ANSC 22100 Exam 1 Study Guide
ANSC 22100 Exam 1 Study Guide ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gayatri on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition at Purdue University taught by Forsyth in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition in Animal Science and Zoology at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
ANSC 22100 Exam 1 Study Guide HISTORY and GENERAL Important people and their involvement in nutrition 0 Dr William Beaumont Mackinac Army doctor worked with Alexio St Martin on the digestive system 0 Alexio St Martin French trapper cooperated with Beaumont as his patient had a hole in his stomach Daniel book of in the bible lSt nutrition experiment recorded in history Lavoisier Father of Nutrition combined studies of chemistry and nutrition Lind British doctor experimented with citrus as a remedy for scurvy Babcock Biochemistry professor at Wisconsin Single Plant Feeding Experiment 0 Funk named vitamins after vital amines First recorded nutritional experiment 0 Found in the bible book of Daniel Called for 10 days with only pulses and water 0 Results subjects were fatter fairer in esh Beaumont s discovery with Alexio St Martin 0 Beaumont studied St Martin s condition hole in stomach 0 Original belief was that food is digested separately learned that it is all digested together but at different rates digestive juices broke food down Limeys British Navy 0 Based on the work of James Lind who studied scurvy and used citrus as a treatment that healed sailors 0 British sailors called Limeys because they sucked on limes to stay healthy Significance of the single plant feeding experiment 0 Carried out by Stephen Babcock a biochemistry professor at Wisconsin studying dairy cattle 0 He tried to initiate an experiment to find best feed product 0 His experiment failed but later his colleagues completed it 0 Results I Wheat and oat diet were not good led to weak and non breeding animals I Corn diet worked well Naming of vitamins after vital amines 0 Done by Funk 0 Found factors in food that seemed essential vital to life conceived as amines Father of Nutrition Antoine Lavoisier 0 Connected chemistry with nutrition came up with the calorimeter 0 Life is a chemical process Differences and similarities in composition between animals and the plant materials that serve as animals feed 0 Animals need plants in their diet and other nutrients to balance it out 0000 Animals Plants Lots of Protein Less Protein Trace carbs Lots of Carbs Energy stored as fat No fat Minerals phosphorus calcium Minerals nitrogen phosphorous potassium TERMS Sugar molecule in carbohydrates Monosaccharide simplest form of sugar Disaccharide composed of two monosaccharides polysaccharide composed of multiple monosaccharides starch a polysaccharide consisting of glucose molecules with alpha bonds cellulose a polysaccharide consisting of glucose molecules with beta bonds glycogen a polysaccharide used by animals for energy storage similar to amylopectin starch glucose a hexose 6 carbon monosaccharide present in blood can be free or bound ribose a pentose 5 carbon monosaccharide seen in RNA and DNA fructose a hexose monosaccharide sweetener free and bound galactose a hexose monosaccharide present in lactose not free maltose a disaccharide repeating unit in starch present in fries chips etc cellobiose a disaccharide repeating unit of cellulose hemicellulose less complex than cellulose easily hydrolysable to simple sugars Lignin not a carbohydrate but important because it is present in brous part of feed associated with carbs completely indigestible Amylase an enzyme found in saliva that breaks down starch and glycogen Amylopectin branched chain polymer of starch amylose straight chain polymer of starch xylose a pentose monosaccharide abundant in straw tree bark etc mannose a hexose monosaccharide found combined in polysaccharides acetic acid CH3COOH a volatile fatty acid propionic acid CH3CH2COOH a volatile fatty acid butyric acid CH3CH2CH2COOH a volatile fatty acid palmitic acid long chain fatty acid with 16 carbon atoms and 0 double bonds stearic acid long chain fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms and 0 double bonds oleic acid long chain fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms and 1 double bond linoleic acid long chain fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms and 2 double bonds linolenic acid long chain fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms and 3 double bonds arachidonic acid long chain fatty acid with 20 carbon atoms and 4 double bonds essential fatty acid cannot be formed by animal must be in the diet glycerol 3 carbon alcohol present in fats glycerides triglyceride di mono 1 glycerol with 3 fatty acids di 2 fatty acids mono 1 fatty acid peptide bond bond between amino acids in a protein polypeptide formed from chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds crude protein