Midterm 1 - Psych 350
Midterm 1 - Psych 350
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Date Created: 10/01/14
Review Sheet Exam 1 Psych 350 Themes and Foundations Understand the major themes in Child Development and be able to provide examples particularly for o Naturenurture o continuity discontinuity o sociocultural in uence o the active child 0 individual differences resilience What was arguably the first developmental study discussed in the second lecture Describe who it involved what it was testing for the method etc know Aristotle Plato Locke and Rousseau s views of childhood Darwin s contributions understand the logic and several examples of controlledrearing studies You should be familiar with the many theories listed in this chapter but you don t need to focus a lot on the particulars We will cover these more extensively when we get to the relevant topics later in class e g Piaget amp Cognitive Development Freud and social development etc Methods Describe the procedures involved in the scientific method know types of important criteria for good measurement the differences between reliability amp validity as well as the different types Define three methodological contexts for gathering data and summarize the advantages and disadvantages of each Recognize and label examples of correlational designs Identify the risks and benefits associated with the use of correlational designs Recognize and label the essential components of experimental designs including random assignment experimental and control groups independent variables and dependent variables Explain the major advantage and disadvantage of experimental designs Describe a technique for overcoming the major limitation of experimental designs Recognize and label examples of each of the three designs for studying development and the advantagesdisadvantages of each Prenatal development Brain Describe the major structural changes that occur during each of the three major periods of prenatal development the period of the zygote the period of the embryo and the period of the fetus Be familiar with the general times associated with each period The 4 major developmental processes in cell development eg apoptosis etc examples of the principle of cephalocaudal development during prenatal development be familiar with studies that have documented the operation of different sensations taste audition etc in utero Give at least two examples of the ways in which the fetus behavior contributes to its own development ie examples of the Active Child Provide evidence for human fetal leaming Name common teratogens and explain the factors associated with the likelihood that exposure to teratogens will result in birth defects know the developmental processes that bring the human brain into being neurogenesis myelination synaptogenesis and synapse elimination gt neurogenesis the proliferation of neurons via cell division gt myelination fatty layer myelin accumulates around nerve cells Begins before birtha dn continues into adolescence gt synaptogenesis the process by which neurons form synapses with other neurons resulting in trillions of connections gt synapse elimination pruning Distinguish between experienceexpectant and experiencedependent processes Examples of each experienceexpectant plasticity brain wiring occurs due to normal experiences common across all people and present over the course of evolution the bad vulnerability if expected experience does not occur unstimulated neurons may be pruned and defecits may result light deprivation examples exeperiencedependent plasticity neural connections are created and reorganized throughout life as a function of individual experience that differs between people eg rats raised in complex vs less complex environments more synapses per neuron more supportive tissues such as blood vessels glial cells etc and perform better in leaming tasks eg expert skills in humans increased cortical representation in the left hands violinistscellists and braille readers Discuss the relationships among sensitive periods plasticity and vulnerability sensitive periods damage most likely when exposure occurs when the structures are being formed teratogen environmental agents that have the potential to cause harm during prenatal development plasticity the capacity of the brain to be affected by experience Genetics amp Heredity understand the relationship between chromosomes DNA and genes mitosis vs meiosis very broadly Identify and describe the mechanisms that contribute to genetic variability why selective breeding of animals is an interesting case study in genetics amp psychology understand the fundamental relationships between a parent amp child s genotypephenotype and the environment Know at least one example of each type of relationship eg Give an example of the in uence of the child s envrironment on hisher phenotype different types of gene expression and inheritance eg dominant recessive sex linked codominance etc and general examples of each Epigenetics What is the epigenome and how does it change our traditional understanding of the relationship between genes and the environment Also describe examples of evidence that your epigenome can impact future generations Apply the concept of norm of reaction to the understanding of the contribution of the child s environment to his or her phenotype understand the logic behind the basic research designs used to study heritability For example why are twin studies particularly useful in the study of genetics and heredity Be familiar with examples and what they have told us about heritability understand the limitations of heritability estimates and caveats for interpreting them Perception difference between sensation amp perception the logic of habituation and preferential looking methods face perception scanning pattems sensitivity to what kinds of pattems How does ability to distinguish different types of faces change across development different types of depth cues and examples of each basic development of acuity color vision depth perception hearing tasks and developmental pattem perception of subjectiveillusory contours logic of task and general age of success perception of objects as unified entities behind occlusion eg the rod and box tasks crossmodal perception examples findings Key Terms Chapter 1 Pp 118 Development physical and psychological changes in the individual over a lifetime Developmental psychology systematic and scienti c study of changes in human behaviors and mental activities over time Developmental science the interdisciplinary field of research and theories concerned with studies and explanations of human development Theories sets of ideas or