Study Guide for Fall 2015 Midterm #1
Study Guide for Fall 2015 Midterm #1 WLDF 460
Popular in Conservation Biology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Wildlife
verified elite notetaker
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Notetaker on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to WLDF 460 at Humboldt State University taught by Laurie Hall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Conservation Biology in Wildlife at Humboldt State University.
Reviews for Study Guide for Fall 2015 Midterm #1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/28/15
Ornithology Study Guide Fall 2015 Midterm1 taught by Mark Colwell ORIGIN OF BIRDS Theories of evolution of birds from reptiles Theropod Origins evidence W Archeopteryx feathers evolved for therrnoregulation Ground up origins cursorial supported by lots of evidence but hard to believe ight originating from ground Thecodont Origins evidence W Protoavis Sp feathers evolved first as elongated scales to aid in glidinglater ight arboreal origins less evidence and highly debated Criticisms 1 Digit Homology a birds 234 b Theropods 123 2 Cladistics a need independent test 3 Temporal Paradox a mixed fossil evidence 4 Groundup Flight a hard to believe Archaeopteryx lithographica shows intermediate characteristics between reptiles and birds had assymetrical feathers nonkeeled sternum used as evidence in Theropod theory of bird evolution 15 MYA Jurassic Protoavz s texensz s had avian skull features used as evidence in Thecodont theory of bird evolution 225 MYA Terms Cursorial adapted for running refers to grounddwelling organism Arboreal living in trees Cladistics A system of classi cation based on the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of groups of organisms rather than purely on shared features Many modern taxonomists prefer cladistics to the traditional hierarchies of Linnean classi cation systems httpdictionaryreferencecombrowsecladistics Convergent evolutionthe appearance of apparently similar structures in organisms of different lines of descent httpdictionaryreferencecombrowseconvergent20evolutionst Theropod grounddwelling dinosaurs potential bird ancestors Thecodont arboreal dinosaurs potential bird ancestors Archosaurs any reptile of the subclass Archosauria including the extinct dinosaurs and pterosaurs and the modern crocodilians and birds httpdictionaryreferencecombrowsearchosaur Additional Qs 1 What feature of the fossil of ArchaeopteryX indicates that it was capable of gliding ight 2 What feature of the fossil suggests it was probably not capable of sustained apping ight SYSTEMATICS Bird Adaptations 1 Skeleton a reduced number of bones due to fusion b lack of teeth c pneumatization air pockets inside bones 2 Reproduction a leftside of females is functional b seasonal c oviparity i found in all birds ii vary in shape color size number 1 some species lay exact number EX chickens lay lday EX hummingbirds lay 2 in a nest Speciation Models 1 Allopatric a populations diverge in isolation i relies on phylogeographic data EX Darwin s nches Species Concepts 1 Biological a Traditional view based on reproductive isolation b Contemporary view based on shared derived characters 2 Phylogenetic Morphological Taxonomy 1 Skeletal a palate keeled sternum i presenceabsence distinguishes most birds 2 Musculature a syrinx i difference between songbirds and all others b hind limbs i controversy of Where avocets should be placed once thought to be related to amingos 3 Scales of foot 4 Sperm structure Behavioral Taxonomy 1 Courtship 2 Song 3 Maintenance What characters are diagnostic of modern birds Feathers Oviparity Number of Birds 100000 species during Mesozoic 10600 today 37 extant orders according to Cornell Lab of Ornithology Passeriformes has the most species of any order 5000 Variation arises from 1 Extinction 2 Phyletic evolution 3 Speciation Findings of DNA in taxonomy of birds 1 Ratites group together 2 Owls with goatsuckers 3 Large number of taxa in Ciconiiformes New World vultures grouped with storksnow reversed they re back with raptors 4 Wrentit was a babblerbut not anymore 5 Passeriformes restructured It is not the most common form of distinguishing species because so few species have been karyotyped as of yet There has also been little variation between chromosomes Change in Classi cation of Canada Goose What was formerly known as the Canada goose is now separated into two groups large and small bodied forms Largebodied remain known as