Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Psyc 316
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camille Turner on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 316 at Northern Illinois University taught by M. Lilly in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see intro- psychopathology in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
PSYC 316 Exam 1 studv guide Chapter 1 0Abnormal Psychology study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe predict explain and change abnormal behavior 04 D39s of mental wellnessillness Deviance Different extreme unusual bizarre Distress Unpleasant and upsetting Dysfunction interferes with person39s ability to clarify activities Danger Risk of harm to others and self OSzasz39s main argument Psychology and treatment is all about the ethics and values who the psychologist is will in uence the way they practice OCan39t confirm definitively the presence of a mental disorder no definitive tests Disorders we define are based on a set of behavioral and emotional symptoms which could occur for a number of reasons Mental illness is a social construct 030 adults amp 19 children seek treatment for psychological issues Chapter 2 0Biological Model Neuroanatomical abnormalities connection between disorders and specific brain areas The size and shape of brain regions may be abnormal OGenetics Genotype vs phenotype monozygotic vs dizygotic possible mutations gene environment interactions and correlation OPsychophysiological abnormalities Endocrine system releases hormones in body in response to stress Autonomic nervous system reactivity Abnormal brain chemistry birth complications environment OBiological Treatments Drug therapy ECT and psychosurgery OPsychodynamic Model Oldest and most famous extension of Freud39s original theorizing over decades Psychoanalytic theory describes the brain is divided into 3 operating systems 01d Pleasure Principle and immediate impulses OEgo Reality principle must balance the fact that reality may not always bend to the will of id defense mechanism for anxiety compromised in adulthood depression OSuper Ego Higher level decision making based on broader ethics and morals OPsychodynamic vs Psychoanalytic focuses more on relational patterns developed OPsyhodynamic Therapy Seeks to uncover past traumas and inner con ict guide through self discovery and insight OBehaVioral Model Psychopathology is a product of learning environment directly impacts behavior 0Classical Conditioning Learning through association 0Modeling Learning through imitation OOperant Conditioning Learning as a function of consequences OPositive Reinforcement Increase a behavior by presence of positive consequences ONegative Reinforcement Increases a behavior because of the removal of a noxious stimulus OPositive Punishment Decrease a behavior because of the presence of positive consequence ONegative Punishment Decrease a behavior because of the removal of a noxious stimulus 0Behavioral Therapy Systematic desensitization 0Cognitive Model Many behaviors are associated with cognition that some see as a driving force behind abnormal behavior Dysfunction come from faulty assumptions and or illogical thinking Thinking errors Overgeneralize all or none catastrophe mind reading 0Cognitive Therapy Identifying thinking errors and offer new interpretations Has empirical support OHumanisticExistential Model People are good have a drive for self actualization through evaluation of strengths and weaknesses OEXistential Therapy People wait around for meaning rather than creating it for themselves goal is to accept personal responsibility OSociocultural Model People are the product of culture and society Chapter 3 0Assessment Collect as much relevant info as possible to reach a conclusion Psychophysiology heart rate skin conductance brain waves OBrain imaging Assess brain function MRI magnetic resonance imaging CT computerized tomography PET Position emission tomography fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging Advantages of assessment a good lie detector Disadvantages of assessment can be costly and inaccurate OIntervieWS Tells whats happening follow up on symptoms Structured interviews involves clinical interviews for disorders Unstructured interviews involves intake interviews Advantages of interviews consistent and covers lots of info Disadvantages with interviews social desirability and stigma observer bias mistakes in judgment OTests Projective interprets vague or ambiguous stimuli Ink blot test Advantages of tests open ended Disadvantages of tests is time consuming OPersonality Inventories Self reported questionnaires measures broad personality characteristics Big 5 Advantages of personality inventories cost effective to administer more objective Disadvantages of personality inventories social desirability and doesn39t examine cultural differences OResponse Inventories Self reported responses focuses on one area of functioning Advantages of response inventories quick