Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Biol 2002
U of M
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Diekmann on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2002 at University of Minnesota taught by Dr. Susan Wick, Dr. David Matthes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 293 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology in Biology at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Study Guide for Exam 1 Concepts covered the nature of science basic principles of evolution natural selection EvoDots simulation biomolecules carbohydrates proteins lipids nucleic acids DNA replication and mutation cancer This study guide is meant to be used in conjunction with the weekly notes posted This study guide will cover the broader scope of each concept but will not include smaller details 1 The Nature of Science I limits bias peer reviewed journals and papers limited authoritarianism no basis on opinion I is not absolute prevalent ideas may change as new information surfaces I is durable ideas are hardly rejected they are modified and adjusted I cannot provide answers for everything morals ethical considerations opinionbased questions I is the product of creativity and logic data imagination I is affected by culture and time period Semmelweis case I is socially complex composed of many different individuals from different backgrounds in different disciplines I based on parsimony the simplest idea is advantageous I is not democratic ideas are accepted based on fact not belief or opinion I follows a code of moral ethics accurate records wellbeing of experimental subjects no falsification of data 2 Evolution A Process of Evolution I individual organisms in a population vary in the traits that they have 0 Le shape size color etc I some trait differences are heritable o heritable passed on to offspring I individuals with certain heritable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than individuals without those traits B Natural Selection I mechanism by which heritable variations lead to differential reproductive success and the chance in frequency of traits over time 0 some organisms have traits that make them more fit for their environment gt those organisms reproduce more than organisms without that trait gt increase in the frequency of the more fit trait in the population I fitness ability of individual to produce surviving fertile offspring relative to other individuals adaption heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment relative to other individuals lacking that trait Evolution does NOT act on an individual 0 natural selection acts on the individual but evolutionary change occurs in populations 0 individuals do not change when they are selected gt either produce more or less offspring gt alleles become more or less frequent acclimatization adaption o phenotypic changes due to acclimatization to an environment are not heritable and are therefore not passed on to offspring gt no alleles have changed is not goaldirected 0 mutations do not occur during a lifetime to solve problems they occur randomly o adaptions do not occur because organisms want or need them is not progressive 0 things aren t evolving to become bigger better more complex Chemical Evolution precursor to biological evolution two models 1 prebiotic soup model proposes that certain molecules were synthesized from gasses in the atmosphere or arrived via meteorites 0 gt condensed with rain and accumulated in oceans gt continued construction of largermore complex molecules capable of life 2 surface metabolism model dissolved gases came in contact with minerals lining the walls of deep sea caves gt complexorganic molecules chemical evolution may have been catalyzed and concentrated in hydrothermal deep sea vents EvoDots Simulation if there is no variation in the starting population then there are no traits to make some organisms more advantaged than other organisms 0 each individual in the population has an equal chance of being chosen and therefore evolution does not occur if traits are not heritable then advantageous traits cannot be passed on to offspring 0 an unfit trait cannot be eliminated by eliminating the parent that has that trait 0 there is natural selection within a single generation but that change cannot be applied to the next generation and therefore evolution would be unpredictable if traits are eliminated from a population at random then organisms are not chosen based on advantageous or disadvantaged traits o adaption to an environment and survival is equal despite trait variation 3 Biomolecules polymer monomer molecular structure characteristics bond function nucleic acid DNA deoxyribo phosphate group primary deoxyribose phosphodiest contains the nucleotide fivecarbon sugar sugarphosphate er information required nitrogenous base 4A and T G and C poor catalyst backbone and nitrogenous bases secondary double helix due to hydrogen bond base pairing for an organism s growth and reproduction nucleic acid ribonucle phosphate group primary ribose sugar phosphodiest contains the RNA otides fivecarbon sugar phosphate backbone er information required nitrogenous base 4 A and nitrogenous bases for making amino acids and U G and C secondary within forms and proteins strand base pairing by between catalytic molecule hydrogen bonding phosphate ribozymes between pyramiding group and and purine bases hydroxyl tertiary folding group carbohydrate monosacc carbon ring with one glycosidic structural support cell oligosaccharides harides oxygen component identity glycoproteins polysaccharides hydrogen and hydroxyl gt different number forms energy storage sugar groups on each carbon of carbons different between two placement of bonds hydroxyl different number of groups sugars lipid fatty acid hydrocarbon chain saturated ester component of lipid also a bonded to a carboxyl hydrocarbon chain membranes energy lipid COOH group only has single bonds storage signaling hydrophobic end unsaturated hydrocarbon