2nd Exam Nutrition for Health
2nd Exam Nutrition for Health NUTR 120
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Eudijessica Melo de Oliveira
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dinha on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NUTR 120 at University of New Mexico taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Nutrition for Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Solution evenly distributed mixture of two or more compounds Solvent primary component of a solution Solute lesser component of a solution that dissolves in solvent Solubility how easily a substance dissolves in a liquid solvent Ion atom or group of atoms that has a positive or a negative charge Electrons are small negatively charged particles that form a cloud surrounding the nucleus Protons are positively charged particles in the nucleus the central region of an atom Electrolytes ions that conduct electricity when they are dissolved in water Acids substances that donate hydrogen ions Bases substances that accept hydrogen ions pH measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution Chemical reactions processes that change the atomic arrangements of molecules Catabolic reactions involve breaking down molecules Anabolic reactions involve synthesizing new compounds Repairing damaged muscle tissue after injury is an example of anabolism Digestion process by which large ingested molecules are mechanically and chemically broken down Metabolism the sum of all chemical reactions occurring in living cells Enzyme protein that speeds the rate of a chemical reaction but is not altered during the process Cell is the smallest living functional unit in an organism Mitochondria are organelles that play a major role in the generation of energy Tissues collection of similar cells that perform similar functions Organ collection of tissues that perform a speci c function Cardiovascular system The main function of the cardiovascular system is circulating blood throughout the body Respiratory system lungs the primary structures of the respiratory system enable the body to exchange gases particularly oxygen and carbon dioxide Lymphatic system helps maintain uid balance absorb many fatsoluble nutrients and defend the body against diseases immune function Urinary system the urinary system includes the kidneys and the bladder The major role of the kidneys is ltering unneeded substances from blood and maintaining proper uid balance The bladder stores urine until it can be eliminated Muscular system muscles enable movement to occur and they provide support and protection for the body Skeletal system the skeletal system provides support movement and protection for the body Additionally bones store excesses of several minerals and produce blood cells Nervous system nervous system cells in the brain and throughout the body transmit information and responses by electrical and chemical signals Endocrine system the endocrine system is comprised of organs and tissues including the thyroid gland and pancreas that produce a variety of hormones Hormones chemical messengers that convey information to target cells Integumentary system skin protects against minor injuries and invading disease causing agents such as bacteria Skin also helps maintain body temperature primarily by perspiration Reproductive system the main function of the reproductive system is to produce children Bioavailability refers to the extent to which the digestive tract absorbs a nutrient and how well the body uses it Digestive system the primary roles of the digestive system are the digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients into the circulatory or lymphatic systems Peristalsis type of muscular contraction of the gastrointestinal tract Chyme mixture of gastric juice and partially digested food Mucus uid that lubricates and protects certain cells Heartburn back ow of irritating stomach contents into the esophagus The lining of the small intestine is highly folded and covered by tiny ngerlike projections called villi What is the di erence from chemical and mechanical digestion What are the ve tastes Sweet sour salty bitter and umami Where in the body are most nutrients absorbed and digested In the small intestine What are some ways to reduce the risk of heart burn If you have too much body fat lose the excess weight don t lie down within 2 hours after eating a meal don t over eat at meal times avoid smoking cigarettes What is the main storage form of carbohydrates in humans stored primarily in the liver and muscles Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS It is condition characterized by intestinal cramps and abnormal bowel function particularly diarrhea constipation or alternating episodes of both The cause of IBS is unknown but certain foods and beverages as well as emotional stress may trigger severe bouts of the disorder The intestinal tract muscles of people with IBS may produce stronger contractions that last longer than the GI muscles of people who do not have this condition Carbohydrates class of nutrients that is a major source of energy for the body Monosaccharide simple sugar that is the basic molecule of carbohydrates The three most important dietary monosaccharides are glucose fructose and galactose Disaccharide simple sugar comprised of two monosaccharides Disaccharides include maltose sucrose and lactose Nutritive sweeteners substances that sweeten and contribute energy to foods Added sugars sugars added to foods during processing or preparation Alternative sweeteners substances that sweeten foods while providing few or no kilocalories Nonnutritive sweeteners group of synthetic compounds that are intensely sweet tasting compared to sugar Phenylketonuria PKU a rare inherited disorder that results in abnormal phenylalanine metabolism If an infant with PKU is not treated with a special diet phenylalanine and its metabolic byproducts accumulate