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KSU - HDFS 24012 - chapter 2 notes - Class Notes

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KSU - HDFS 24012 - chapter 2 notes - Class Notes

School: Kent State University
Department: Human Development
Course: Child Development
Professor: Karen Stewart
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Name: chapter 2 notes
Description: chapter 2 notes
Uploaded: 09/28/2015
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background image Chapter 2 Theory
­ cohert set of logically related concepts that seeks to organize, explain, and 
predict data ­ inspire future research and predict its result by generating hypotheses, tentative
explanations, or predictions
Hypotheses: possible explanations for phenomena used to predict the outcome  of research Basic Theoretical Issues
­ are children active or reactive in their own development?
­ is development continuous or does it occur in stages? Child Development: Active or Reactive?
Reactive development: children grasp experiences and this input molds them 
over time Active development: people create experiences and are motivated to learn 
about the world around them
Mechanistic model: views human development as a series of predictable  responses to stimuli  ­ people are like machines that react to environmental input ­ predicts human behavior based upon internal and external forces at work
­ seeks to identify the factors that make people behave as they do
Organismic model: views human development as internally initiated by an  active organism, and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages ­ sees children as active, growing organisms ­ people initiate events, do not just react to them
­ impetus for change is internal
­ environmental influences can speed or slow development  Is Development Continuous or Discontinuous? 
­ Mechanistic theorists believe development is continuous 
­ occurring in small incremental stages
Quantitative changes: change in number or amount, such as height,
weight, or size of vocabulary
­ development is always governed by the same processes
­ gradual refinement and extension of early skills into later abilities 
background image ­ Organismic theorists believe development has distinct stages  Qualitative changes: changes in kind, structure, or organization, such as the change from nonverbal to verbal communication 
­ development at different points in the life span Is fundamentally different
in nature
­ it is a change in kind, structure, or organization, not just in number 
Stage theories: development is seen as occurring in a series of distinct stages,  like stair steps ­ at each stage, what is going on is fundamentally different from what was happening at the previous stage
­ each stage builds on the previous one and prepares the way for the next 
PAGE 27 & 28 Microsystem: home, school, neighborhood, peer group, local community   Mesosystem: parents friends, religious hierarchy, education system, shopping 
center, community, parents workplace
Exosystem: economic and political system, dominant beliefs and ideologies 
Macrosystem: politics, marriage equality 
Shifting Balance ­ early theorists favored organismic or stage approaches
­ today, attention is focused on biological and evolutionary bases of behavior
­ it was found that influences are bidirectional (ppl change their world as it 
changes them)
Research Methods Quantitative Research: deals with objectively measurable data
­ Based on scientific method: system of established principles and processes of 
scientific inquiry  ­ identifies a problem to be studied ­ formulates a hypothesis to be tested by research
­ collects data
­ analyzes the data
­ forms tentative conclusions
­ disseminates findings Qualitative research: interpretation of non­numerical data, such as subjective 
experiences, feelings, or beliefs
background image ­ focuses on the how and why behavior ­ informs both how they collect data as well as its interpretation  Sampling Sample: group of participants chosen to represent the entire population under 
study
­ should adequately represent the population under study Type used by quantitative researchers:
random selection
­ selection of a sample in such a way that each person in a population has an 
equal and independent chance of being chosen
Type used by qualitative researchers: focused selection
­ participants are chosen for their ability to communicate the nature of a certain 
experience  Basic Research Designs
Case Study: study of a single subject, such as a individual or family
­ offers useful in­depth information Ethnographic study: In­depth study of a culture, which uses a combination of 
methods including participant observation 
­ uses a combination of methods, including informal, unstructured interviewing 
and participant observation
­ participant observation: observer lives with the people or participates in the 
activity being observed
Correlation Study: intended to discover whether a statistical relationship  between variables exists
­ 
variables: phenomena that changes or vary among people or can be varied for  purposes of research
­ correlations are expressed in terms of direction and magnitude 
2 variables are related positively if they ­ increase or decrease together 2 variables have a negative, or inverse correlation if:
­ one increases and the other decreases
background image Correlations are reported as numbers ranging from +1.0 to ­1.0 Experiment: rigorously controlled, replicable procedure in which the researcher 
manipulates variables to assess the effect of one on the other
  Experimental group: Group receiving the treatment under study  Control group: group of people, similar to those in the experimental group who  do not receive the treatment under study  ­ If the experimenter wants to compare the effects of different treatments, overall 
sample may be divided into treatment groups 
­ To ensure objectivity, some experiments use  double­blind procedures neither participants nor experimenters know who is receiving the treatment
and who is instead receiving an inert placebo 
Independent Variable: condition over which the experimenter has direct control Dependent Variable: condition that may or may not change as a result of 
changes in the independent variable
Random Assignment: assignment of participants in an experiment to groups in  such a way that each person has an equal chance of being placed in any group  Laboratory Experiments: participants are brought to a laboratory, where they 
experience conditions manipulated by the experimenter
Field Experiment: controlled study conducted in an everyday setting ­ Laboratory and Field experiments differ in 2 important respects: ­ degree of control: exerted by the experimenter
­ degree to which findings can be generalized beyond the study situation 
Natural Experiment: compares people who have been accidentally assigned to  separate groups by circumstances of life  Collaborative Research
Meta­analysis: provides a systematic overview of the research on a topic
­ through statistical analysis of the combined findings of multiple studies
­ used for controversial findings
­ an attempt to reconcile disparities across a large number of studies
­ designs and methodologies of the studies may be inconsistent 

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School: Kent State University
Department: Human Development
Course: Child Development
Professor: Karen Stewart
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Name: chapter 2 notes
Description: chapter 2 notes
Uploaded: 09/28/2015
18 Pages 15 Views 12 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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