Canada Goose B canadensis with many subspecis Most closely related to the Hawaiian Goose The Smallbodied form Geese B hutchinsii are now known as Cackling Goose with several subspecies Most closely related to the Barnacle Goose Communication most recognizable facet of bird biology commonalities with human speech learning and development dialects develop during critical periods early on in life beauty of song is negatively related to visual beauty can help link groups of birds and populations Terms Cladistics A system of classification based on the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of groups of organisms rather than purely on shared features Systematicsstudy of evolutionary relationships among organisms O Systematists classify based on evolutionary relationships Taxonomyclassif1cation of systematics into a hierarchical scheme 0 Taxonomists identify describe and name organisms Evolutionary significant unit species Species a group of individuals who are able to mate with other members and not with members of individuals outside the group to produce viable offspring Biological species concept Traditional view based on reproductive isolation Phylogenetic species conceptContemporary view based on shared derived characters Ratitemember of the group of ightless birds lack keel and palate Carinate birds with keel refers to Carinatae the group of all birds and their extinct relatives to possess a keel or quotcarinaquot on the underside of the breastbone used to anchor large ight muscles httpsenwikipediaorgwikiCarinatae Paleognathae one of the two living clades of birds that lack a palate contains ratitesgroup of non ying birds and tinamous group of ying birds Neognathae other clade of birds that possess a palate includes the vast majority of bird species Fahrenholz rule states that speciation of parasites is parallel to that of birds FEATHERS True or false feathers are diagnostic of birds Explain your answer True Of all extant organisms feathers are only found on birds False However given fossil evidence it is known that other creatures such as dinosaur ancestors also possessed feathers Feather growth in a developing embryo l Papilla 2 Accelerated epidermal growth and evagination 3 Epidermal collar vascularized and innervated Sequence of molts and plumages acquired by a Western Sandpiper in first year 1 Natal Down JuneJuly hatched in the Arctic gt undergoes prejuvenal molt gt 2 Juvenal Plumage AugustOctober gt undergoes first prebasic molt gt 3 First Basic Plumage NovemberMarch gt undergoes first prealtemate moltgt 4 First Alternate Plumage AprilJuly gt undergoes second prebasic molt original retrices and remiges nally molted now gt 5 Second Basic Plumage AugustMarch The terms breeding and wintering can be confusing because these plumages are not observed during exact know time periods during the year Breeding and wintering seasons can vary by species and each can molt at varying times during the year as well Pigment 4 Categories 1 Melanins black red brown important in the production of ornaments 2 types Eumelanines blacks amp browns Phemelanins light brown red orange yellow produced by diet and hormones EX Male House Sparrow badges 2 Carotenoids red orange yellow EX Cedar Waxwing 3 Porphyrins reds greens etc EX Turaco 4 Psittacofulvins reds etc EX Greenwinged Macaw Types of Feathers O Vaned O composed of rachis and vane 0 found on wings and tail I provide aerodynamic contour of body 0 Functions 1 Location 2 Thermoregulation 3 Communication 4 Protection 0 Down 0 lack hooks loops amp rachis 0 present in precocial young I under contour feathers 0 functions 1 Thermoregulation 2 Crypsis avoid observation by other organisms camou age from predators O Semiplume O rachis is longer than longest barb 0 found among ight amp contour feathers 0 functions 1 Displays 2 Thermoregulation o Filoplume 0 long hairlike feathers 0 found amidst ight feathers O richly innervated with tactile nerves 0 functions 1 Sensory 2 Aerodynamics o Bristles O vaneless countour feathers 0 found near eyes nostrils mouth 0 function 1 Enhanced foraging abilities 2 Protection 0 Powder down downlike produce talcum powderlike substance present on herons egrets rollers of Madagascar OOOO function 1 Feather maintenance How do structural colors produce a iridescence in the gorget of a male Anna s Hummingbird and b the blue of a Steller s Jay a produces by interference b produced by scattering Identify the following structural parts of a contour feather a rachis b calamus c