Exam Study Guide - Chapter 1
Exam Study Guide - Chapter 1 IST 233 - M001
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Frankie Prijatel on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to IST 233 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by D. Molta in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 521 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Computer Networking in Information technology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
A Chapter 1 Review Monday September 28 2015 Terms a 39 848 PM Host any computer that is connected to a network 1 Ex Smartphones Smart watches PCs tablets large servers or even interactive appliances of the future TerminalHost vs Clientserver 1 In terminalhost computing all application processing takes place on the host terminals simply display text 2 In ClientServer application processing is split between client and server aka network applications The Internet of Things trend where devices around us will be hosts that communicate through networks to work better IP address internet protocol address numbered address for hosts DDN dotted decimal notation when an IP address is expressed as four numbers separated by dots periods ISP internet service provider ATampT Verizon etc CSP cloud service provider aws AWS Amazon Web Services what Netflix uses to manage it39s online traffic and transcoding CDN content delivery network ex Netflix39s Open Connect Review Questions a Explain what is meant by cloud computing Distinguish between cloud based infrastructure as a service laaS and software as a service SaaS and provide examples of each gt Cloud computing refers to the transformation of traditional information technology services that can be translated as a computer network a service for storing and sharing files a service for hosting enterprise applications or a way to access software services De ne the term network host Explain how IP addresses are a little like phone numbers on the public telephone network How many bits are there in an IP address Why do we use dotted decimal notation to write IP addresses V A host is any computer that is connected to a network ex Smartphones smart watches PC39s tablets large servers or even interactive appliances of the future c Hosts communicate through sending messages to each other but you can39t send a message without knowing a designated location IP addresses are unique to each host and are necessary to send messages There are two types of IP addresses IPv4 32bits and IPv6 128 bits which are comprised of a string of numbers Dotted Decimal Notation DDN are purely for our benefit Computers don39t use DDN to identify IP addresses because they have no problem working with long strings of numbers but because we as humans struggle with long strings of 1s and Os we use it separate the strings so it39s easier to remember and write What is an internetwork or internet How is it different than THE Internet Who owns and operates the Internet Explain the role of Internet Service providers V The Internet is a collection of thousands of single networks and smaller internets that interconnect to form a single transmission system that allows any Internet host to reach any other host No one controls the Internet The Internet Engineering Task Force IETF creates standards that network owners can decide to adopt but it doesn39t control it Internet Service Providers ISPs are linked smaller internets and networks owned by organizations as Amazon MIT or families or individuals that form the core of the internet or the backbone Describe the key technologies used by NetFlix to deliver Internetbased video content to millions of simultaneous users Explain how NetFlix combines its own content delivery network CDN with virtualized servers provided by Amazon Web Services gt Netflix began by mailing movies to customers but were faced with the I39I2 JI J E I 2I I IJ IJ J problem of running out of merchandise for several days at a time Netflix wanted to switch online but lacked the knowledge and processing power to do it alone so they outsourced to Amazon Web Services AWS an Infrastructure As a Service technology that could use its vast server farms to process customer orders video transcoding and the analysis of viewing patterns Combined that39s more than one petabyte of movie content hosted by AWS But Netflix handles content delivery itself Using the content delivery network CDN Open Connect Netflix created webserver appliance boxes with each holding 100 terabytes of info on 36 hard drive disks The CDN connects with the customer39s ISP at a peering point and delivers the content to the viewer 2J IJ2 xplaln tne concepts 0T raplu TaIIOVer anu aglllty as rEIaIES I0 Vlrtuallzatlon services V Organizations like AWS use virtualization to turn physical servers into virtual machines which are software processes running on the physical server with its own IP address and data The benefits of this include agility which is the ability to make changes large or small quickly from server to server or across the globe Companies can also spawn multiple copies of the same virtual machine simultaneously in the same amount of time it takes to add another VM or instance How does cloudbased security differ from the normal types of information security