propositions that help to organize or explain observable phenomena Social policy programs and plans established by local regional or national public and private organizations and agencies designed to achieve a particular social purpose or goal Naturenurture debate historically the theoretical controversy over whether development is the result of the child s genetic endowment or environmental in uences Stage developmental period during which the organization of thought and behavior is qualitatively different from that of an earlier or later period Empiricism theory that environmental experiences shape the individual more specifically that all knowledge is derived from sensory experiences Individual differences unique characteristics that distinguish a person from other members of a larger group Learning relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of such experiences as exploration observation and practice Chapter 2 4 Pp 111120 Prenatal period period in development from conception to the onset of labor Perinatal period period beginning about the seventh month of pregnancy and continuing until about four weeks after birth Postnatal period period in development following birth Germinal period period lasting about ten to fourteen days following conception before the fertilized egg becomes implanted in the uterine wall Also called period of the zygote Embryonic period period of prenatal development during which major biological organs and systems form begins about the tenth to fourteenth day after conception and ends about the eighth week after conception Fetal period period of prenatal development from about the eighth week after conception to birth marked by rapid growth and preparation of body systems for functioning in the postnatal environment Embryo label typically applied to the developing organism from about 28 weeks after conception Fetus label typically applied to the developing human organism from about eight weeks after conception until birth Viability ability of the baby to survive outside the mother s womb Gestational age age of fetus derived from onset of mother s last menstrual period Chapter 5 Pp 154 165 Neuron nerve cell within the central nervous system that is electrochemically designed to transmit messages between cells Synaptic pruning the process by which weaker or less active dendrites of neurons are eliminated Glial cell brain cell that provides a scaffolding for neuron migration and that nourishes neurons and assists in the production of myelin Myelin sheath of fatty cells that insulates and speeds neural impulses by about tenfold Plasticity capacity of immature systems including regions of the brain and the individual neurons within those regions to take on different functions as a result of experience Lateralization process by which one hemisphere of the brain comes to dominate the other for example processing of language in the left hemisphere or of spatial information in the right hemisphere Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS Sudden unexplained death of an infant or toddler as a result of cessation of breathing during sleep Chapter 4 Pp 121150 Placenta support organ formed by cells from both blastocyst and uterine lining serves as exchange site for oxygen nutrients and waste products Umbilical cord conduit of blood vessels through which oxygen nutrients and waste products are transported between placenta and embryo Amniotic sac uidfilled transparent protective membrane surrounding the fetus Teratogen any environmental agent that can cause deviations in prenatal development Consequences may range from behavioral problems to death Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS cluster of fetal abnormalities stemming from the mother s consumption of alcohol includes growth retardation defects in facial features and intellectual retardation Sexually transmitted infections STls a group of infections such as chlamydia syphilis gonorrhea herpes simplex HIV and hepatitis B often spread through sexual contact Also frequently called STDs Prepared natural childbirth type of childbirth that involves practicing procedures during pregnancy and childbirth that are designed to minimize pain and reduce the need for medication during delivery Fetal monitoring device medical device used to monitor fetal heartbeat during delivery Low birth weight LBW the label often given to any infant weigning less than 2500 grams or 5 and a half lbs at birth Preterm any infant born prior to thirtyfive weeks conceptual age 37 weeks gestational age Small for gestational age SGA any infant that displays intrauterine growth retardation that is weighs substantially less than infants born at a similar gestational age Chapter 3 Genotype total genetic endowment inherited by an individual Phenotype observable and measurable characteristics and traits of an individual a product of the interaction of the genotype with the environment Gene large segment of nucleotides within a chromosome that codes for the production of proteins and enzymes These proteins and enzymes underlie traits and characteristics inherited from one generation to the next Allele alternate form of a specific gene provides a genetic basis for many individual differences Gamete sperm cell in males egg cell in females normally containing only twentythree chromosomes Chromosome threadlike structure of DNA located in the nucleus of cells which forms a collection of genes A human body cell normally contains fortysix chromosomes Human genome entire inventory of nucleotide base pairs that compose the genes and chromosomes of humans Nucleotide repeating basic building block of DNA consisting of nitrogenbased molecules of adenine thymine cytosine and guanine DNA blueprint for genetic inheritance Karyotype pictorial representation of an individual s chromosomes Autosome one of twentytwo pairs of homologous chromosomes The two members of each pair are similar in size shape and genetic function The two sex chromosomes are excluded from this class X chromosome Y chromosome Zygote fertilized egg cell Mitosis process of cell division that takes place in most cells of the human body and results in a full complement of identical material in the fortysix chromosomes in each cell Meiosis process of cell division that forms the gametes normally results in twentythree chromosomes in each human egg and sperm cell rather than the full complement of fortysix Crossing over process during the first stage of meiosis when genetic material is exchanged between autosomes Homozygous genotype in which two alleles of a gene are identical thus having the same effects on a trait Heterozygous genotype in which two alleles of a gene are different The