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KSU / Biology / BSCI 10001 / Why are living things organized?

Why are living things organized?

Why are living things organized?

Description

School: Kent State University
Department: Biology
Course: Human Biology
Professor: Wen-hai chou
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: exam 1 study guide
Description: all filled out
Uploaded: 09/29/2015
3 Pages 37 Views 1 Unlocks
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EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDEWe also discuss several other topics like What is reciprocal and responsive relationship?

Chapter 1We also discuss several other topics like What does private property mean?

  • Living things are organized.
  • - atoms form molecules
  • - molecules form cells
  • - cells form tissues
  • - tissues form organs
  • - organs form organ systems
  • - organ systems form organisms
  • - organisms form populations of species

  • Metabolism: all chemical reactions within the cell
  • Anabolism: formation of larger materials from smaller molecules - dehydration
  • Catabolism: breakdown of larger materials into smaller molecules - hydrolysis
  • Evolution: changes in an organism over time - the changes are typically beneficial to the survival of entire species
  • allows the species to adapt to changing environments
  • Homeostasis: ability of a cell or an organism to maintain an internal environment under specific conditions
  • the goal is to maintain homeostasis or balance to allow the organism to survive in changing conditions
  • Negative Feedback: when a value strays from the normal range of values, the organism will respond in a specific way to return the body to homeostasis
  • most common
  • Positive Feedback: the stimulus causes the organism to move away from homeostasis
  • least common

Don't forget about the age old question of How does action potential spread through an axon?
We also discuss several other topics like What does it mean to say that race is not biologically determined?

Chapter 2

  • Bonds - individual atoms are joined together to form larger structures
  • stabilize atoms
  • Covalent Bonds - strongest -atoms share electrons, making them more stable together than they were when separate
  • single, double, triple
  • Ionic Bonds - intermediate in strength, electrons are donated from one atom to the other
  • 8 in outer shell
  • donor atom will have 1, 2, or 3 electrons in outer shell, while recipient will often have 5, 6, or 7 electrons in outer shell

  • Hydrogen Bonds - more of an attraction than an actual bond - electrons are not donated, received, or shared
  • Hydrophilic: polar molecules that like to interact with water by forming hydrogen bonds
  • Hydrophobic: nonpolar molecules are neutral and do not like to interact with water
  • Acids and Bases - large concentration of H+ are acidic and pH is below 7 - large concentration of OH- are basic and pH is above 7 - pH value of 7 is neutral

  • Organic Molecules
  • Carbohydrates: composed of simple sugars
  • Lipids: composed of fatty acids
  • Proteins: composed of amino acids
  • Nucleic Acids: composed of nucleotides

  • Dehydration Synthesis: involves the removal of a water molecule to create a bond
  • Hydrolysis: involves the addition of a water molecule to break a bond
  • Carbohydrates: long chains of monosaccharides, or simple sugars:

- glucose + glucose = maltose We also discuss several other topics like Why do we treat children as a special audience?

- glucose + fructose = sucrose

- glucose + galactose = lactose

  • Lipids: fats and oils - contain large amount of energy - nonpolar, don't dissolve in water
  • Fatty acids: chains of carbon & hydrogen Saturated fatty acids: all carbon atoms form single bonds with 4 atoms Unsaturated fatty acids: some carbons are bound to less than four atoms and therefore double bonds

If you want to learn more check out What makes a rv continuous?

Kinds of Lipids

  1. Triglycerides: contain glycerol and 3 fatty acids
  2. Phospholipids: contain a polar head region of glycerol and phosphate plus 2 nonpolar fatty acid tails - compose the plasma membrane of cells
  3. Steroids: based on cholesterol, used to make some hormones
  4. Proteins - composed of various combinations of 20 amino acids - all amino acids share:

- amino group (NH2) - carboxyl group (COOH)

- central carbon - each amino acid has "R" group: determines if the amino acid is polar or nonpolar

  1. Enzymes - proteins that end in -ase - reduce the amount of energy needed to start a reaction, called the activation energy: may be synthesis or degradation reactions - speed up reaction
  2. ATP: adenosine triphosphate - main storage form of energy used by cells - composed of: adenine, nucleotide, ribose, 3 phosphate groups

Chapter 8

  • Digestions involves the breakdown of large food molecules into smaller molecules
  • digestive system is vital for absorption of water, salts, vitamins, and minerals
  • substances are transported into the blood and can be sent to various areas of body

  • Esophagus: passageway where peristalsis pushes food to stomach

  • Stomach: secrets acid and digestive enzyme for protein; churns, mixing food with secretions, and sends chime to small intestine

  • Small intestine: mixes chyme with digestive enzymes for final breakdown; absorbs nutrient molecules into body; secretes digestive hormones into blood

  • Large Intestine: absorbs water and salt to form feces

  • Rectum: stores and regulates elimination of feces

  • Salivary glands: secretes saliva which contains digestive enzyme for carbohydrates

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