in the child s blood stream and cause severe brain damage Complex carbohydrates polysaccharides are comprised of 10 or more monosaccharides bonded together Muscles and the liver are the major sites for glycogen formation and storage Plants store glucose as starch Dietary fiber fiber indigestible plant material most types are polysaccharides Soluble fiber forms of dietary ber that dissolve or swell in water Insoluble ber forms of dietary ber that generally do not dissolve in water Salivary amylase enzyme secreted by salivary glands that begins starch digestion Pancreatic amylase enzyme secreted by pancreas that breaks down starch into maltose Most carbohydrate digestion and absorption takes place in the small intestine Sucrase enzyme that splits sucrose molecule Lactase enzyme that splits lactose molecule Insulin and glucagon are key hormones in maintaining normal blood glucose concentration When blood glucose rises above the normal range insulin from the pancreas acts to lower the level and blood glucose level becomes normal When blood glucose falls below normal glucagon from the pancreas has the opposite effects of insulin and blood glucose rises to normal levels Glycogenolysis glycogen breakdown Lipolysis fat breakdown Ketone bodies chemicals that result from incomplete fat breakdown Diabetes mellitus diabetes group of serious chronic diseases characterized by abnormal glucose fat and protein metabolism Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that occurs when certain im mune system cells malfunction and do not recognize the body s own beta cells29 As a result the immune system cells attack and destroy the beta cells and the affected person must obtain insulin regularly Type 2 diabetes beta cells of people with type 2 diabetes usually produce insulin but the hormone s target cells are insulinresistant cells which do not respond properly to the hormone and do not allow glucose to enter them As a result the level of glucose in the bloodstream becomes abnormally elevated and the signs of diabetes occur Hyperglycemia abnormally high blood glucose level Hypoglycemia condition that occurs when the blood glucose level is abnormally low Epinephrine hormone produced by adrenal glands also called adrenalin Metabolic syndrome condition that increases risk of type 2 diabetes and CVD Syndrome group of signs and symptoms that occur together and indicate a speci c health problem Lactose intolerance inability to digest lactose properly Diverticula abnormal tiny sacs that form in wall of colon Eating berrich foods may reduce your risk of obesity type 2 diabetes cardiovascular disease and certain intestinal tract disorders Lipids class of nutrients that do not dissolve in water Low blood glucose the body releases glucagon High blood glucose the body releases insulin Tooth decay is associated with consuming carbohydrates particularly simple sugars that stick to teeth Phospholipid type of lipid needed to make cell membranes and for proper functioning of nerve cells Hydrophilic part of molecule that attracts water Hydrophobic part of molecule that avoids water and attracts lipids Emulsifier substance that helps watersoluble and waterinsoluble compounds mix with each other Choline watersoluble compound in lecithin Cholesterol lipid found in animal foods and precursor for steroid hormones bile and vitamin D Bile emulsi er that aids lipid digestion Cholesterol is a stem a more chemically complex type of lipid than a triglyceride or a phospholipid Chylomicron type of lipoprotein produced in absorptive cells of small intestine Atherosclerosis longterm disease process in which plaques build up inside arterial walls Thrombus xed bunch of clots that remains in place Myocardial infarction heart attack Embolus thrombus or part of a plaque that breaks free and travels through the bloodstream Arteriosclerosis condition that results from atherosclerosis and is characterized by loss of arterial exibility Hypertension abnormally high blood pressure levels that persist Homocysteine amino acid that may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis Highdensity lipoprotein HDL lipoprotein that transports cholesterol away from tissues and to the liver where it can be eliminated Lowdensity lipoprotein LDL lipoprotein that carries cholesterol into tissues Verylowdensity lipoprotein VLDL lipoprotein that carries much of the triglycerides in the bloodstream Important Men and women have different physical responses to alcohol Women tend to become more impaired than men do after drinking the same amount of alcohol even when differences in body weight are taken into account The reasons for these sexual differences are unclear but they probably involve physiological factors including body size and composition The average man is larger than the average woman and larger people can often drink more alcohol without showing ill effects than smaller individuals be cause they have bigger livers that detoxify more alcohol at a time Additionally a healthy lSOpound man typically has more body water than a healthy lSOpound woman After the man drinks a beer the alcohol diffuses out of his bloodstream and into the water compartments of his body Since the woman s body has less water more alcohol remains in her bloodstream after she drinks a beer As a result her BAC rises faster and she becomes more intoxicated after drinking the same amount of alcohol as her male counterpart Ketosis accumulation of ketone in the blood Anatomy scienti c study of cells and other body structures Physiology scienti c study of the functioning of cells and other body structures Organelles structures in cells that perform specialized functions To obtain omega3 fatty acids consider including fatty sh such as salmon in your meals at least twice a week Omega6 fatty acid is in vegetable oils often used for frying foods and making margarines and salad dressings
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