amount calculated after measuring the nitrogen content of a food true protein calculated after directly testing for the level of protein in food offers more accurate insight into how much protein there is per serving NPN non protein nitrogen NUTRIENT CLASSES Most important nutrient water Nutrient that provides most of the energy in livestock diets carbohydrates Nutrient that has the most energy per gram fats 9kcal gram Nutrient that provides energy only after requirements for it are met proteins Nutrients that do NOT provide any energy vitamins Nutrient that is analyzed as o crude fiber and NFE carbohydrates 0 soluble in ether fat 0 kjeldahl procedure and N X 625 protein Energy in fats carbohydrates and proteins have in relation to each other 0 Fats 9 kcal g 225X as much 0 Protein 4 kcal g o Carbs 4 kcal g WATER Amount of water loss that is fatal 12 3 sources of water 1 Drinking water 2 Water in feed 3 Metabolic water 3 properties of water and how they aid animal life 1High dielectric constant gives water high molecular polarity allows it to dissolve many things in body contributes toward chemical reactions and processes essential to life 2High specific heat takes a lot of heat to change the temperature of water helps animals to maintain a constant body temperature and withstand a variety of conditions and temperatures 3High Latent Heat of Vaporization takes a lot of energy to change water from liquid to vapor heat is removed when sweat evaporates or animals exhale moisture laden air What does an example of Purdue peaches and peaches from Michigan have to do with nutrition 0 Speci c heat of water and in uences on microclimate of large bodies of water large bodies of water tend to moderate the temperature of nearby land due to the high heat capacity of water which is why coastal areas like Michigan have a narrower climate range compared to Indiana weather Physical principle that is working to help cool a dog when it pants high latent heat of vaporization Physical principle that is working to help move nutrients to the cells high dielectric constant Major functions of water for animals 0 Movement of nutrients and metabolites Maintenance of body temp Media for chemical reactions Essential part of chemical reactions Special roles I Synovial uid lubricant I Cerebrospinal uid cushion I Sound transmission ears I Light transmission eyes Consequences of too little water 0 Decrease in food intake and production 0 Increase in heart rate temperature respiration rate death Water and maintenance of constant body temperature 0 Water has high specific heat so it takes a lot of energy to change its temp making it stay constant in a lot of conditions We also have methods of maintaining temp through methods of heat loss such as sweating and panting to cool ourselves down to optimum temp Metabolic water important to animals who are hibernating and conserving water CARBOHYDRATES Classification of carbohydrates 0 Made of Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen 21 H to 0 ratio 0 Molecules are sugars saccharides o Monosaccharides I Pentoses 5 carbons Arabinose abundant in forage feeds Xylose abundant in straw tree bark Ribose seen in DNA RNA I Hexoses 6 carbons Glucose in blood free and bound Fructose sweetener free and bound Galactose in lactose not free 0 O O O Mannose found combined in polysaccharides I Disaccharides Sucrose table sugar glucose fructose Maltose repeating unit in starch glucose glucose with alpha bond Lactose milk sugar glucose galactose Cellobiose repeating unit in cellulose glucose glucose with beta bond I Polysaccharides Starch made of glucose with alpha bond maltose Two types 1 Amylose straight chain polymers 2 Amylopectin branched chain polymers Glycogen glucose connected with alpha bonds similar to amylopectin animals store it for energy Cellulose glucose connected with beta bonds helps with plant structure Difference between starch and cellulose starch has alpha bonds cellulose has beta bonds Too much starch consumption goes unused 9 converted to fat Li gnin and its effect on other carbohydrates 0 O O O 0 Li gnin is not a carb but is present in the fibrous part of feed associated with carbs Completely indi gestible Binds to cellulose and decreases digestibility of feed components Helps insect resistance and provides cell rigidity Analyzed with carbohydrates crude fiber and NFE Major sources of carbohydrates in animal diets 0 Anything with starch in it corn wheat barley oats etc Result of digestion of starch provides energy for the animal in the form of carbohydrates LIPIDS Groupstypes of lipids O O 0 Simple esters of fatty acids with alcohols eg Fats oils waxes Compound esters of fatty acids with alcohols and other groups eg Phospholipids glycolipids glycoproteins Derived lipids sterols terpenes Triglycerides made of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids composed of C H O mostly C and H Compare and contrast carbohydrates and lipids