vane d barb and e proximal amp distal barbules 3 Ill E Trailing edge Shaft DEF l39aehia Laadingadga mwing al39 wing 391 Vane alr F uaxillun39l I Dutalr vane if Parallel I hams 3971quot Inner vane I Dlatal balrbula Barbiaalalr lhaaklat 7 J lPlrallimal hall39hula 3UPer Afta rana alr Uinblll UE aftall lfaatnalr alr lhypalraenia Inl falrialr umbiliaua Calmua alr quill wwwpoultryhuborg Pterylae area on the skin of a bird from which feathers grow Apteriasingular apteriumbare spaces between the feathered areas on the body of a bird httpwwwmerriamwebstercomdictionaryapterium Moltregeneration of feathers Plumagecoat of feathers 1 Alternate replaces breedingnuptial 2 Basic replaces winter Structural Colors 1 Interference a shimmering iridescence formed by platelets on barbules color changes with with angle of light i EX Rufous Hummingbird 2 Iridescence a produced by multiple layers and light waves which either cancel each other out of accentuate color b observed color changes with angle 3 Scattering a produces blues combined with pigments b tiny vacuoles on barb surface c scatter short wavelengths d observed color is the same regardless of angle FLIGHT Flight Muscles 1 Pectoralis Major a originates on sternum and keel b attaches to ventral side of humerus c powers downstroke of ight 2 Supracoracoideus a originates on sternum b attaches to dorsal side of humerus c powers the recovery stroke or upstroke of ight 4 Forces that affect Physics of Flight 1 Lift generated by secondaries and tail 2 Gravity based on the mass of bird pulling it down 3 Dragresistance to forward motion types surface friction pro le induced 4 Thrustprovided by primaries Static pressure atmospheric pressure Dynamic pressurekinetic energy of wind both generate lift against wing Aspect ratioratio of wing length to width Gliding Flight involves glide ratiohorizontalvertical distances Soaring Flight upward air movement counters downward glide of bird EX Turkey Vulure Bemoulli s Lawconstant relationship between static and dynamic pressure Where if one is high the other is low Bird Adaptations 3 Skeleton a reduced number of bones due to fusion b lack of teeth c pneumatization air pockets inside bones 4 Reproduction a leftside of females is functional b seasonal c oviparity i found in all birds ii vary in shape color size number 1 some species lay exact number EX chickens lay lday EX hummingbirds lay 2 in a nest Feather Maintenance 1 Bathing preening anting 2 Uropygial gland 3 Antimicrobial activity MIGRATION Migrationpredictable roundtrip movement connected to seasons Partial migrationa segment of a population migrates and another is resident EX Snowy Plover Why has migration evolved benef1ts of moving to another region 1 more food less competition 2 less predation retuming home advantages knowing Where to find foodmate how to evade predators Zugunruhe changes in behavior and physiology during migration ie migratory restlessness Hyperphagiachanges in behavior and physiology and anatomy in relation to eating quickly prior to migration Fuels for Migration 1 Lipids a stored subcutaneously 2 Protein a from pectoralis major 3 Glycogen a for quick starts Advantages of Fat Fat produces 2X the Energy amp 2X the water Helps with maintaining ight and preventing dehydration Orientationability to move in a given compass direction Navigationdirected movement Cues to OrientNavigate 1 SunPolarized 2 Stars 3 Geomagnetic Fields 4 Olfaction gt all birds have backup systems ENDOTHERMY ConservingProducing Heat 1 Raise feathers 2 Shivering 3 Countercurrent circulation 4 Habitat selection Dissipating Heat 1 Gular apping a EX Pelicans cormorants 2 Panting 3 Feather adjustment 4 Defecation on legs a EX Storks vultures 5 Adaptations a EX Tucan bill Respiratory System 1 2 3 4 have no diaphragm owthrough system with air sacs functions Gas exchange Protection Communication Therrnoregulation Circulatory System similar to that of humans with much larger ratio to body size have to survive at high elevations with low oxygen levels increased number of capillaries observed with increase in elevation high blood pressure large stroke volume Excretory System bladder absent from all but a few sp kidney excretes uric acid have only one holecloacus Salt Glands observed in birds in hypersaline environments found in front of the eyes uses counter current system active transport of salt across thin walls of capillary network salt is dripped out or forcibly ejected from nostrils
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'