full of all the things you need to know
Exam 1 Study Guide
Book: Chapters 1-6
Lectures 1- 8
In Class: Aug 26, 28, 31; Sept. 9, 21, 25, 28
Vocabulary: I highly suggest going to this link and using the flashcards from the book. http://www.cengagebrain.com/cgiwadsworth/course_products_wp.pl?fid=M20b&product_isbn_issn=978113 3435211&token=E29B972B2084A3AFF1C65E8513BF31FD839A71619197382879CFB4C23D74AB11AB52 212B3334B8611157F031607E797157604243A81D2D20
Unit 1: Understanding Consumer Behavior
The totality of decisions about the consumption of an offering by (human) decision making units over time.
Totality of Decisions = whether, what, why, how, when, where, how much, how often, how long
Consumption = acquisition, usage/ consumption, disposition (also known as the 3 dimensions of CB)
Offering = services, time, ideas
Decision making units = humans: information gatherer, influencer, decider, purchaser, user
Time = hours, days, weeks, months, years
Explain the elements of CB:
attempt to 1.) persuade 2.) inform 3.) buy We also discuss several other topics like Why is glucose considered as the primary source of energy?
involves attitudes towards services and products (80/20 split more towards services these days)
Context of Privacy:
Search optimization, collection of info online- how much is too much? Ethics of graph search
CPP (cost per click) how do you measure if online is worth it?
4 Domains of CB:
( 1) the psychological core, ( 2) the process of making decisions, ( 3) the consumer's culture, and ( 4) consumer behavior outcomes and issues.We also discuss several other topics like maureen walter fiu
Benefits of studying CB:
higher profits because you sell more stuff and your advertising is better the ethical version of this is that you “connect” better with your audience and are able to give them a better understanding of the product or service.
How Co’s apply CB:
Use when designing and positioning products companies use CB to make ads more effective at catching and retaining the attention of consumers when they are and are not goal-oriented
The Psychological Core:
We also discuss several other topics like walls of tympanic cavity
Unit 2: Motivation, Ability, Opportunity
4 types of influences that affect the consumer’s motivation for info, decision, action? Motivation:
All about involvement:
Enduring Involvement, Situational (temporary) involvement, Cognitive Involvement, Affective Involvement.
You can be emotionally involved:
Ex: P&G thank you mom commercial
different ones for summer and winter olympics, funny and lots of gratitude cultural perspective
What affects motivation?
● Personal Relevance (consistency w. self image)
● Needs (Social, non-social, functional, symbolic, hedonic,
○ Maslow’s hierarchy If you want to learn more check out bone cells that eat away old or damaged bone, releasing calcium into the blood, are called
● Goals (feedback reactions, concrete v. abstract, prevention v. promotion, appraisal theory
How can you measure motivation?
arousal signs (heart rate, body temp, pupils)
elaborating on information *also increases retention
How do we raise motivation?
How do financial, cognitive, emotional, physical, social, cultural resources, plus age, and education, affect an individual’s ability to engage in CB?
low literacy consumer→ does not distinguish b/w offerings
P&G Mom’s commercial was attempting to affect transfer => you have good feelings about this commercial, so have good feelings about Proctor and Gamble products
Perceived Risk! either of buying or not buying the product.
targeting consumers with sufficient prior knowledge
take into account consumers different levels by making instructions easier to understand (ex: IKEA furniture instructions p. 62 this is a hilarious example because we
all know IKEA furniture instructions are actually in Satan’s own handwriting and completely incomprehensible. )
Depends on :
● Complexity, amount, repetition, and control of information
Repetition increases exposure thereby increasing opportunity
Reducing Time Pressures- eg online options, or extended hours so they can buy any time, or time needed to buy, use, learn about it
Giving customers control over information access
Ex: USAA adaptations for military family banking
Unit 3: Exposure to Comprehension
Why are marketers concerned about consumer exposure to market stimuli and tactics to enhance exposure?
Exposure is the first step to getting information into the short term and after that long term memory.
Ideally exposure 5-7 times is the ideal number to have someone remember it. No exposure => no attention => no affect transfer
Characteristics of Attention:
● capable of being divided (focal and nonfocal)
*harder to measure than exposure
How do marketers attract and sustain consumer attention to products + messages? Attract: Pleasant, Personally relevant, surprising (novel), and easy to process. Sustain: Weber’s Law: the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different: ⍙s/s = K
delta s is the smallest change, S = the initial stimulus value and K is a constant of proportionality. Pay attention to Thresholds (Absolute and Differential)
Major senses that are part of perception, why are marketers concerned with consumer perception?
5 senses: Sight, Hearing, Smell, Taste, Touch
Also cultural, demographic, and experiences shape perception.
Consumers also make certain assumptions based on things like:
● brand names and symbols
● product features and packaging
● display style, and atmospheric elements
Process of Comprehension:
● bias for the whole
● source identification
● objective V. subjective comprehension (miscomprehension)
Effect of MAO and Effect of Culture also play a role in comprehension.
Focal and Nonfocal Attention:
Hemispheric Lateralization (left and right brain)
Unit 4: Memory and Knowledge
Memory: Distinguish among:
Sensory- triggers (like when a smell reminds you of your grandmother’s homemade cookies)
Working/ Short term- Limited, will either be forgotten or moved to long term. Imagery processing, discursive processing
Characteristics of stimuli:
● salience (noticeability)
● redundant cues
● match w/ medium
All these are processed in short term memory
Long term- episodic, autobiographical, affects decision making, can promote empathy/ identification, persevering (semantic memory is general knowledge about an entity detached from specific episodes)
Implicit- memory without any conscious attempt at remembering something
Explicit- Consciously remembering
How to enhance memory retrieval:
recirculation (recall v. recognition)
primacy -- recency
Retrieval Failures => decay or interference
Why should marketers be aware of the different types?
Marketers should want their information to end up in long term memory where it is more likely to be recallable and more likely to influence decision making.
Schemas/ scripts- the set of associations linked to a concept
Script: type of procedural knowledge content (ex: prom traditions, holiday rituals)
Schema: how would people describe a brand if it was human?
Semantic/ Associative Networks:
spreading of activation
We categorize: “taxonomic categorization”
We prioritize: Hierarchical structure
How & Why content and structure of knowledge (associative networks, categories, and prototypicality) are relevant to marketers:
Creating/ maintaining/ protecting brand images and personalities→ brand extensions should be logical
(Ex: dove soap and deodorant. Jack Daniels and grilling.)
Unit 5 and 6: High Effort Attitudes and Low Effort Attitudes
Application of various cognitive models to understand and influence consumer attitudes:
Why do you have the attitude you have? Based on what you think and feel, experiences. You are in control of your attitude.
1. attitude formation => how did you get to base line?
2. change => persuasion
High effort = central processing
low effort = peripheral processing
Cognitive Response Model
source degradation (political, negative)
Expectancy- Value Models
Theory of Reasoned Action (TORA)
Extension of TORA = Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
adds dimensions of consumer’s perceived control. May assume consumer is rational.
Limitation: TPB no emphasis on emotions
Methods for using communication source and message to favorably influence consumer decision:
Persuasion is a factor (sleeper effect)
Many are resistant to change (laggards)
- must shift context ( possibly through comparison)
- add new beliefs→ you’re right, here’s more info.
- Target normative beliefs
Remember to also know the vocab from the link above!
**Thank you google and textbook for the images in this study guide