O O O O O 0 Both are macromolecules Both are composed of mainly C H 0 Both provide and store energy for the body Lipids gt carbohydrates Lipids are hydrophilic carbohydrates are hydrophobic Carbohydrates are made of subunits that form polymers lipids do not Carbohydrates form structural components and lipids form boundaries in the cell Why fats contain more energy than carbohydrates Fats require more oxidation to turn into C02 and H20 than carbohydrates do which is why the process of converting them into energy takes longer but at the same time gives off more energy Fats have more carbon atoms per gram giving over twice as much energy as carbohydrates do Fats provide 9 kcal gram which carbohydrates provide 4 kcal gram 225X Volatile Fatty Acids main energy source for forage eaters ruminants They are generated by microbes when food is broken down as an energy source for the animals 3 VFAs l acetic acid CH3COOH 2 propionic acid CH3CH2COOH 3 butyric acid CH3CH2CH2COOH Long Chain Fatty Acids I Saturated acids 1 Palmitic 2Stearic I 3 essential fatty acids 1Linoleic 2Linolenic 3Arachid0nic Saturated all single carbon bonds maximum number of hydrogens straight chain Unsaturated presence of double carbon bonds bent chain consequences liquid at room temperature spoils easily Digestion of fats fats are undigested until they reach the small intestine in the body This is where bile salts are located which act as emulsifiers for lipids and break them down so that pancreatic lipase an enzyme can digest them Major sources of fats as livestock feeds 0 Beef pork byproducts 0 Poultry fat 0 Binds of tallow grease in mixed feed 0 Oilseeds 0 Vegetable oils Why you might feed more fat in hot summer than in cold winter 0 Since fats have a lower heat increment than carbohydrates there is less of a heat burden to use up fat as compared to carbohydrates keeping body temperature more moderated 0 When it is hot for every mouthful of feed the animal takes it receives more energy in that mouthful PROTEINS Classification of proteins 0 Made of C H O N also S and P o Molecules are amino acids Analysis of Proteins o For feeds determine amount of nitrogen 16 o N X 625 Crude Protein 0 N is determined by Kjeldahl wet chemistry Essential amino acids needed for survival of the animal only apply to non ruminants o Phenylalanine o Methionine o Valine o Histidine o Threonine o Arginine o Tryptophan o Lysine o Isoleucine o Leucine First and Second Limiting Amino Acids without these the body cannot accept any other amino acids growth and progress is dependent on them 0 l Lysine 2nd Tryptophan Essential Amino Acids for chickens list of 10 Proline and Glycine Polypeptide a polymer made up of amino acids bonded together EAA containing sulfur Methionine 2 EAA39s that are most economical to buy 39in a bag39 ie synthetically o Methionine and Lysine Amino Acid Forms L and D L is the more common active form Amino acid that is used equally well in both D and L forms methionine Amino acid is tested at a baby39s birth to be sure it is metabolized properly phenylalanine VITAMINS Classification 0 Fat soluble I VitaminA I VitaminE I VitaminD I VitaminK 0 Water soluble I Vitamin C I B compleX vitamins B1 thiamine B2 ribo avin Niacin B6 B 12 Functions of the fat soluble vitamins O 0 Structure maintenance Blood clotting Vitamin K Functions of the water soluble vitamins o Intermediary metabolism organic catalysts not needed by ruminants in their diet Vitamin is needed by man but not by farm animals Vitamin C Vitamins associated with the following deficiencies epithelial integrity problems reproductive problems infertility night blindness xeropthalmia O OO O O O O O O O O O 0 Vitamin A bone malformation rickets Vitamin D folic acid choline pantothenic acid biotin exudative diathesis white muscle disease stiff lamb disease encephalomalacia cellular membrane peroxidation problems Vitamin E scurvy Vitamin C pellegra Niacin reduced litter size in pigs Choline black tongue dogs Niacin perosis Choline anemia folic acid B6 B12 pernicious anemia B12 mulberry heart disease Vitamin E beri beri B1 thiamine neural tube disorders like spina bifida folic acid Vitamin that would be supplemented in cases of milk fever Calcium Vitamin that interacts with selenium Vitamin E Vitamin that contains cobalt Cyanocobalamine B 12 Which vitamin is or is most related to 0 00000000000 Carotene Vitamin A Retinol retinal retinoic acid Vitamin A Cholecalciferol Vitamin D Ergosterol Vitamin D 125 dihydroxy cholecalciferol active form Vitamin D dalpha tocopherol Vitamin E menadione Vitamin K ascorbic acid Vitamin C thiamine B1 ribo avin B2 pyridoxine B6 cyanocobalamine B 12 Vitamin that acts like a hormone Vitamin D Vitamin that is necessary to use Ca and P Vitamin D Difference between Vitamin D2 and D3 0 D2 is active form in plants D3 in animals Toxic vitamins A and D Vitamin you can get from sunshine on the skin Vitamin D Vitamin that is a biological antioxidant