sociology midterm- study guide
sociology midterm- study guide SOCI 2010
Popular in Foundations of Sociology
Popular in Sociology
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 2010 at Tulane University taught by David Maddox in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 260 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Sociology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Foundations of sociology midterm 09292015 Study guide chapter 16 Terms Social network The ties between people groups and organizations Society a large group of people who live in the same area and participate in a common culture Sociology The study of societies and the social world that individuals inhabit within them quotwhat it means to be humanquot Sociological imagination the capacity to think systematically about how things we experience as quotpersonal problemsquot are really social issues Identity the conception we and others have about who we are and what groups categories we are members of Nomothetic approach identify aspects top 4 or 5 that in uence a social problem Socially constructed beliefs about the way things are and work are constructed by a society they are not universal ie Blindness gender race sexual orientation Social patterns when to elements of a society move together le Income and education level Social institutions networks of structure in a society that socialize groups of people within them Social theories systematic ideas about the relationship between individuals and societies FORCES of production different tools used to make things REALATIONS of production how people are organized to carry out tasks needed Social Fact the regularities and rules of everyday life that every human community has Social solidarity what is it that holds a society together Strati cation system inequalities that persist over time Social distance the importance of how close or distant individuals are Network analysis brought math into sociology Dramaturgical approach quotall the worlds a stagequot Always putting on the approach facade lntersectionality belonging to more than one social group ie women and white and the importance of those combinations Selfful lling Prophecy When a stereotypical belief encourages behavior that in turn affirms the stereotype ie A student doing worse on a test once marking their race Ethnographers Researchers who enter the everyday lives of those they study in hope of understanding how people navigate and give meaning to their worlds Spurious Relationship Two factors move together but are cause by something else Survey a questionnaire that asks standardized question to a large group of people lndepth interviews respondents are asked questions without any standardized answer formats Extended case method a way of doing ethnography Comparative historical research a qualitative method of analysis that examines a social phenomenon over time Cross national comparison typically explain the difference between countnes Looking Glass self the extent to which our own selfunderstanding depends on how others view us Ethnomethodology the study of people s methods Civil inattention ignoring each other to an appropriate degree although noticing the other is present Self ful lling prophecy the power of incorrect stereotypes to prove themselves right Self ones own identity and social position as made and reformed through social interactions Signi cant other close enough to have the capacity to motivate us Reference groups the groups that in uence our behavior Role Con ict ful lling the expectations of one of our roles con ict with meeting the expectations of another Roles rulesexpectations that are associated with different positions Social hierarchies roles with varying amounts of power privilege Social Norms unof cial undocumented rules of social engagement Social fact independent of individual but exert a force over us Durkheim lnstitutionalization slow process When people begin to try to formalize something that individuals were already doing informally Socialization A never ending process of forming appropriate behaviors Path dependency the ways in which outcomes of the past impact actors and organizations in the present Culture a shared system of beliefs and knowledge a 5 et of values beliefs and practices and shared forms of communication Ethnocentrism believe your own culture is superior and viewing all cultures from your own culture perspective Cultural relativism looking at another culture without judgment Habitus habit developed in the course of growing up and socializing with others that becomes so routine we don t even realize we are following them Group style set of norms that set groups apart Mainstream culture extremely similar cultural toolset uniformity in what they agree is normative Subculture affiliations based on shared beliefs ideologies and norms that are different from the mainstream culture but still works within the mainstream world Counter cultures deliberately set themselves apart from mainstream culture Cultural lag period of maladjustment when nonmaterial culture struggles to adapt to new material conditions Cultural capital the things that elites do that set them apart Concerted cultivation Actively fostering child s talents and intervening on their behalf instilling a sense of entitlement Natural growth Caring for children but leaving them to fend for themselves socially instilling a sense of constraint Hegemony process by which powerful groups gain legitimacy Cultural relativism evaluating cultural meanings and practices in their own social context National culture shared belief custom with in a nation Important people C Wright mills 19161962 0 Can39t understand personal life until we understand society 0 Fundamental assumption that social patterns exists they are observable measurable and explainable Connection the historical with the biographical Auguste Comte Philosopher Coined the term sociology o Positivism or social physics Emile Durkheim 18581917 0 Father of sociology Developed the concept of Social fact Leads to social forces passed on through socialization Analyzed the root of social solidarity Mechanical solidarity minimal division of labor shared world view Organic solidarity mutual dependence among people More urban societies depend upon each other for survival 0 Analyzed religion as a force of modern life Karl Marx A societies economic system is the de ning features of how that society works 0 Forces of production vs relations of production 0 Class struggle theory classes of people that are treated differently by economic systems are inevitably going to be in con ict Max Weber 0 Focused on motivations that guide individual behavior 0 Types of social action why people do things 0 Instrumental rationality to achieve some award 0 Value rationality belief in an ultimate value 0 Affectual rationality guided by emotion 0 Traditional rationality follow established traditions Tonnies o Distinguished between two types of social organization 0 Community and society Simmel 0 Focused on the importance of overlapping social circles o The concept of social distance 0 First to introduce network analysis WEB Du Bois Focused on race and racial inequality but also helped explain pathologies and stereotyping of ANY disadvantaged group Charles Horton Cooley 1902 0 Coined the term quotlookingglass selfquot to emphasize the extent to which our own selfunderstanding is dependent on how others view us Herbert Mead 0 Developed the idea that the self is not a single thing but a process of interaction 0 We are all part of many different reference groups simulataneously Merton People occupy certain social roles and some of these roles change over the course of the life cycle 0 Role con ict Selfful lling prophecy Unanticipated consequences of social action Comte39s o 3 historical epistemological stages 0 Theological stag Society is the result of divine will 0 Metaphysical stage Human behavior governed by natural biological instincts 0 Scienti c stage Develop a social physics to understand human behavior Harriet Martineau 0 First to translate Comte39s works to English Foucalt power problems 0 Power is everywhere 0 The importance of power interactions discipline Bourdieu 0 People compete over economic AND cultural resources 0 Status in social hierarchy is determined by economic AND cultural capital 0 Cultural Capital Social capital who you know vs symbolic capital you own reputation Coleman 0 Focus on the individuals 0 Ground up approach Main concepts overview Macro vs Micro sociology Microsociology 0 Local interactional contexts o Facetoface encounters 0 Data indepth interviews observations Macrosociology o Largescale dynamics 0 Whole societies or large parts of them 0 Often uses statistical analysis Major theoretical perspectives Structural Functionalist perspective positivism o Identi es the roles phenomena play in keeping society working 0 Emphasizes the role of consensus in maintaining order 0 Con ict perspective feminist theory and critical race theory 0 Identi es power relationships that create different phenomena in society 0 Social inequality results from struggles between groups 0 lnteractionist perspective symbolic interactionism o How face to face interactions create the social world 0 Individuals act based on symbolic meanings attached to objects and people 0 Feminist theory 0 Call attention to aspects of social life that other theories were ignodng o Concerned with the treatment of women and the experience of oppression under systems of patriarchy Agents of socialization FarnHy School FHends Research design Qualitative vs Quantitative Data collection 0 Survey 0 Participant observation 0 Content analysis 0 Interviews 0 Experiments 0 Reliability same results every time Validity accurate results Culture 0 Material culture vs nonmaterial culture Mainstream vs subcultures vs countercultures Forms of capital all interconnected Bourdieu 0 Financial money transferrable Social who you know social network Human skills and abilities you have Cultural sets elites apart Includes education tastes cultural knowledge and attitude Class reproduction Class is reproduced not only through money but also through cultural practices Both short term and long term 0 Concerted cultivation 0 Natural growth
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