Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide ANSC 350
U of I
Popular in Cellular Metabolism in Animals
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Casey Notetaker on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANSC 350 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Bryan White in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Cellular Metabolism in Animals in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
ANSC 350 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE biochemistry the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms origins of life the basic concepts of the big bang theory and what elements in the early days NH3 H25 C0 C02 CH4 N2 H2 and H20oxygen was not on the earth know the steps to have life occurs amino acids l proteins know the 3 domains and the 5 kingdoms carl discovered o Fungi plants animals Protista Monera 5 kingdoms Bacteria archaea eukarya 3 domains euka ryotes vs prokaryotes know what the organelles do nucleus mitochondria endoplasmic reticulum etcTable 14 Polar bond Electrons are unequally shared more negative charge found closer to one atom Due to difference in electronegativity of atoms involved in bond Electronegativity a measure of the force of an atom s attraction for electrons it shares in a chemical bond with another atom Ionic Bonds Held together by positive and negative ions Salt Bridge Attraction that occurs when oppositely charged molecules are in close proximity Iondipole interactions When ions in solution interact with molecules with dipoles eg KCI dissolved in H20 van der Waals Forces bonds that do not involve electrostatic interactions Dipoledipole interactions Forces that occur between molecules with dipoles one positive and one negative Dipole induceddipole interactions weak and generally do not lead to solubility in water similar to mixing oil and water Hydrophilic waterloving tend to dissolve in water Hydrophobic waterfearing tend not to dissolve in water Amphipathic has characteristics of both properties molecules that contain one or more hydrophobic and one or more hydrophilic regions eg sodium palmitate Micelle a spherical arrangement of organic molecules in water solution clustered so that Hydrogen bond the attractive interaction between dipoles when positive end of one dipole is a hydrogen atom bonded to an atom of high electronegativity most commonly O or N and the negative end of the other dipole is an atom with a lone pair of electrons most commonly O or N Acid proton donor Strong base proton acceptor pHlogH buffer a solution whose pH resists change upon addition of small to moderate amounts of a strong acid or base Amino acids mostly in the LForm Group A Nonpolar side chains Ala Val Leu lle Pro contain aliphatic hydrocarbon group Pro has cyclic structure Phe hydrocarbon aromatic ring Trp lndole ring side chain aromatic Met Sulfur atom in side chain rst amino acid for proteins Group B Neutral Polar side chains Ser Thr Side chain is polar hydroxyl group Tyr hydroxyl group bonded to aromatic hydrocarbon group Cys Side chain contains thiol group SH Gln Asn contain amide bonds in side chain Group C Acidic Side Chains Glu Asp Both have a carboxyl group in side chain Can lose a proton forming a carboxylate ionvery common in active sites hold protein together in a de ned structure These amino acids are negatively charged at neutral pH Group D Basic side chains His Lys Arg 0 Side chains are positively charged at pH 7 Argside chain is a guanidino group Hisside chain is an imidazole group Lysside chain NH3 group is attached to an aliphatic hydrocarbon chain 0 The average pKa of an acarboxyl group is 219 which makes them considerably stronger acids than acetic acid pKa 476 Peptide bond the special name given to the amide bond between the acarboxyl group of one amino acid and the aamino group of another amino acid Peptide 510 amino acids long 0 protein when a peptide has function Know what oxytocin does small peptide groupquotall of the abovequot 1 structure the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain read from the Nterminal end to the Cterminal end The 10 sequence of proteins determines its 3D conformation Changes in just one amino acid in sequence can alter biological function eg hemoglobin associated with sicklecell anemia 2 structure the ordered 3dimensional arrangements conformations in localized regions of a polypeptide chain refers only to interactions of the peptide backbone 2 of proteins is hydrogenbonded arrangement of backbone of the