Vitamin E Vitamin featuring Phyloquinone and menadione activity Vitamin K Dicoumerol a potent anticoagulant that inhibits the synthesis of vitamin Kdependent clotting factors depletes vitamin K supply in body made when coumarol is converted to it through moldy sweet clover poisoning Functions of 0 Vitamin K blood clotting 0 Vitamin D metabolism of Ca and P works as a hormone as well 0 Vitamin A protection of epithelial tissue 0 Vitamin E protection of membranes interacts with selenium prevents muscle liver and blood vessel degeneration most effective antioxidant 0 Vitamin C redox mechanisms in living cells electron transport important for collagen metabolism co substrate in certain mixed reactions Vitamin involved in avoproteins transport of H Ribo avin B2 Curled toe paralysis Thiamine B2 Amino acid decarboxylation and deamination Pyridoxine B6 Goose stepping in pigs Pantothenic acid 0 Requires intrinsic factor for absorption Cyanocobalamine B 12 Biotin is involved in 0 Fat synthesis 0 Hair and skin maintenance Folic acid is involved in 0 Movement of l carbon resides 0 Synthesis of purines and amino acids 0 Protection against heart disease cervical colon and breast cancer Most poorly fits the definition of a vitamin Choline Vitamin added to increase litter size in otherwise normal pigs Choline Vitamin that prevents fetal abnormalities of neural tube closure such as spina bifida Folic acid OOOO MINERALS Macro Minerals 0 Calcium 0 Potassium 0 Phosphorus o Chlorine 0 Magnesium o Sulfur 0 Sodium General functions 0 structural bones and teeth 0 activators of enzymes 0 osmotic and acid base balance sodium potassium chlorine o constituents of organic compounds Minerals that are 0 necessary for normal bones Calcium Phosphorus necessary for blood clotting Calcium cations that control acid base balance and osmotic balance Sodium Potassium needed for structural purposes Phosphorus needed as enzyme activators Magnesium present as a part of protein Sulfur Phosphorus provided in salt Sodium involved in grass tetany Magnesium OOOOOOO unnecessary to supplement to pigs as the element Sodium necessary to transport oxygen in the blood Iron the principle extracellular cation Sodium intracellular cation Potassium primary anion Chloride o o o o o o necessary to prevent hyperirritability abnormal mineralization of soft tissue Magnesium CALCIUM Stored in bones and teeth 0 Also important in blood muscle other soft tissues Functions in the body 0 Normal muscle actions 0 Blood clotting 0 Bone and teeth deposition 0 Regulation of excitability of nerves Regulation in the blood 0 Regulated by parathyroid gland o In times of low calcium levels PTH parathyroid hormone is secreted which increases calcium levels in three ways I Decreases calcium loss from kidneys I Increases reabsorption of calcium from bones I Increases reabsorption from gut o In times of high calcium levels calcitonin is released which stops bone reabsorption Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism result of low calcium levels for an extended period of time Rickets caused due to calcium and Vitamin D deficiencies Symptoms include o Weakened skeleton cracked bones o Weakness of animal 0 Osteomalacia o Prevented by having 21 ratio of CaP sufficient supply of Vitamin D Calcium deficiencies o Cows milk fever rickets o Pigs deformed skeleton weak hind quarters easily broken bones Milk fever not enough calcium in the body due to loss of lots of calcium happens to lactating cows 0 Prevention lower calcium levels to increase absorption from bones 0 Treatment give calcium supplement Main sources of calcium 0 Milk Legumes in general 0 Ground limestone 0 Animal byproduct with bone Calcium Phosphorus ratio 21 0 If Ca lt P 9 hyperparathyroidism PHOSPHORUS Location in body 80 in bone but not in higher proportion than Calcium in soft tissue Control of phosphorus level in blood 0 Absorption I must be in solution acid helps increase absorption I Fe Al Mg Be make it insoluble I Fatty acids oxalates and phytates decrease absorption fixed with phytase o Excretion I via feces by herbivores urine by carnivores Phosphorus deficiencies Rickets osteomalacia Pica animals chewing on random objects Cows decreased appetite poor body condition score rough hair coat Sheep deformed skeletal structure 0 Pigs weak legs deformed bones poor growth Phosphorus deficiency affects feed intake and growth more than calcium deficiency because calcium does not directly stunt growth or slow down food intake it mostly affects bones Factors affecting calcium and phosphorus absorption 0 Must be in a solution acid helps increase absorption 0 Negative effects due to oxalates fatty acids 0 Iron Aluminum Magnesium and Beryllium make it insoluble o Phytate a grain which binds to phosphorus and decreases absorption can be xed by phytase enzyme which breaks down phytate How are calcium and phosphorus excreted from the body differs in different animals 0 Calcium