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KSU - HDFS 24012 - study guide for exam 1 - Study Guide

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KSU - HDFS 24012 - study guide for exam 1 - Study Guide

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background image A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence: EXAM 1 Chapters 1&2 Study Guide Chapter 1 Definition of Child Development - Scientific study of processes of change and stability in children 
from conception through adolescence 
Early Approaches:
- Baby Biographies: recorded the early development of a single 
- Darwin’s Journal: Developmental nature of infant behavior 
Recognize differences between  Cognitive Development  - pattern of change in mental abilities Physical Development - growth of body and brain: biological and physiological 
patterns of change in sensory capacities, motor skills, and 
Social Development - pattern of change in emotions, personality, and social 
Influences on Development  Heredity - inborn traits or characteristics from biological parents  Environment  - totality of nonhereditary or experiential, influences on 
- socialization: child’s induction into the value system of 
the culture
Maturation - unfolding of a universal, natural sequence of physical 
changes and behavior changes 
Family Nuclear - 2 generational household unit 
- consists of 1 or 2 parents and children 
- biological, adopted, stepchildren
Extended  - multigenerational kinship network of: parents, children, 
other relatives
background image - sometimes living together in a household  Blended  - step brothers and sisters  Culture - society’s total way of life passed on from adults to children
- customs, traditions, beliefs, values, language, and physical 
products- all learned behavior 
Ethnic Group - united by ancestry, race, religion, language, or national origin
- contributes to sense of shared identity 
Ethnic gloss: overgeneralization about an ethnic or  cultural group that blurs or obscures variations within the 
- overlaps with other such groups 
Socioeconomic status - combination of economic and social factors that describe an 
individual or family (income, education, and occupation) 
Affects: developmental processes & outcomes 
Risk Factors: conditions that increase the likelihood of a 
negative developmental outcome 
Be able to list reasons how SES status can impact a child’s  development  Poor Children: frequent illnesses and lack of access to 
health care
- experience accidents, violence, and family  conflict  - emotional or behavioral problems  Children in affluent families: pressure to achieve - left on their own by busy parents
- substance abuse, anxiety, 
depression  Normative Influences (understand the difference between the 
- characteristics of an event that occurs in a similar way for most 
people in a group 
Age graded: highly similar for people in a particular age  group History graded: significant events that shape the  behavior and attitudes of a historical generation 
background image Historical generation: group of people strongly  influenced by a major historical event during their 
formative period 
Cohort: group of people born at the same time  Nonnormative  - unusual event that happens to a particular person 
- typical event that happens at an unusual time of life
- largely beyond a person’s control 
Chapter 2 Scientific Method - system of established principles and processes of scientific 
1. identifies a problem to be studied
2. formulates a hypothesis to be tested by research
3. collects data
4. analyzes data 
Brofenbrenner’s Bioecological  Perspective Be able to list and explain each of the systems  Microsystem: setting in which a child interacts with 
others on an everyday, face-to-face basis 
EX: home, school, neighborhood
Mesosystem: interlocking of various microsystems. 
Linkages between home and school or family and 
peer group 
EX: (parent-teacher conference)
Exosystem: linkages between 2 or more settings, 
one of which does not contain the child 
EX: parent’s friends, parent’s workplace, education 
Macrosystem: society’s overall cultural patterns, 
including values, customs, social systems
EX: economic & political system, beliefs, ideologies 
Chronosystem: effects of time on other 
developmental systems (changing personal and 
societal conditions over the life course)
EX: change in family composition, place of residence,
parents’ employment, war, ideology, political system
background image Understand and identify the differences between theories Behaviorist  - learning theory that emphasizes the predictable role of 
environment in causing observational behavior 
- reactive and continuous 
- classical conditioning & operant conditioning 
Cognitive - perspective that looks at the development of mental 
processes such
  as thinking
- Piaget’s cognitive stage theory
- development was discontinuous (occurs in stages) 
- adapt to environment & based on motor skills 
Psychoanalytic - view of human development as being shaped by 
unconscious forces 
- Sigmund Freud 
- children were born with a series of innate, biologically 
based drives
  such as: hunger, sex, and aggression 
- we are motivated to satisfy those urges in acceptable 
Social Learning - view human development that holds the changes in 
behavior result
  from experience 
- see development as continuous  and emphasizes 
quantitative change
- behaviorism and social learning 
- behavior learned by observing others and copying 
Research Methods Quantitative  - deals with objectively measurable data 
- based on scientific method
- forms tentative conclusions
- disseminates findings 
- random selection
Qualitative - interpretation of non-numerical data such as: subjective 
experiences, feelings, and beliefs
- focuses on the 
how  and  why  of behavior - informs both how they collect data as well as its 
- focused selection

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School: Kent State University
Department: Human Development
Course: Child Development
Professor: Karen Stewart
Term: Fall 2015
Name: study guide for exam 1
Description: A Child’s World: Infancy through Adolescence: EXAM 1 Chapters 1&2 Study Guide Chapter 1  Definition of Child Development - Scientific study of processes of change and stability in children from conception through adolescence Early Approaches: - Baby Biographies: recorded the early development of a single child - Darwin’s Journal: Developmental nature of infant behavior  Recognize differences betw
Uploaded: 09/28/2015
15 Pages 24 Views 19 Unlocks
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