Anthropology Test 1 Vocabulary
Anthropology Test 1 Vocabulary ANTH 0780
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Notetaker on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 0780 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Laura Brown in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Vocab Anthropology The study of human nature human society and the human past Holism A characteristics of the anthropological perspective that describes at the highest and most inclusive level how anthropology tries to integrate all that is known about human beings and their activities Comparison A characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to consider similarities and differences in as wide a range of human societies as possible before generalizing about human nature human society or the human past Evolution A characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to place their observations about human nature human society or human past in a temporal framework that takes into consideration change over time Culture Sets of learned behavior and ideas that human begins acquire as members of society Human beings use culture to adapt and to transform the world in which they live Bicultural organisms Organisms in this case human beings whose defining features are codetermined by biological and cultural factors Races Social groupings that allegedly re ect biological differences Racism The systematic oppression of one or more socially defined quotracesquot by another socially defined race that is justified in terms of the supposed inherent biological superiority of the rulers and the supposed inherent biological inferiority of those they rule Biological physical anthropology The specialty of anthropology that looks at human beings as biological organisms and tries to discover what characteristics make them different from other organism and what characteristics they share Primatology The study of nonhuman primates the closest living relatives of human beings Paleoanthropology The search for fossilized remains of humanity s earliest ancestors Cultural Anthropology The specialty of anthropology that shows how variation in the beliefs and behaviors of members of different human groups is shaped by sets of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society that is by culture Sex Observable physical characteristics that distinguish two kinds of humans females and males needed for biological reproduction Gender The cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex Fieldwork An extended period of close involvement with the people whose language or way of life anthropologists are interested during which anthropologists ordinarily collect most of their data Informants People in a particular culture who work with anthropologists and provide them with insights about their way of life Also called respondents teachers or friends Ethnography An anthropologist s written or filmed description of a particular culture Ethnology The comparative study of two or more cultures Language The system of arbitrary vocal symbols used to encode one s experience of the world and of others Linguistic Anthropology The specialty of anthropology concerned with the study of human languages Archaeology A cultural anthropology of the human past involving the analysis of material remains left behind by earlier societies Applied Anthropologists Specialists who use information gathered from the other anthropological specialties to solve practical crosscultural problems Medical Anthropology The specialty of anthropology that concerns itself with human health the factors that contributes to disease or illness and the ways that human populations deal with disease or illness Chapter two Culture Sets of learned behaviors and ideas that humans acquire as members of society Humans use culture to adapt to and transform the world in which they live Symbol Something that stands for something else Human agency The exercise of at least some control over their lives by human beings Holism Perspective on the human condition in which the whole is understood to be greater than the sum of its parts Coevolution The dialectical relationship between biological processes and symbolic cultural processes in which each makes up an important part of the environment to which the other must adapt Ethnocentrism The opinion that one s own way of life is natural or correct and indeed the only true way of being fully human Cultural relativism Understanding another culture in its own terms sympathetically enough so that the culture appears to be a coherent and meaningful design for living Chapter 3 Fieldwork An extended period of close involvement with the people whose language or way of life anthropologists are interested during which anthropologists ordinarily collect most of their data Participantobservation The method anthropologists use to gather information by living as closely as possible to the people whose culture they are studying while participating in their lives as much as possible Ethnography An anthropologist s written or filmed description of a particular culture Positivism The view that there is a reality out therequot that can be known through the senses and that there is a single appropriate set of scientific methods for investigating that reality Objective knowledge Knowledge about reality that is absolute and true Informants People in a particular culture who work with anthropologists and provide them with insights about their way of life Also called respondents teachers or friends Intersubjective meanings The shared public symbolic systems of a culture Re exivity Critically thinking about the way one thinks re ecting on one s own experience Multisided Fieldwork Ethnographic research on cultural processes that are not contained by social ethnic religious or national boundaries in which the ethnographer follows the process from site to site often doing fieldwork at sites and with persons who traditionally were never subjected to ethnographic analysis Dialectic of fieldwork The process of building a bridge of understanding between anthropologist and informants so that each can begin to understand the other Culture shock The feeling akin to panic that develops in people living in an unfamiliar society when they cannot understand what is happening around them Fact A widely accepted observation a takenforgranted item of common knowledge Facts do not speak for themselves only when they are interpreted and placed in a context of meaning do they become intelligible Chapter 5 Language The system of arbitrary vocal symbols we use to encode our experience of the world Linguistics The scientific study of language Design features Those characteristics of language that when taken together differentiate it from other known animal communication systems Linguistic competence A term coined by linguist Noam Chomsky to refer to the mastery of adult grammar Communicative competence A term coined by anthropological linguist Deli Hymes to refer tot eh mastery of adult rules for socially and culturally appropriate speech Linguistic relativity principle A position associated with Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf that asserts that language has the power to shape the way people see the world Grammar A set of rules that aim to describe fully the patterns of linguistic usage observed by members of a particular speech community Phonology The study of the sounds of language Morphology In linguistics the study of the minimal units of meaning in language Syntax The study of sentence structure Semantics The study of meaning Pragmatics The study of language in the context of its use Discourse A stretch of speech longer than a sentence united by a common theme Ethnopragmatics A study of language use that relies on ethnography to illuminate the ways in which speech is both constituted by and constitutive of social interaction Pidgin A language with no native speakers that develops in a single generation between members of communities that posses distinct native languages Language ideology A marker of struggles between social groups with different interests revealed in what people say and how they say it Language revitalization Attempts by linguists and activists to preserve or revive languages with few native speakers that appear to be on the verge of extinction
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