protein Covalent Bonds Peptide DiSulfide Bridge Noncovalent bonds 0 Hydrogen bonds AcidBaselnteractions Electrostatic Hydrophobic Can der Warhls metal ion coordination aHelix All R groups point outward from helix Coil of the helix is clockwise or righthanded There are 36 amino acids per turn several factors can disrupt an ahelix strong electrostatic repulsion steric crowding bPleated Sheet Polypeptide chains lie adjacent to one another may be parallel or antiparallel R groups alternate rst above and then below plane Each peptide bond is strans and planar Noncovalent interactions that stabilize proteins are weak and can be disrupted Denaturation the loss of 3 structural orderquotUnfoldingquot Denaturation can be brought about by heat large changes in pH detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS which disrupt hydrophobic interactions urea or guanidine which disrupt hydrogen bonding mercaptoethanol which reduces disul de bonds l know what a chaperone is lbonus question prionsstaney prusiner prionsquota of the above Things that effect enzyme activity vs things that regulate enzyme activity Lockandkey model substrate binds to that portion of the enzyme with a complementary shape Induced t model binding of the substrate induces a change in the conformation of the enzyme that results in a complementary t MiachaelisMenten Model VmaX is related to the turnover number of enzymeaso called kcat o the lower the Km the higher the af nity of the substrate catalyst 12Vmax KM Km is a measure of affinity Competitive inhibitor binds to the active catalytic site and blocks access to it by substrate changes Km does nothing to vMax Noncompetitive inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site inhibits the enzyme by changing its conformation Lower the vMax don t affect Km Feedback Regulation formation of product inhibits its continued production 2 Types of enzymes that are produced Constitutively produced all the time quothousekeeping genesquot TranscriptionTranslation Expressed in response to some form of environmental stimuli Allosteric respond to the binding of a molecule K system an enzyme for which an inhibitor or activators alters K05 V system an enzyme for which an inhibitor or activator alters Vmax but not K05 allosteric effector a substance that modi es the 4 structure of an allosteric enzyme concerted model all substrates change at same time Sequential model sequential model represents cooperativity Covalent Modi cation Mostly involved in hormonal regulation of activity Phosphorylation The side chain OH groups of Ser Thr and Tyr can form phosphate esters 0 Phosphorylation by ATP can convert an inactive precursor into an active enzyme Zymogen Inactive precursor of an enzyme where cleavage of one or more covalent bonds transforms it into the active enzyme Catalytic Mechanim General acidbase catalysis depends on donation and acceptance of protons proton transfer reactions 0 Nucleophilic substitution catalysts Nucleophilic electronrich atom attacks electron de cient atom a Lewis acidbase reactions 0 Lewis acid an electron pair acceptor 0 Lewis base an electron pair donor Coenzyme a nonprotein substance that takes part in an enzymatic reaction and is regenerated for further reaction low molecular weight organizer metal ions can behave as coordination compounds Zn2 Fe2 organic compounds many of which are vitamins or are metabolically related to vitamins Common cofactor in oxidation reacts NAD NAD is a twoelectron oxidizing agent and is reduced to NADH Lipids a heterogeneous class of naturally occurring organic compounds classi ed together on the basis of common solubility properties Amphipathic in nature insoluble in water but soluble in aprotic organic solvents including diethyl ether chloroform methylene chloride and acetone 0 storage molecule for energy 0 major structural component of biomolecule membranes Amphipathic they have a large hydrophobic portion then they have a hydrophilic portion Simplest form of a lipid Fatty Acid the long chain of carbons is the hydrophobic part Majority of fatty acids in nature are evennumbered unsaturated group double bond between two carbons monounsaturated one carboncarbon double bond polyunsaturated multiple carboncarbon double bonds 0 Triacylglycerol triglyceride an ester of glycerol with three fatty acids 0 natural soaps are prepared by boiling triglycerides animal fats or vegetable oils with NaOH in a reaction called saponi cation Latin sapo soap 0 When one alcohol group of glycerol is esteri ed by a phosphoric