonmetal Ion A charged particle Cation A positively charged particle Metals tend to form cations Anion A negatively charged particle Nonmetals tend to form anions Ionic Bonds and Ions Na CI2 Na Cl mm mm M mas omiim m 377 A a A chlorine atom 90 A chlorine anion Cl 7 Naming Ionic Compounds Cation Charges for Typical MainGroup Ions 1I 2 3 3 I r 8 I3 14 IS lb I 7 1 4A 1 6A 7 Naming Ionic Compounds Anion Charges for Typical MainGroup Ions 3 2 1 18 IA 8A l3 l4 I5 16 I7 3A 4 5 39H 7A Naming Ionic Compounds Ionic Compound A neutral compound in which the total number of positive charges must equal the total number of negative charges Naming Binary Ionic Compounds o Identify the positive ion and then the negative ion o The positive ion uses its elemental name o The negative ion substitutes the second half of its elemental name with ide o Do not use Greek prefixes such as mono di or tri Naming Ionic Compounds Some transition metals form more than one cation 10 11 u 18 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 38 4B 58 68 78 u 83 12 28 Use Roman numerals in parentheses to indicate the charge on metals that form more than one kind of cation Naming Ionic Compounds TABLE 25 Formula Name Cation NH Ammonium Sineg changed anions CH 3C0 quot Acetate CN Cyanide ClO Hypochlorite C102 Chlorite C10 Chlorate CIO Perchlorate HzPO Dihydrogen phosphate HCO quot Hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate HSO Hydrogen sulfate or bisulfate OH Hydroxide MnO Permanganate Formula Name Singly charged anions continued N02 Nitrite NO Nitrate Douny charged anions C032 quot Carbonate Cr04z Chromate Crzoy Dichromate 022 Peroxide iiPO42 quot Hydrogen phosphate 802 quot Sul te 04B Sulfate 2032 Thiosulfate 39l riply charged anion 9043 Phosphate Naming Covalent Compounds Binary Molecular Compounds TABLE 26 Pre x leaning mono l di 2 m 3 Because nonmetals often combine tetra 4 with one another in different penta S proportions to form different hem 6 gt compounds numerical prefixes MW 7 are usually included in the names of binary molecular compounds deca Naming Covalent Compounds Naming Binary Molecular Compounds The more cationlike element uses its elemental name The more anionlike element substitutes the second half of its elemental name with ide Use the Greek prefixes to express the number of each element present Naming Covalent Compounds More anionlike We cationlike N2F4 The prefix is added to the front of each name to indicate the number of each atom Dinitrogen tetrafluoride Naming Covalent Compounds Binary Molecular Compounds Whenever the prefix ends in a or o and the element name begins with a vowel drop the a or o in the prefix N204 Dinitrogen tetroxide Whenever the prefix for the first element is mono drop it CO2 Carbon dioxide CO Carbon monoxide


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