Psychology of Adjustment: Exam 2 Study Guide
Psychology of Adjustment: Exam 2 Study Guide PSYCH 100
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PSYC 10300 - 02
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christopher Williams on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 100 at Ithaca College taught by Cris Haltom in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Adjustment in Psychlogy at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
Exam 2 Study Guide, October 2015 Notes: Psychology of Adjustment (10/1- 10/22) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- (Continue) Chapter 5, part 2 Psychology and Health (10/1/15) Marijuana: Contains~ High respiratory diseases High dependency both psychological and physical Individuals have a long-term impact How does marijuana affect the user during dependence withdrawal? User undergoes craving Random patterns of mood swings Emotional irritability or anxiety Certain withdrawal effect happen to last between 8hrs - 45 days Eating disturbances How diet, obesity and being overweight affects the behavior in youths Ancel Key’s Minnesota Starvation Study: Discoveries in semi-starvation and starvation between (1944 and 1945) Starving people while feeding others (4 months control phase)- observations are collected for physiological and psychological behavior (6 months starvation phase)- body weight is lost by 25 percent, resulting in less calorie intake (3 months recovery phase)- Alternative diets were given to the subjects (2 months unrestricted rehabilitation period)- calorie intake was unrestricted, but carefully monitored Results and Effects; -Subjects undergo distress and depression -Self-mutilation - Social withdrawal - Lack of sexual desire - Reduce in concentration and judgment - Decrease in basal metabolic rate -Reduce in body temperature -Swollen extremities -Subjects unable to restrict eating -Overconsumption of coffee and tea - Food obsession - Abnormal eating rituals -Appearance in anorexia About obesity and overweight: BMI (Body Mass Index) = weight in kg/ht meters squared Overweight= BMI between 85th and 95th percentile Obesity = Above 95th percentile Physical and Mental risks of adolescents who are obese: Physical Risks: High blood pressure High cholesterol Eating disorders Chronic dieting Social Stigma Risks: Mental incompetence Self-indulgence Society of youths being too lazy Psychosocial consequences: Low self-esteem Negative self-image Wellness Factors: (Improving lifestyles for stress management) *Stress-related health problems could lead to cancer and low survival rates Cancer- rapid cell growth by which it becomes hazardous to the body *Heachaches *Hypertension *Inflammatory Bowel Disease *Gastrointestinal disorders *Infections Stress affects the immune system- the body’s defensive reaction to invasion by bacterial, viral agents, or other substances. Smoking and the immune system: Smoking = High risk of premature death (Shorter life expectancy within 13-14 years) Cardiac diseases Lung cancer Stroke Hypertension Exercise: Exercising has additional benefits: -Improving cardiovascular fitness - Negating stress affects -Enhancing self-esteem -Obesity avoidance -Positive effects on mental health *Having good posture is very beneficial to the body as it treats the brain to a “feel good” effect *Practicing yoga techniques can resolve tension for the body as it readies the body for raising stress tolerance. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- (The “Self” Part 1- 10/6/15) -What about the “self”? *Correlation in “cause and effect”. Determinism: the belief that all events are caused by engagements happened in the past and that people have no control of what happens. Personality: an individual’s unique behavioral traits. “Self”: an organized collection of beliefs about the self. Self-concept: (See self) The self and its needs include: -Safety -Appearance -Family/Friends -Marriage -Intellectual Competence -Physical Health -Power/Influence -Autonomy -Validation -Serving/ Volunteering -Self-Mastery -Solitude -Existential Clarity -Socializing Self-Discrepancies- mismatching the ideal self with the actual self *When the “actual self” is not met with the “ideal self”, people often feel dejected and sad. *When the “actual self” is not met with the “ought self”, people feel irritable and guilty. Actual self: qualities or attributes that people think they actually have. Ideal self: qualities or attributes that people would like to have. Ought self: qualities or attributes that people think they should possess. *Gain feedback from others to balance your own observations -Family and friends can influence the self - Other people such as teachers and mentors can also influence the self - In addition, significant others can play a role too Social Comparison theory (Festinger, 1954): people compare themselves with others in order to improve their abilities. Social context: people view themselves more or less, depending on the situation. Individualism (Cultural value)- placing personal goals ahead of group goals. People have an independent view on the self. They also view themselves as unique or different from others. Collectivism (Cultural value):- placing group goals instead of personal goals. People have an interdependent view on the self. They also view themselves as more connected to others Self-esteem and the 3 different levels: Low self esteem: people do not believe that they have personal attributes or self-esteem traits. High self-esteem: people believe in self-appraisal that is secure and realistic Narcissism- people have a fragile sense of self-esteem, but have a high state of self- esteem Self-esteem and adjustment: 1. (Emotional)- People are made happier with high/low self-esteem. 2. (Interpersonal Realm)- people are able to handle relationships, do not predict the longevity for relationships. 3. (Achievement)- People have no clear relationship or academic achievement. 4. (Coping)- people have the tendency to attribute blame towards the self. Self-perception (Attribution Theory): Internal vs. External causes Stable vs. Unstable causes. Controllable vs. uncontrollable causes. