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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Emily Markus

Exam 1 Study Guide KIN 212

Marketplace > University of Miami > Kinesiology > KIN 212 > Exam 1 Study Guide
Emily Markus
GPA 3.7
Elements of Sports Psychology
Brian Arwari

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About this Document

These are notes/questions/material that will be covered in Exam #1
Elements of Sports Psychology
Brian Arwari
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Markus on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 212 at University of Miami taught by Brian Arwari in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Elements of Sports Psychology in Kinesiology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 14 CHAPTER 1 Two objectives of sport psychology Objective 1 Psychological factors that affect physical performance How does anxiety affect a basketball player s accuracy in freethrow shooting Does lacking selfconfidence influence a child s ability to learn to swim How do a coach s reinforcement and punishment influence a team s cohesion Does imagery training facilitate the recovery process in injured athletes and exercisers Objective 2 How physical activity affects mental health well being Does running reduce anxiety and depression Do young athletes learn to be overly aggressive from participation in youth sports Does participation in daily physical education classes improve a child s selfesteem Clinical psychology are licensed psychologists are trained to work with people with severe emotional disorders are trained to help athletes with problems such as eating disorders and substance abuse Educational Sport Psychoology Are experts in training and teaching skill acquisition use mental coach approach understand psychology of human movement have training in physical education kinesiology or exercise and sport science Work with anxiety arousal performance issues adherence etc Study vs experiment Study The investigator observes or assesses without changing the environment in any way EX Compare the nutrition habits of top 50 athletes in a sport The 20 fastest runners survey responses are compared against those of the 20 slowest Research on alcohol effect on liver deterioration Correlation between physical activity as a child and adult obesity Experiment The investigator manipulates variables while observing them then examines how changes in one or more variables affect changes in others EX Runners are divided into two equal groups Experimental group receives a specific type of nutrition coaching etc The second control group receives no psychological skills training Running times of both groups are measured If the experimental group outperforms the control group with other factors that might affect the relation controlled a cause effect relationship is established Key The advantage of an experiment is that researchers are better able to determine causal or causeandeffect relationships Methods of knowing in order of DECREASING ACCURACY Scientific method the experiment Systematic observation the study Single case study Shared public experience Introspection Intuition CHAPTER 2 Personality structure Personality The characteristics or blend of characteristics that make a person unique The structure of personality Psychological core The most basic and deepest attitudes values interests motives and selfworth of a person the real person ex 3 persons religious values Typical responses The way one typically adjusts or responds to the environment ex Being happygolucky shy Rolerelated behavior How one acts in a particular social situation ex Behavior as a student parent or friend a a K 9 lt9 3 Role related 0 g behavior 0 0 99 s a e 2 o o w 9 06 T ical res onses 0 a VP P a 40 lt8 lt2 2n 3 Psychological core 6 quot Adapted by permission from Martens 1975 When describing personality we look for salient traits things that stick out Often we are unaware of our characteristics Voice distortion mirror image body image and perception etc Models of personality Psychodynamic approach Trait approach Situational approach Interactional approach Definition of Trait vs state Measure both traits and states A trait is a typical style of behavior State is the situation s effect on behavior a quotright now feeling that can change from moment to moment It is often more effective to compare personality test scores to a person s own previous test results than to group norms Baseline improvement test retest Morgan s iceberg profile Few personality differences are evident between male and female athletes particularly at the elite level Morgan s 1980 mental health model shows that successful athletes exhibit greater positive mental health than do less successful athletes However precise predictions have not been achieved and should not be used for team selection Relationship between personality self esteem and exercise Type A behavior patterns particularly the anger hostility component are associated with cardiovascular disease and appear to be altered via exercise Exercise and increased fitness appear to be associated with increases in selfesteem especially in individuals with low selfesteem Motivation Motivation is the direction and intensity of effort Direction of effort refers to whether an individual seeks out approaches or is attracted to situations Intensity ofeffort refers to how much effort an individual puts forth in a situation Direction and intensity of effort are closely related Participant and situational views 5 guidelines for building motivation Guideline 1 Both situations and traits motivate people Guideline 2 People have multiple motives for involvement Understand why people participate in physical activity Guideline 3 Change the environment to enhance motivation Provide both competitive and recreational opportunities Provide for multiple motives and opportunities Adjust to individuals within groups Guideline 4 Leaders influence motivation directly and indirectly Guideline 5 Use behavior modification to change undesirable participant motives Achievement motivation vs competitiveness Achievement motivation is a person s orientation to strive for task success persist in the face of failure and experience pride in accomplishments Gill 2000 Achievement motivation Selfcomparison of achievement Competitiveness is a disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others Martens 1986 Competitiveness Social evaluation or comparison Theories of achievement motivation Need achievement theory Personality Situational Resultant Emotional Achievement factors factors tendency reactions behavior Seek out achievement situations Motive to Probability A h Focus on achieve of pproac pride of Look for success success