chain has 1 double bonds lipid membrane phospholi hydrocarbon chain hydrophilic and ester cell barrier pids bonded to carboxyl hydrophobic ends group phospohate amphipathic group and nitrogen group selective permeability of membrane proteins amino hydrogen atom primary sequence of peptide catalysis enzymes acids 20 amino functional group amino acids defense antibodies carboxyl functional group rgroup secondary formation of Bpleated sheets and ahelicies tertiary three dimensional shape folding quaternary produced by combinations of tertiary structures movement actin signaling structure transport 4 DNA Replication and Mutation semiconservative replication old parental strands of DNA are separated and each strand is used as a template for a new daughter strand 0 daughter DNA molecule consists of one old strand and one new strand DNA is synthesized by a catalystic protein enzyme called DNA polymerase o 5 gt 3 direction the DNA synthesis reaction is exergonic releases energy DNA synthesis is bidirectional it occurs in both directions at the same time 0 set of proteins are in charge of recognizing sites where replication beings and opening double helix at those points DNA helicase enzyme that breaks the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs to cause the strands to separate 0 singlestrand DNAbinding proteins attach to separated strands to prevent them from rejoining o topoisomerase enzyme that cuts DNA allows it to unwind and later reioins it Lead Strand Synthesis occurs towards replication fork 1 DNA is opened by helicase unwound by topoisomerase and primed by primase gt primase enzyme that synthesizes a segment of RNA that acts as a primer for DNA polymerase 2 synthesis of strand occurs with a sliding clamp holding the DNA polymerase in place and the DNA polymerase synthesizing the strand Lagging Strand Synthesis occurs in the opposite direction of lead strand synthesis 1 DNA already opened by helicase and unwound by topoisomerase from lead strand synthesis is also primed by primasesynthesized RNA primer 2 first Okazaki fragment is synthesized by DNA polymerase gt Okazaki fragment short DNA fragments that are linked together into longer fragments as synthesis progresses 3 second Okazaki fragment is synthesized by DNA polymerase 4 DNA polymerase removed the ribonucleotides of RNA primer and replaces them with deoxyribonucleotides 5 DNA ligase closes the gap between the Okazaki fragments in the sugarphosphate backbone gt catalyzes the formation of the phosphodiester bonds between deoxyribonucleotides Overview Origin of replication Leadjng strand Lagging strand 39 L Iquot Q f H y A Leading strand Lagging strand Overall directions of replication Singlestrand binding protein H l e lease Leading strand 4 DNA pol lll Primer Primase 5 V 39 1 39 I h Parental DNA DNA pol In Lagging39strand 39 DNA pol I DNA ligase V 39 39 w a I L n 391 l I t 1 39D A V r 3 L L 539 39uquotiiquot39 39 quotd39J39J J Wantquot EJJJU39VJ r39u waveru 5 753939 fattyquot I39 Ccmwva Figure The replication of both the leading strand towards the replication fork and the lagging strand away from the replication fork C Telomere Replication I telomere region at the end of a eukaryotic chromosome 0 on the lagging strand this region is not synthesized gt shortening of chromosome I the enzyme telomerase catalyzes the synthesis of its own template for replicating telomeres 1 the RNA primer is removed from the telomere and remains unreplicated 2 telomerase extends the unreplicated end by adding deoxyribonucleotides to the end 3 telomerase moves down the DNA strand and adds additional repeats 4 lagging strand is completed when primase DNA polymerase and ligase synthesize the remaining bases D Mutations and Damage I DNA polymerases make limited mistakes in synthesis because correct base pairings are energetically favorable correct pairings have a specific shape DNA polymerase proofreads mismatch repair occurs when mismatched bases are corrected after synthesis is complete I damaged DNA is repaired by nucleotide excision repair OOOO o fixes damage that distorts the double helix 0 defective bases are removed and replaced by proteins I if DNA repair enzymes are defective gt increase in mutation rate I mutations are divided into 3 categories 1 beneficial increase the fitness of organism 2 neutral no effect on fitness of organism 3 deleterious lowers the fitness of organism mutation type description missence causes change in amino acid sequence silent does not change the amino acid sequence 00th mutation Singlebase frameshift additiondeletion that changes change during synthesis entire sequence of amino acids following mutated base nonsense codon that specifies an amino acid is changed to one that specifies a stop codon inversion segments of chromosome are chromosome mutation flippedrejoined translocation segments of chromosome become attached to a different chromosome deletion segment of chromosome is lost duplication addition copies of segment are present 5 Cancer and Cell Division I cancer disease caused by cells that divide in an uncontrollable fashion gt invasion of nearby tissue gt can spread to other sites of the body 0 causes disease because the cells use nutrients and space needed by normal cells which disrupts their overall function I cancers occur when cellcycle checkpoints see above have FAILED two primary defects 0 defects that make proteins required for cell growth active when they shouldn t be 0 defects that prevent tumor suppressor genes from shutting down the cell cycle I social control 0 in multicellular organisms the passage through the G1 checkpoint also depends on response signals from other cells gt Le individual cells should grow when it is in the best interest of the organism as a whole 0 based on growth factors gt polypeptidessmall proteins that stimulate cell division 0 cells can become cancerous when social controls fail gt Le when cell begins to divide without goahead signal from growth factors
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