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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Adnaan Beg

Exam 1 Study Guide PSYCH 202

Adnaan Beg
GPA 3.6
Introduction to Psychology
Jeffery B Henriques

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About this Document

Covers chapters 1-5 which will all be on the first midterm of the semester
Introduction to Psychology
Jeffery B Henriques
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Adnaan Beg on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 202 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Jeffery B Henriques in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Wundt O founded the first laboratory devoted exclusively to psychology at the University of Leipzig in Germany 0 Structuralism James O Taught the first course at an American university to draw on the new experimental psychology 0 Approached psychology from a different perspective entirely and created functionalism the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment Watson 0 proposed that psychologists focus entirely on the study of behaviorWhat people do rather than What people experiencebecause behavior can be observed by anyone and can be measured objectively O Behaviorism Skinner O Behaviorism 0 principle of reinforcement the consequences of a behavior determine Whether it Freud Will be more or less likely to occur again O Developed psychoanalysis which emphasized the importance of unconscious in uences and childhood experiences functionalism O the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment structuralism O the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind introspection O the subjective observation of one39s own experience behaviorism 0 an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior psychoanalyticpsychodynamic approaches cognitive approaches 0 the scientific study of mental processes including perception thought memory and reasoning biological approaches information processing 0 Electric signaling 0 Chemical signaling 0 cross cultural approaches 0 evolutionary explanations You Will not be responsible for knowing all of the careers in psychology Research Methods in Psychology 0 theory 0 frameworks for explaining various events 0 hypothesis 0 a testable prediction derived from theories must be falsified 0 goals of psychological research 0 Description 0 Explanation 0 Prediction 0 Control 0 questionnaires O a survey of questions to gather date from a group of people 0 case studies 0 intense investigation on one or two individuals who are unique observation 0 the goal is description statistics descriptive and inferential hypothesis testing representative sample population 0 the entire group we wish to study interviews 0 a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee correlations O correlation bw two variables independent and dependent variables 0 independent variable is the group that is being affected by a variable and th dependendt variable is outcome value random sampling O a technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample 0 hard to identify members random assignment 0 a procedure that uses a random event to assign people to the experimental or control group 0 critically important for unbiased results survey 0 interviews and questionnaires single and double blind procedures 0 Single keep the study group unaware of research biased 0 Double both study group and researcher are unaware unbiased naturalistic observation 0 observing people in their natural environment experiment 0 goal is to establish casual connections When things go wrong 0 Experimenter expectations 0 confirmation bias 0 demand characteristics Demand characteristics 0 those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think they should Confirmation bias 0 look for results that support your hypothesis Hawthorne effect 0 the act of observing people affects the people39s reactionacting confounding variables 0 random variables preexisting variables bW control and experimental group ethics in research 0 respect for persons 0 research should be beneficent 0 should be just Brain and Behavior structure of the neuron 0 cell body houses the chromosomes With organisms DNA and maintains the health of th cell 0 Dendrites that receives information from other neurons 0 Axon transmits informations to other neurons muscles and glands synapse O the junction or region bW the axon of one neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another neurotransmitters O ACh DA NE 5HT GABA Glutamate Endorphins etc 0 Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron39s dendrites action potential 0 an electrical signal that is conducted along a neurons axon to a synapse resting potential 0 the difference in electric charge bW the inside and outside of a neuron39s cell membrane agonists 0 drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter 0 antagonists 0 drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter 0 somatic nervous system 0 a set of nerves that conveys info into and out of the Central Nervous System Humans have conscious control over this system and use it to perceive think and coordinate their behavior 0 autonomic nervous system 0 A set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels body organs and glands O Sympathetic nervous system a set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations 0 Parasympathetic Nervous System helps the body return to normal resting state 0 glial cells 0 support cells found in the nervous system 0 Parkinson39s Disease 0 disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement often including tremors 0 For brain structures know What is written in the text for each structure 0 structures and function of the hindbrainreptilian brain 0 an area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord 0 controls the basic functions of life respiration alertness and motor skills 0 cerebellum a large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills 0 pons a structure that relays info from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain 0 medulla an extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate circulation and respiration O reticular activating system regulates sleep wakefulness and levels of arousal found inside the medulla 0 limbic system 0 hypothalamus regulates body tempo hunger thirst and sexual behavior 0 amygdala plays a central role in many emotional processes particularity the formation of emotional memories 0 hippocampus a structure for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex 0 thalamus relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex 0 basal ganglia a set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements 0 lobes of the brain 0 frontal specialized area for movement abstract thinking planning memory and judgment 0 temporal responsible for hearing and language 0 parietal processes info about touch O occipital processes visual info 0 neocortex cortex outermost layer of the brain dived into two hemispheres 0 right and left hemispheres 0 split brain studies certain tasks and behaviors seem to be localized to either the left or right hemisphere 0 corpus callosum connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of info across the hemispheres 0 functional imaging techniques Provide information about the functions of the brain by revealing which brain areas become more or less active in different conditions PET positron emission tomography fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging unlike PET fMRI does not expose radioactive substances Can localize changes in brain activity across briefer periods than PET 0 structural brain imaging techniques 0 Provide information about the structure of the brain and can help spot tumors and other kinds of damage MRI provides a higher resolution image than CT scan magnetic resonance imaging EEG a device used to record electrical activity in the brain electroencephalograph CATCT Computerized axial tomography 0 Broca39s area located in the left frontal cortex is involved in the production of the sequential patterns in vocal and sign languages I Wernicke39s area located in the left temporal cortex is involved in language comprehension I epigenetics the study of cellular and physiological phenotype trait variations that are caused by external or environmental factors that switch genes on and off and affect how cells read genes instead of being caused by changes in the DNA sequence You do not need to know the different glands in the endocrine system though you do need to know what is the quotmaster glandquot States of Consciousness 0 stages of sleep 0 characteristics of each stage of sleep 0 Stage 1 theat activity 0 Stage 2 deeper level sleep K Complex Spindle 0 Stage 3 Delta activity 0 Stage 4 Larger Delta activity 0 Stage 5 REM sleep both Theta and Beta activity 0 I signals from the motor cortex to the body are blocked I rapid eye movement I most dreaming occurs here 0 why we sleep 0 restorative theory O consolidation theory incorporate the things learned throughout the day 0 Dreams 0 occurs in both nREM and REM sleep but REM stage has more vivid and clear images like a story 0 night terrors occurs during deep sleep 0 Beta activity occurs during REM 0 REM sleep increases While deep sleep decreases 0 The function of dreams 0 Freud O Unconscious Wish fulfillment theory 0 manifest and latent content everything is concealed from a deeper meaning 0 Father of psychology 0 interpretations of dreams 0 Hobson amp McCarley 0 Activation synthesis model dreams are produced When the mind attempts to make sense of random neural actvity that occurs in the brain during sleep 0 Psychological view of interpreting dreams 0 Substance abuse 0 Disease model of addiction addictions are seen as biologically based 0 Life process model understand addiction in the context of relationships and experiences 0 dependence 0 physical and psychological dependence that can shows signs of withdrawal vomiting and sweat 0 drugs and alcohol all the material from the book on this topic is fair game Circadian Rhythms Consciousness Hypnosis and Meditation will not be on the exam NOTE THAT THIS LIST IS NOT EXHAUSTIVE However you should at least be familiar with these topics and individuals The typical advice that I give students is that if the topic has been discussed in class you should be familiar with all that the book says on that topic However if I didn39t cover a topic in class then I won39t be asking you about it on the test unless of course I told you it would be on the test


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