Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Teresa Wright on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to at University of Denver taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
General Chemistry Exam 1 Study Guide Force Fma Mass x Acceleration Photons l packets of energy that make up light Amplitude distance from 0 center of wave to the top Frequency v l number of times a wave appears in a second Wavelength 7 distance between one wave to another Speed D MM Speed of light C l 298 x 108 ms Refraction l when light passes through a medium and bends Diffraction l when a wave hits the edge of an object and bends Interference l constructive and deconstructive Blackbody effectradiation l when you heat an object to a high enough temperature 1000K it emits visible light like the sun E nhv Plank s variable H 6626 x 103934 Photoelectric effect l if light with a frequency lower than the threshold is shined on metal electrons are not emitted but if the frequency is higher electrons are emitted Ephoton I deBroglie l combined the formulas Pphoton h7 and 7 hp and turned them into Khlmo Heisenberg s Uncertainty Principle AxmAu 2 h4H Shrodinger Equation HP E P P2 l probability that you ll nd the electron s position Principal quantum number n l any nonzero integer energy state distance and size from nucleus Angular momentum quantum number l number of angular nodes shape of orbital any number from 0 to n1 o 0 s orbital 0 nodes 0 1 p orbital 1 node 0 2 d orbital 2 nodes 0 3 f orbital 3 nodes Magnetic quantum number m l orientation any number from L to L Spin quantum number ms I direction of spin can be 12 12 is up spin 12 is downward spin Node l region of zero electron density zero probability that the location will be found Angular nodes are planar 0 Total number of nodes l n1 Radial nodes are circular 0 Number of radial nodes l n L 1 Pauli s Exclusion Principle No two electrons have same quantum numbers Orbitals can have up to two electrons but the spin must be different Energy levels of atoms 0 Z S 0 Z l number of inner electrons o S l number of protons Aufbau principle l quotbuilding upquot electrons want to be in the most stable electorn con guration so in the lower orbitals Hund s rule l electrons will ll each slot in the lower orbitals before pairing up giving the lowest electron con guration Half lled orbitals are more stable because they allow the electrons to spread out which decreases the electronelectron repulsion but fully lled are the most stable Chromium and copper are exceptions to Hund s rule because it allows them to be half lled and therefore more stable Periodic Trends Ionization energy l energy required to remove 1 mol of electrons from 1 mol of gaseous atoms or ions Cations low ionization energy low electron af nities lose electrons Anions high ionization energy high electron af nities gain electrons Electron Af nity l energy change that occurs when 1 mol of electrons is added to 1 mol of gaseous atoms or ions 3 classes of elements 1 metals l easily oxidized strong reducing agents 2 nonmetals l easily reduced strong oxidizing agents 3 metalloids OIL RIG l Oxidation ls Losing Reducing ls Gaining Ionic bonding l between a metal and a nonmetal electrostatic interaction between cations and anions 0 Compounds hard rigid brittle high melting points do not conduct electricity in solid state but do when melted or dissolved Covalent bonding l orbital overlap sharing electrons potential energy nuclearnuclear repulsion electronnuclear attraction electron electron repulsion Lattice energy l energy required to separate 1 mol of an ionic solution into gaseous ions measure of bond s strength Coloumb s Lalw l electrostatic energy olt cation chargeanion charge cation radius anion radius 0 0 AI IOIattice As lattice energy increases so does melting point Polar bond l uneven sharing of electrons o How to determine bond type Electronegativity difference Bond type Difference between bonding atoms zero Pure covalent lt4 intermediate Polar covalent 4 18 large lonic gt 18 0 Lewis symbol l element symbol with a dot for every valence electron Lewis dot structure shows bonds of covalence Octet rule l tendency of main group elements to form enough bonds to obtain eight valence electrons
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