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- (The Self: Part 2 10/8/15) Attribution Explanatory Style Self-Regulation: directing and controlling one’s own behavior Self-objectification theory: -People have a view of their physical selves from observations of other people -Observationstake place in the media or from personal experiences - People of both genders are socialized to objectify their own characteristics Primarily derived from media outlets Human body has features that the viewers would want Women perform worse when they see themselves as being looked at The modernization of Freud: Post-structuralism: the will or discretion of structures rather than the status of rules and structures as objectively real. Imaginary: where the ego of the self appears, but not as the “self” (Other) The ego can come from “others”(i.e. Parents, siblings, caregivers, etc.) For a baby, this sets the entry for Identification of self About Self-Perception: Downward social comparison: Comparing oneself with others whose troubles are more serious than one’s own. Self-serving bias: attributing one’s successes to personal factors and one’s failures to situational factors. Basking in reflected glory: enhancing one’s image by publicly announcing one’s cooperation with those who are successful. Self-handicapping: sabotaging one’s performance to provide an excuse for possible failure. Self-Regulation= controlling one’s self People have a limited amount of self-control Self-assessment- desire for truthful information about oneself Self-verification- people who have the feedback that matches for the self-view. Self-enhancement- people maintain positive feelings about themselves Self-efficacy- self-belief that people perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes Self-Regulation is also supported through: Mastery Experiences- Learning new skills that increases self-efficacy Vicarious experiences- watching others learn a new skill Persuasion and encouragement Interpretation of emotional arousal: avoid becoming nervous Self-regulation has self-defeating behaviors including: Deliberate self-destruction Trade-offs: harmful risks in order to pursue healthy long-term rewards Counterproductive strategies: pursuing ineffective strategies to achieve a goal. Self-Presentation for Impression management: (Conscious efforts by people to influence how others think of them) Ingratiation: behaving in ways to appear likable for others Self-promotion: highlighting your strong points to earn respect from others Exemplification: promoting superb behavior in order to boost integrity for your character. Intimidation: person uses physical or emotional threats to get rewards from others. Supplication: individual acts weak or dependent in order to get favors from others. Negative acknowledgement: admitting your flaws. ------------------------------------------------------------- (Social Thinking and Social Influence 10/13/15) The problems with prejudice Race: social category based on real or biological differences Racism: a set of beliefs about the superiority about one race over another Prejudice: the negative attitude towards members of a group. Discrimination: individual behaving differently or unfairly towards the members of a group. About discrimination— “Old-fashioned” vs. modern discrimination): *Although modern discrimination has declined, modern discrimination has formed. * Modern discrimination people form negative attitudes in a private manner and present it when they need to. About prejudice: Caused by authoritarian personality- personality type formed by prejudice toward any group perceived to be different from oneself”. Cognitive distortions and expectations such as stereotyping, attribution error, defensive attributions, and expectations. Competition between groups – perceived threats to one’s group, such as conflict over scarce resources and causes prejudice. Threats to social identity – when the collective self-esteem of a group is threatened Reducing prejudice: Cognitive strategies – make an effort to override stereotypes Superordinate goals – “goals that require two or more groups to work Dominant Social/Cultural Ideology: Competition help creates innovation Dominant culture exists to exclude those who are different Power and Privilege: Those in power included, those not in power tend to be excluded (Ex)- Access to knowledge= power Discrimination can operate toward excluding Prime targets for discrimination: — The poor = Classism —The quiet/reserved = Personality —Women =Sexism —The racially different = Racism —The mad/deviant = Able-ism —The criminal = Moral-ism —The young = Ageism —The disabled = Able-ism —The elderly= Age-ism —The oversized = Size-ism —The culturally different = Ethnocentrism About Person perception- the process of forming impressions of others: Efficiency: (Ex. Creating snap judgements of others) Selectivity:(the expectation of what is being seen) Consistency: (the effect-lock in the first impressions) Five Cognitive distortions in perceiving others 1. Self-serving Attribution (while we tend to take credit for our successes (attribute success to internal causes), we blame our failures on external causes) ● 2. Automatic vs. Controlled information processing (—Non-prejudiced people override automatic processing with controlled processing ) 3. Fundamental attribution error (explain other people’s behavior as the result of personal, internal factors) 4. Defensive attribution(tendency to blame victims for their misfortune) 5. Stereotypes and stereotype threat (beliefs that people have certain characteristics because because of their membership in a group) --------------------------------------------- (Social Thinking and Social Influence 10/20/15) snap judgments vs. systematic judgments Snap judgements: are often relied on automatic processing and quick thoughts on others Systematic judgements: when individuals are made to form impressions of others that can affect happiness Why people are judgemental: Survival instincts and adaptability Individuals have high vore values or needs However, being too judgemental can result in mistakes and exclusion among groups of people How they are formed: (Cognitive impressions)-social pressures and personal discernment (Sub-Cognitive impressions)- learning resulting from repetitive messages from media Sources of person perception can derive from Appearance. Verbal behavior. Actions. Nonverbal messages (e.g., facial expressions, body language, and gestures). Situations. The power of persuasion: Persuasion: the communication of arguments and information. (Sources for information must be credible and favorable) Attitudes: the beliefs and feelings about people, objects and ideas. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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