effects on a trait will depend on how the two alleles interact Dominant allele allele whose characteristics are re ected in the phenotype even when part of a heterozygous genotype Its genetic characteristics tend to mask the characteristics of other alleles Recessive allele allele whose characteristics do not tend to be expressed when part of a heterozygous genotype Its genetic characteristics tend to be masked by other alleles Codominance condition in which individual unblended characteristics of two alleles are re ected in the phenotype Polygenic phenotypic characteristics in uenced by two or more genes Epigenetics the field of study concerned with how environmental factors interact with DNA and its transcription into mRNA to in uence ell functioning and the phenotype Genomic imprinting instances of genetic transmission in which the expression of a gene is determined by whether the particular allelic form has been inherited from the mother or father Mutation sudden change in molecular structure of a gene may occur spontaneously or be caused by an environmental even such as radiation Williams syndrome dominant genetic disorder involving the deletion of a set of genes which results in affected individuals typically having a strong social orientation good musical ability and some unusual linguistic capabilities accompanied by intellectual impairment and severe deficits in numerical and spatial ability Sickle cell disease genetic blood disorder common in regions of Africa and other areas where malaria is found and among descendants of the people of these regions Abnormal blood cells carry insufficient oxygen Sickle cell trait symptoms shown by those possessing a heterozygous genotype for sickle cell anemia Phenylketonuria PKU recessive genetic disorder in which phenylalanine an amino acid fails to be metabolized Unless dietary changes are made to reduce intake of phenylalanine severe intellectual impairment occurs Fragile X syndrome disorder associated with a pinched region of the x chromosome a leading genetic cause of intellectual impairment in males Trisomy inheritance of extra chromosome Down syndrome disorder resulting from extra chromosomal material on pair number twentyone associated with intellectual impairment and distinct physical features Genetic counseling medical and counseling specialty concerned with determining and communicating the likelihood that prospective parents will give birth to a baby with a genetic disorder Behavior genetics study of how characteristics and behaviors of individuals such as intelligence and personality are in uenced by the interaction between genotype and experience Heritability proportion of variability in the phenotype that is estimated to be accounted for by genetic in uences within a known environmental range Identical monozygotic twins two individuals who originate from a single zygote one egg fertilized by one sperm which early in cell division separates to form two separate cell masses Fraternal dizygotic twins siblings who share the same womb at the same time but originate from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm cells Concordance rate percentage of pairs of twins in which both members have a specific trait identified in one twin Range of reaction range of phenotypic differences possible as a result of different environments interacting with a specific genotype Canalization concept that the development of some attributes is governed primarily by the genotype and that the only extreme environmental conditions will alter the phenotypic pattern for these attributes Niche picking tendency to actively select and environment compatible with a genotype Temperament stable earlyappearing constellation of individual personality attributes believed to have a hereditary basis includes sociability emotionality and activity level Chapter 6 Pp 206 236 Sensation basic information in the external world that is processed by the sensory receptors Perception process of organizing and interpreting sensory information Attention state of alertness or arousal that allows the individual to focus on a selected aspect of the environment Visual accommodation visuomotor process by which small involuntary muscles change the shape of the lens of the eye so that images of objects seen at different distances are brought into focus on the retina Saccades raid eye movement to inspect an object or view a stimulus in the periphery of the visual target Smooth visual pursuit consistent unbroken tracking by the eyes which serves to maintain focus on a moving visual target Vergence the ability of the eyes to rotate in opposite directions to fixate on objects at different distances improves rapidly during first few months after birth Visual acuity ability to make fine discriminations among elements in a visual array by detecting contours transitions in light patterns that signal borders and edges Sound localization ability to determine a sound s point of origin Phoneme smallest unit of sound that changes the meaning or words Categorical perception inability to distinguish among sounds that vary on some basic physical dimension except when those sounds lie at opposite sides of a critical juncture point on that dimension Intermodal perception coordination of sensory information to perceive or make inferences about the characteristics of an object Perceptual differentiation process postulated by Eleanor and ames Gibson in which experience contributes to the ability to make increasingly finer perceptual discriminations ad to distinguish stimulation arising from each sensory modality Video Warrior Gene Born to Rage Genes angerrage Henry Rollins Common gene mutation impulsive and violent behavior Become known as warrior gene outcome of a high profile murder trial Are human s shaped by environment or genes Nature vs Nurture Genetic makeup combined with maltreatment increases the risk of an adult becoming an aggressive adult LA east LA gangs Verdugo brothers Aggression and violence learned behavior Upbringing very intense Was there something inherent that made them violent Disturbed childhoods which turned them to violence or nature Han Brunner nature vs nurture Male members of family have a rare genetic dysfunction Single gene MAOA zero activity Recognized this particular gene is crucial in managing anger When attacked body releases adrenaline another is serotonin feeling good If serotonin isn39t broken down when it is released it can turn bad MAOA cleans up excess serotonin MAOA was unable to control serotonin levels which leads to behavior outburst Having a gene doesn39t make people act a certain way but it does in uence them
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