and easy objective strong face validity Disadvantages of response inventories carefully investigated OIntelligence Test IQ test Measures intellectual ability verbal and nonverbal skills Advantages of IQ tests carefully produced standardized reliable and valid Disadvantages of IQ tests motivation anxiety experience can alter cultural biases OObservational Methods Naturalistic catches person39s everyday environment self monitoring monitors self and records frequency of a certain behavior Advantages less filtered person is in natural environment Disadvantages time consuming prone to errors in observation Chapter 4 0Anxiety Anticipatory out of proportion to environment at all threats a sense of being in danger worry 29 lifetime prevalence OFear A response to a threat OGeneralized Anxiety Disorder Free oating anxiety accompanied by restlessness fatigue poor concentration irritability muscle tension womenmen 2 1 Sociocultural theory result of living in dangerous situations Psychodynamic theory realistic anxiety face real fear neurotic anxiety prevented from expressing id impulses moral anxiety punished for expressing impulses Humanistic theory Anxiety rises when people stop looking at themselves honesty and accepting Cognitive Anxiety caused by dysfunctional ways of thinking Biological theory Evidence for genetic heritability Biological treatments antianxiety drugs and antidepressants OPhobias Persistent and unreasonable fears of a particular object activity or situation Avoidance is key womenmen 21 twice as common among 2 SES Subtypes animals insects thunderstorms blood etc Treatments Desensitization relaxation fear hierarchy boredom is incompatible with fear Flooding Forced non gradual exposure Modeling Therapist models interaction with fear stimulus OPanic An extreme anxious reaction that sometimes results when a real threat is present Panic attacks are periodic bursts of panic that occurs suddenly peak and then pass 25 of people will have one or more attacks in their lifetime WomenMen 21 50 more likely in low SES Biological explanations Norepinephrine is irregular dysfunction in the emotional center of the brain Cognitive explanations People misinterpret physiological arousal and apply faulty assumptions about what39s happening OObsessive Compulsive Disorder Persistent often intrusive thoughts or images that invade a person39s consciousness plus repetitive rigid behavior or mental acts Feel mandatory and unstoppable Psycho dynamic perspective Adolescence become fearful of their id impulses and use ego defense mechanisms to reduce the anxiety that results from this fear Behavioral perspective has focused almost exclusively on compulsions Cognitive perspective unwanted thoughts that can be intrusive Thought action fusion Cognitive therapy discuss how cognitions lead to maintain their behaviors Biological perspective Dysfunction in serotonin Chapter 5 0Stress has 2 components stressor and stress response in uenced by primary and secondary appraisals Primary What is the challenge how much harm Secondary Can I handle this and how OAcute Stress Disorders Symptoms being immediately after or soon after the event and last less than 1 month OPost Traumatic Stress Disorder Begin shortly after even could last for months or years womenmen 21 20 of women and 8 of men Biological processes trauma triggers biological changes in the brain and body 0Treatments for PTSD Exposure medication ERP insight oriented techniques and debriefing ODissociative Disorders Characterized by memory loss and identity change ODissociative Amnesia Can39t remember important info usually traumatic event about their lives Localized Loss of memory for a period time Selective Loss of memory for some but not all events Generalized Memory loss begins with even and goes backwards in time Continuous Begins with event by continues on ODissociative Identity Disorder Development of 2 or more distinct personalities called sub personalities Each personalities has a unique set of behaviors attitudes emotions and memories Identifying features age sex family race and history Abilities and preferences Some may be able to speak foreign languages food preferences Women are 3x more likely seen as extremely rare Iatrogenic Therapist causes the disorders in patients Psychodynamic model Caused by use of repression as a defense mechanisms Behavioral model Forgetting reinforced by a drop in anxiety dissociation is an escape behavior OMutually amnestic No awareness OMutually cognizant Full awareness OOne way amnestic Some are aware of others but awareness isn39t mutual 0Treatments for amnesia Hypnosis guided to recall repressed memories Psychodynamic approach search unconscious and recover memories Barbiturates truth serums Loosens inhibitions and may lead to recovery 0DepersonalizationDerealization Disorder Recurrent depersonalization episodes feeling detached from body or unreal or feel one39s environment is unreal There is no explanations for this
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