excretion through feces 0 Phosphorus excretion I Herbivores through feces I Camivores through urine Feeds are fairly rich in phosphorus 0 Milk cereals meat and sh products 0 Poor source forages 0 Problem liquid form is expensive Inorganic phosphorus and calcium supplements o Dicalcium phosphate or monocalcium phosphate 0 De ourinated rock phosphate 0 Phosphoric acid or sodium phosphate Phytic acid phytin decreases phosphorus absorption 0 Phytase an enzyme destroys phytin and allows normal absorption to occur 0000 OTHER MACRO MINERALS Main intracellular cation Potassium o Seldom added to diets Main extracellular cation Sodium 0 Must always be added to diets When to expect a chloride de ciency when salt is missing from animal diet When to expect to add potassium to the diet 0 Potassium de ciencies are seen with ruminants who are fed high grain diets feedlot and dairy cattle Form in which sodium is usually added to the diet NaCl salt Supplementing with inorganic Sulfur 0 Inorganic sulfur can be added to ruminant diets because the bacteria in them use it to make the organic compound but it provides no nutritional value to nonruminants except in the organic form because they cannot convert it to the necessary amino acids eg Methionine What mineral can prevent grass tetany Magnesium 0 Can be supplemented with MgO or salt in feed or mineral mix Grass tetany a metabolic disorder caused by low levels of magnesium in the blood 0 Most common in older cows nursing calves or young calves o Happens most frequently when cattle are grazing for the rst time after being turned out in spring 0 Signs of grass tetany uncoordinated gait convulsions coma and sometimes death 0 Solution is to supplement more Mg calves must be fed extra before being turned out for the rst time on fresh grass Functions of Magnesium o Activator of a number of enzymes involved in I Splitting and transfer of phosphatases I ATP in muscle contraction I Protein fat nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis I Glucose utilization I Methyl group transfer I Oxidative phosphorylation decarboxylation Deficiencies o Catatonic state arched back hair up 0 Weakness in legs abnormal bones o Aorta calcification 0 Mineral deposits in soft tissues 0 Grass tetany TRACE MINERALS Mineral deficiency that results in o Anemia 1 Iron 2 Copper 3 Cobalt o Perosis Manganese o Goiter Iodine o Parakeratosis Zinc Vitamin E deficiency symptoms 0 Swayback in lambs depigmentation of wool o Stiff lamb disease 0 White muscle disease 0 Mulberry heart disease Toxic essential minerals o Selenium o Molybdenum o Iodine 0 Copper 0 Fluorine Toxic non essential minerals o Arsenic 0 Lead 0 Cadmium 0 Mercury 0 Radium o Plutonium Mineral that is part of Vitamin B 12 Cobalt Mineral that is part of hemoglobin Iron Mineral that is part of thyroxin Iodine Mineral fed at high levels to pigs for a growth promoting effect like that of antibiotics Copper Mineral necessary in order to use iron Copper Mineral necessary for proper carbohydrate metabolism Potassium Most toxic trace mineral Plutonium Minerals that have been proposed as essential o Barium o Lithium o Boron o Nickel o Bromine 0 Silicon o Vanadium o Strontium o Tin Mineral that is in toxic levels in raw rock phosphate Fluorine Mineral that is useful in the prevention of tooth decay for people Fluorine o In livestock the required level is so low that even dust contamination in the air meets their needs Mineral that is a constituent of xanthine oxidase Molybdenum o deficiency symptoms are only those known in enzymes lack of enzyme formation leading to disability seizures etc Minerals with important interactions with Copper 0 Molybdenum and Zinc 0 Iron Mineral contained in thyroxin Iodine Selenium deficiency very low levels present in plants in Indiana Michigan and Ohio Selenium toxicity plants are toxic in certain areas because of high Se containing soils 0 Leads to loss of wool lameness paralysis heart and liver damage grating of teeth death Regulation of Selenium 0 Originally thought to be carcinogenic now not actually carcinogenic but still regulated in amount you can add at l 3 ppm Why does Dr Forsyth believe that too much iron supplementation might be a harmful thing 0 Microbes make use of Iron to grow so too much Iron could lead to increased susceptibility to microbial infections and attacks Iron Supplementation o Needed mostly by baby pigs animals experiencing blood loss 0 Excess may be harmful and is unnecessary because microbes use it to grow and milk and blood have transfer proteins which limit free iron to only the animal s tissues milk lacks iron as a safety mechanism Uniqueness of iron absorption excretion and metabolism 0 Iron is controlled at the absorption level 0 The body uses and reuses iron a lot has poor mechanisms to eliminate it o This leads to a rare occurrence of iron toxicity when there is poor limitation of absorption
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