Success success Challenges Enhanced performance or Avoid achievement F situations Motive to Incentive OCUS 0 Avord av0Id value of failure p Shame Of p AVO39d 5k failure success failure challenges Perform poo y 20 1 Human Kinetics Attribution theory Attributions How people explain their successes and failures Examples include the following Stability stable or unstable Locus of causality internalexternal Locus of control inout of ones control Achievement goal theory Outcome goal orientation or competitive goal orientation Comparing performance with and defeating others Task mastery goal orientation Improving relative to one s own past performances Social goal orientation Judging competence in terms of affiliation with the group and recognition of being liked by others Focus extra attention on taskoriented goals Foster mastery or task motivational climates Competence motivation theory People are motivated to feel worthy or competent Feelings of competence and worth as well as perceptions of control determine motives High achievers vs low achievers HIGH Ascribe success to stable and internal factors within their control Ascribe failure to unstable and external factors outside their control Usually adopt task goals Perceived competence and control Have high perceived competence and feel that achievement is within their control Task choice Seek out challenges able competitors and demanding tasks Performance Perform well in evaluative conditions Low motivational orientation to achieve success High motivational orientation to avoid failure Focus on shame and worry that may result from failure Ascribe success to unstable and external factors outside their control Ascribe failure to stable and internal factors within their control Usually adopt outcome goals Perceived competence and control Have low perceived competence and feel that achievement is outside their control Task choice Avoid challenges seek out very difficult or very easy tasks or competitors Performance Perform poorly in evaluative conditions Arousal Arousal is a blend of psychological and physiological activation varying in intensity along a continuum Arousal varies during the day We actively seek to manipulate arousal We are also subject to involuntary arousal manipulation Cognitive somatic arousal Voluntary arousal manipulation Horror movies skydiving relaxing on a beach stretching etc Involuntary arousal manipulation Theme park designs movie music commercials etc Anxiety Anxiety is a negative emotional state with feelings of worry nervousness and apprehension associated with activation or arousal of the body State anxiety refers to quotright now feelings that change from moment to moment Trait anxiety is a personality disposition that is stable over time People with high trait anxiety usually have more state anxiety in highly evaluative situations Stress Stress A substantial imbalance between physical and psychological demands placed on an individual and his or her response capability under conditions in which failure to meet demands has important consequences Stress process Stress process Implications of the stress process for practice intervene at any of the stress process stages Situational and personal sources of stress Situational sources Event importance reward or punishment eg typist given electrical shock Uncertainty Pavlov s dog neurosis Personal sources Trait anxiety Selfesteem Social physique anxiety Different Arousal performance theories and graphs 0 Drive theory Quality of perform ance Degree of arousal Note Also used as the basis for social facilitation theory the presence of others enhances performance on simple or well learned skills and inhibits performance on complex or unlearned skills InvertedU hypothesis High Performance Low High Physiological arousal 2011 Human Kinetics Individualized zones of optimal functioning IZOF Athlete A low lZOF In zone best performance OUT 0i lone Athlete B moderate lZOF CL 01 ZOne best performance Om 01 zone i In zone best performance Athlete 0 high lZOF Out of zone 30 4O 50 60 L Low 39 7 High State anxiety level 2011 Human Kinetics Multidimensional anxiety theory Catastrophe model High High cognitive anxiety worry a Performance b Physiological arousal 2011 Human Kinetics Reversal theory How arousal affects performance depends on an individual s interpretation of his or her arousal level This is a cognitive theory Arousal can be interpreted as pleasant excitement or as unpleasant anxiety Arousal interpreted as pleasant facilitates performance Arousal interpreted as unpleasant hurts performance Anxiety direction and intensity An individual s interpretation of anxiety symptoms is important for understanding the anxiety performance relationship To understand the anxiety performance relationship we must consider both the intensity how much anxiety one feels and the direction a person s interpretation of anxiety as facilitating or debilitating to performance Viewing anxiety as facilitative leads to superior performance State anxiety is perceived as facilitative or debilitative depending on how much control the person perceives Some support has been found for this view Developing cognitive skills and strategies helps people view anxiety as facilitative 0 Significance of all these views Arousal is multifaceted It consists of the following Physical activation of arousal Interpretation of arousal It is doubtful that the optimal level of arousal is always at the midpoint of the arousal scale Arousal and state anxiety do not always have negative effects on performance They can be facilitative or debilitative depending on the interpretation Selfconfidence and enhanced perceptions of control are critical to perceiving anxiety as facilitative Some optimal level of arousal leads to peak performance but optimal levels of physiological activation and arousalrelated thoughts worry are not the same Interaction of physiological activation and arousal interpretation is more important than actual levels of each quotPsychingup strategies should be employed with caution because it is difficult to recover from a catastrophe Athletes should have wellpracticed selftalk imagery relaxation and goalsetting skills for coping with anxiety 0 Social facilitation theory 0 Home field advantage During the regular season a clear homefield advantage exists for both professional and amateur team sports and dates back almost 100 years The homefield advantage occurs for both team and individual sports and for both male and female athletes However during playoffs there is a proposed homefield disadvantage but the evidence supporting it is mixed Nonsport research supports the idea of championship choking as a result of performer selfconsciousness


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