acid rather than by a carboxylic acid phosphatidic acid produced 0 Have very hydrophobic chains Phosphoacylglycerols phosphoglycerides are the second most abundant group of naturally occurring lipids and they are found in plant and animal membranesglycolipidtend to be receptors Glycol sugar Waxes A complex mixture of esters of longchain carboxylic acids and alcohols Sphingolipids Contain sphingosine a longchain amino alcohol sphingosine Found in plants and animals Abundant in nervous system Bares structural similarity to phospholipids Glycolipid a compound in which a carbohydrate is bound to an OH of the lipid Glycolipids with complex carbohydrate moiety that contains more than 3 sugars are known as gangliosides Steroids a group of lipids that have fusedring structure of 3 sixmembered rings and 1 fivemembered ring Characterized by a 4ring structure The steroid of most interest in our discussion of biological membranes is cholesterol Membrane Transport Passive transport driven by a concentration gradient 0 simple diffusion a molecule or ion moves through an opening 0 facilitated diffusion a molecule or ion is carried across a membrane by a carrierchannel protein Active transport a substance is moved against a concentration gradienttakes energy 0 primary active transport transport is linked to the hydrolysis of ATP or other highenergy molecule for example the NaK ion pump 0 secondary active transport driven by H gradient Vitamins are divided into two classes lipidsoluble and watersoluble Lipid Bilayers The polar surface of the bilayer contains charged groups Plant membranes have a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids than animal membranes l correlated with better heath MEMBRANE LAYERS 0 Both inner and outer layers of bilayer contain mixtures of lipids o Compositions on inside and outside of lipid bilayer can be different 0 This is what distinguishes the layers With heat membranes become more disordered the transition temperature is higher for more rigid membranes it is lower for less rigid membranes 0 Membrane Proteins transport substances across membranes act as receptor sites and sites of enzyme catalysis 0 Peripheral proteins bound by electrostatic interactions can be removed by raising the ionic strength 0 Integral proteins bound tightly to the interior of the membrane can be removed by treatment with detergents or ultrasoni cation removal generally denatures them 0 Fluid there is lateral motion of components in the membrane Mosaic components in the membrane exist sidebyside as separate entities LipidSoluble Vitamins and Their Functions Vitamin lFunct ion Vitamin A Serves as the site of the primary photochemical reaction in Vision Vitamin D Regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism Vitamin E Serves as an antioxidant necessary for reproduction in rats and may be necessary for reproduction in humans Vitamin K Has a regulatory function in blood clotting Nucleic acid a biopolymer containing three types of monomer units a base derived from purine or pyrimidine nucleobases a monosaccharide either Dribose or 2deoxyDribose phosphoric acid 0 RNA Ribonucleic Acid 0 DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Nucleotide a nucleoside in which a molecule of phosphoric acid is esteri ed with an OH of the monosaccharide most commonly either the 3 OH or the 5 OH Watson and Crick discovered bform of DNA DNA differs from RNA Sugar is 2 deoxyribose not ribose 0 Sometimes quotdquot used to designate quotdeoxyquot 0 Writing a DNA strand an abbreviated notation even more abbreviated notations Secondary structure the ordered arrangement of nucleic acid strands the double helix model of DNA 2 structure was proposed by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953 hemochromosome 1500 genes TABLE 91 The Roles of Different Kinds of RNA RNA Type Size Function Transfer RNA Small Transports amino acids to site of protein synthesis Ribosomal RNA Several kinds Combines with proteins to form ribo Varialble in size somes the site of protein synthesis Messenger RNA Variable Directs amino acid sequence of proteins Small nuclear RNA Small Processes initial mRNA to its mature form in eukaryotes Small interfering Small Affects gene expression used by scien RNA tists to knock out a gene being studied Micro RNA Small Affects gene expression important in growth and development Gengiage Learning Alli Flights Reserved changes in the DNA that aren39t re ected in the base system epigenetics
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