issues faced by large enterprises V They are the same Cloudbased companies are at the mercy of cloud service providers They do their best to look into everything about a cloud service provider39s security but there39s not way to know everything about their security so most companies are left to cross their fingers What is a service level agreement SLA What is the most common network performance metric that is usually covered by an SLA With regard to network performance explain how the perfect shower analogy relates to the most important measures of network performance Summarize how metric pre xes are used to represent network performance Explain the difference between 100 Mbps and 100 MBps V A Service Level Agreements are guarantees given to customers by cloud service providers that they will meet specified service parameters mostly relating to speed or pay a penalty There are 3 dimensions that determine a network39s speed lst Throughput speed that applications see vs quotspeedquot is the raw dimension of bits which is always higher than throughput throughput data rate of the network overhead everything else happening on a network 2nd Latency roundtrip packet delay aka quotlagquot 3rd Jitter the variability of latencyquotlagquot V In the quotperfect showerquot analogy the optimal computer network speed conditions are I High throughput lots of water pressure 39 Low Latency hot water comes on quickly 39 Low Jitter constant temperature V Speed is measured in bits per second bps 39 1 prs 1000 Gbps 10000 Mbps 100000 Kbps 1000000 bps 39 1 bvte 8 bits therefore 100MBps 800Mbps h Explain the relationship between decimal numbers and binary numbers Without using a calculator translate the decimal number 131 into binary Translate the binary number 10101010 into decimal Decimal Binary Hexa and Octal Chart Table Dec Hex Oct Bu Dec Hex Oct Bh1 Dec Hex Oct Bh1 Dec Hex Oct Bh1 LDOONCDUWbOJN J O T1H1CICDUJgtKgtGJG01 gtogtngt xcgt 000 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 Oct 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 110 111 113 114 115 116 00000000 00000001 00000010 00000011 00000100 00000101 00000110 00000111 00001000 00001001 00001010 00001011 00001100 00001101 00001110 00001111 Bu 01000000 01000001 01000010 01000011 01000100 01000101 01000110 01000111 01001000 01001001 01001010 01001011 01001100 01001101 01001110 01001111 Bh1 10000000 10000001 10000010 10000011 10000100 10000101 10000110 10000111 10001000 10001001 10001010 10001011 10001100 10001101 10001110 10001111 Bh1 11000000 11000001 11000010 11000011 11000100 11000101 11000110 11000111 11001000 11001001 11001010 11001011 11001100 11001101 11001110 11001111 A AAAA A 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 A A A A A 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 Oct 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 130 131 132 133 134 136 00010000 00010001 00010010 00010011 00010100 00010101 00010110 00010111 00011000 00011001 00011010 00011011 00011100 00011101 00011110 00011111 But 01010000 01010001 01010010 01010011 01010100 01010101 01010110 01010111 01011000 01011001 01011010 01011011 01011100 01011101 01011110 01011111 Bu 10010000 10010001 10010010 10010011 10010100 10010101 10010110 10010111 10011000 10011001 10011010 10011011 10011100 10011101 10011110 10011111 Bu 11010000 11010001 11010010 11010011 11010100 11010101 11010110 11010111 11011000 11011001 11011010 11011011 11011100 11011101 11011110 11011111 21 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 00100000 00100001 00100010 00100011 00100100 00100101 00100110 00100111 00101000 00101001 00101010 00101011 00101100 00101101 00101110 00101111 Bh1 01100000 01100001 01100010 01100011 01100100 01100101 01100110 01100111 01101000 01101001 01101010 01101011 01101100 01101101 01101110 01101111 Bh1 10100000 10100001 10100010 10100011 10100100 10100101 10100110 10100111 10101000 10101001 10101010 10101011 10101100 10101101 10101110 10101111 Bh1 11100000 11100001 11100010 11100011 11100100 11100101 11100110 11100111 11101000 11101001 11101010 11101011 11101100 11101101 11101110 11101111 31 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 Oct 161 162 165 166 167 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 00110000 00110001 00110010 00110011 00110100 00110101 00110110 00110111 00111000 00111001 00111010 00111011 00111100 00111101 00111110 00111111 Bh1 01110000 01110001 01110010 01110011 01110100 01110101 01110110 01110111 01111000 01111001 01111010 01111011 01111100 01111101 01111110 01111111 Bh1 10110000 10110001 10110010 10110011 10110100 10110101 10110110 10110111 10111000 10111001 10111010 10111011 10111100 10111101 10111110 10111111 Bh1 11110000 11110001 11110010 11110011 11110100 11110101 11110110 11110111 11111000 11111001 11111010 11111011 11111100 11111101 11111110 11111111 V 131 1000011 10101010 lU i Explain the following terms as relates to network messages fragmentation frame packet segments error detection error correction multiplexing V When the network software that handles transmission for the OS needs to transmit an application message from an application program that is large the network software fragments the long app message into many smaller message segments Then the network software places each segment into an