Review Sheet Midterm 1
Review Sheet Midterm 1 ANTH 0780
Popular in Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Notetaker on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 0780 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Laura Brown in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
Reviews for Review Sheet Midterm 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/28/15
Review Sheet Definitions Holism All the aspects of human life intersect with one another in complex ways They shape one another and become integrated with one another over time It draws together anthropologists whose specialization that othenNise may separate them Comparison We must compare societies to one another It is not enough to just learn about one society Limit Case An extreme or marginal instance of a phenomenon in which the key variable quality or value is at the minimum or maximum extent of its possible variation Etic vs Emic or outsider vs insider perspective Etic focuses on the perspective of the anthropologist Emic focuses on how the people being studied think Culture Sets of learned behavior and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society Human beings use culture to adapt to and transform the world in which they live Thick Description Describes not only the behavior that is being observed but its context as well so the behavior becomes meaningful to the outsider Winking as Social Business Winking can mean many different things based on the context of the wink It can range from a twitch to a flirtatious gesture Habitus Concept from Bourdieu with roots going back to Maussand beyond denoting the totality of learned bodily skills habits style taste etc Habitus may be understood as a variant of culture that is anchored in the body quotHexisquot is that part of habitus where communication between people takes place through finegrained bodylanguage tiny movements micromimicking etc Researchers like Hall have from a completely different point of view done work on similar problems Ethnography An anthropologists written or filmed description of a particular culture Ethnographies from readings Deep Play The cockfight story Geertz s explanation for the cockfights The cockfights have a much more than just a sporting event in the culture They represent a social structure political importance and a representation of masculinity in the culture Culture Relativism The principle that an individual human39s beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individual39s own culture Ethnocentrism Evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one39s own culture Culture shock the personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life due to immigration or a visit to a new country a move between social environments or simply travel to another type of life One of the most common causes of culture shock involves individuals in a foreign environment Culture shock can be described as consisting of at least one of four distinct phases honeymoon frustration adjustment and mastery Witchcraft as The second spear Witchcraft is not used as the primary explanation for the bad things that happen in life It is used to explain why the bad things in life happen to you 0 a particular day Description as interpretation Not really sure about this one Describing a culture with thick description helps create an interpretation of the culture Participant observation It is a method of field research the aims to create a close relationship between the one doing the observation and the group being studied It happen over an extended period of time Ethnography as firstperson Ethnography with the anthropologist39s feelings and ideas put into the description Informants People in a particular culture who work with anthropologists and provide them with insights about their way of life Also called teachers of friends Positivism a philosophical theory stating that positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations Thus information derived from sensory experience interpreted through reason and logic forms the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge Positivism holds that valid knowledge certitude or truth is found only in this derived knowledge Objectivity state or quality of being true even outside of a subject39s individual biases interpretations feelings and imaginings A proposition is generally considered objectively true to have objective truth when its truth conditions are met and are quotbiasfreequot that is existing without biases caused by feelings ideas etc of a sentient subject A second broader meaning of the term refers to the ability in any context to judge fairly without bias or external influence this second meaning of objectivity is sometimes used synonymously with neutrality Dialect of fieldwork fieldwork as dialect NOT SURE Culture as intersubjectivity The shared public symbolic systems of a culture Ex how the sign for mother differs between Buddhist and Hindus Reflexivity Critically thinking about the way one thinks reflecting on one s experience Situated Knowledge the embedded knowledge that is affected by the history language and values of the person knowing it Make explicit exactly who you are as a ethnographer Interviewing as cultural Not everyone knows how to interview You must make them feel like the expert to help them feel comfortable talking to you Distributed cognition Cognition the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought experience and the senses This is the process of sharing that knowledge gained through social interactions Methods for the study of public life Counting Mapping Tracing Tracking Looking for traces Photographing keeping a diary Test walks Phonology the branch of linguistics that deals with systems of sounds including or excluding phonetics especially in a particular language Morphology the study of the forms of things in particular Syntax the arrangement of words and phrases to create wellformed sentences in a language Semantics the branch of linguistics and logic concerned with meaning There are a number of branches and subbranches of semantics including formal semantics which studies the logical aspects of meaning such as sense reference implication and logical form lexical semantics which studies word meanings and word relations and conceptual semantics which studies the cognitive structure of meaning Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning Language as practice Notjust a big bag of words Knowing how to say something vs when to say something Ex knowing when to take turns in a conversation Language as multifunctional Language does notjust describe things It has an underlying meaning How people use language says a lot about the culture of the people Referential expressive conative poetic phatic metalinguistic lndexicality behavior or utterance points to or indicates some state of affairs Multilingual Hong Kong Hong Kong mixes english in many of its conversation Many of the people can not even speak without using english Linguistic Competence v Communicative competence Knowing how to speak vs how to communicate in social situations Linguistic Relativity How people use language affects the way they view the world Ex the tribe in Africa sees colors differently than we do because they use different words for colors Language and color perception A Relationship between language culture and thoughtLanguage shapes how people think and talk I don t know what else to say Language ideologies Why does French sound fancy What do you think of when you hear a southern accent Quaker language ideologies Would not say thee or thou because of religious beliefs Changed how people talked forever Address Terms A word phrase name or title or some combination of these used in addressing someone
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'