electronic envelope aka the segment sandwiched between the header and sometimes a trailer which contain the address of the receiving host and the source host transmits each segment with its envelope over the network The envelope and its contents are called either a frame or a packet On the destination host the network receives all the frames or packets removes the segments from the envelope puts them in order and reassembles the application message V We use fragmentation to send messages because it simplifies error correction If part of the message39s information is lost or damaged that specific packet can be sent again rather than having to resend the entire message over again Additionally not using fragmentation increases the probability of errors so the original message would need to be sent several times until it39s correct which increases the network39s traffic load Another reason for fragmentation is multiplexing or sharing transmission lines on a network This reduces transmission costs and improves efficiency for it39s impossible to efficiently transmit 2 large messages over a shared Hne j What is the difference between an EUl48 address and an IP address Does your computer have both Identify them V A EUl48 address or quotextended unique identifierquot is the new name for a MAC Media Access Control address They are the most widely used host address on single networks that is 48 bits long written as 6 pairs of number or letter symbols separated by dashes A1B2CC 92FFOO They are very common because they are used in 8023 Ethernet wired networks 80211 Wifi and Bluetooth V IP addresses or Internet Protocol addresses are unique to each host In reality IP addresses are bit strands of ls and Os but using DDN we convert them from binary to decimal to make them easier for us to process and remember There are two types IPv4 32 bits and IPv6 128 bits and it is written as four segments separated by periods 1234 1281711713 k Explain the difference between physical layer standards and data link layer standards V Physical layer standards are concerned with physical links which are physical connections copper wire or optic fiber between adjacent devices ex Host and a switch 2 switches 2 routers etc as opposed to dealing with messages These standards turn the bits of data link layer messages frames into signals V Data link layer standards govern the transmission path known as a data link of frames between hosts routers or a host and a router across a single pointtopoint switched wireless or hybrid switchedwireless network essentially governing switch operation and frame organization Explain the following core technologies associated with the Internet Routes and Routers IP packet encapsulation Why is an Internet router often referred to as a Layer 3 device Explain the role of DNS on the Internet V RouteRouter The Internet layer standards govern the path that a packet takes between the source and destination host called a route There is always a single route for a packet through an internet and the number of data links is the number of single network separating the source and the destination host Routers connect different networks together V IP Packet a type of message that can travel all the way from the source host to the destination host which delivers application segments vs frames which have to change hands through single networks V Encapsulation quotputting something inside something elsequot in internets an application message segment is encapsulated in an IP packet which is encapsulated in a frame V An internet router is a layer 3 or internet layer device because it is governed by the main standard Internet Protocol IP which oversees the transmission of packets by routers across an internet to the source and destination address V The Domain Name System DNS standard allows one host that knows the name of another host it wants to communicate with to discover the official address IP address of that target host What are the IT Network System Attributes V Scalability 1 Insuring acceptable performance under load good idea but will it scale V Interoperability 1 Similar to compatibility 2 Produces from multiple vendors work together 3 quotnever black and white always grayquot NEVER seamless 4 EX s Windows and Mac interoperable a Somewhat you can have both on one network Microsoft office can be used on both BUT many applications aren39t compatible with both Microsoft office has separate apps for Windows and Mac machines V Securability 1 Is the system designed with security in mind from the start 2 In today39s world it39s unacceptable to neglect security when developing V Manageability 1 Automated management capabilities help you fix problems plan for the future and reduce quotopexquot operating expenditures with quotcapexquot capital expenditures 2 The more you can automate management the less the operating expenditures which comprise the majority of costs because employees require consistent wages shifting from OPEX to CAPEX software hardware V Availability 1 Reliability but with acceptable performance 2 Making your system available 2473655 3 NOT the same as reliability if performance is bad it39s not available 4 High availability redundancy and quotfault tolerancequot
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