Nutrition, Test One
Nutrition, Test One NTR 312
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This 42 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Lawson on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NTR 312 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Lydia Steinman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Nutrition 0 Chapter One 0 Fooditems consumed Contain energy and nutrients o Nutritionscience of food and its nourishment Studies the process and eating pattern in uences Recommendations of food for optimal health Began with links between diet and illness 0 Vitamin C and illness Beriberi and thiamin Pellagra and niacin Chronic diseases 0 Nutrition and health Wellnessabsence of disease 0 Now multidivisional 0 Physical o Emotional o Spiritual Physical activity and diet 0 More you eat more exercise 0 More exercise more nutrients Nutrient forti cation Still an issue in developing countries Effect of poor nutrition and health Slight association 0 Osteoporosis o Progression of cancer 0 Strong association 0 Heart disease 0 Stroke 0 Diabetes 0 Obesity Healthy People 2020 0 Higher quality longer lives 0 Less preventable disease disability injury and death 0 Health equity eliminate disparities and improve all health 0 Promote health socially and physically Promote a greater quality of life 0 Nutrients Carbohydrates Lipids Primary fuel Ca robca rbon Hyd ratehydrogen Insoluble Triglyceridesmost common 0 Fatty acids Stored as adipose tissue or fat Phospholipids 0 Contain phosphate Cholesterol Sterols Mainly carbon Proteins Contain carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen Break down into amino acids 0 Build new cells and tissues 0 Maintain bone strength and structures 0 Repairing damage 0 Regulating metabolism and uid balance Vitamins Release and utilize energy found in the other macronutrients Help build and maintain the body Micronutrient Fat or water soluble Organic scienti c terms nutrients with carbon and hydrogen 0 Carbohydrates lipids proteins and vitamins Minerals Micronutrient Inorganiccannot be broken down any further Fluid regulation and energy Major and trace minerals o Major100 mg or more needed in diet Amount in body is greater than 5 g o Traceneed less than 100 mg a day Amount in body is less than 5 g Water Proper amount help with o Fluid regulation of cells Nerve impulses Body temperatures Muscle contractions Nutrient transport Excretion 00000 O Macronutrients Carbohydrates lipids and proteins 0 Broke down and reassemble for fuel Alcoholdrug and toxin provides energy Kilocalories Carbs and proteins are four kcal a gram Alcohol are seven kcal a gram Fats are nine kcal per gram 0 Current Recommendations Dietary Reference Intakes Expand on past recommendations Recommendations for healthy individuals only Identify amount of nutrient needed to prevent disease 0 Also amount needed to reduce risk of chronic diseases Estimated Average Requirement EAR o Represents daily nutrient intake needed for individual of a certain group Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA 0 Average daily intake for the majority of the population Adequate Intake AI 0 Recommendation for intake based of observed estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL 0 Highest average daily nutrient intake de ned by an individual Estimated Energy Requirement EER 0 Average dietary intake predicted to maintain an energy balance Depends on age gender height weight physical activity Acceptable Micronutrient Distribution Range AMDR o Ranges of intakes associated with reducing chronic diseases risks 0 Percentage Diets based on DRI o Aimed to prevent an de ciencies in the human body through balanced diet 0 Carbohydrate 4565 0 Fat 2035 0 Protein 1035 0 Assessing Nutritional Status on Clients Malnutrition Too much or too little of a particular nutrient and energy over time Under nutrition 0 Too little nutrients leading to weight loss of nutrient de ciency diseases Over nutrition 0 Too much of nutrient causes obesityheart diseases nutrient toxicity Physical examination Conducted by medical professional 0 Depend on medical history disease symptoms and risk factors 0 Check vital signs 0 Listening to heart and lung sounds Blood and urine analysis Examining hair skin eyes tongue and nails 0 Age determines how many times completed 0 lt30 Every two or three years 0 3050 Yearly Questionnaires Typically completed before physical exam 0 RELY ON SELF REPORTING 0 Demographic information Name age heightweight contact information 0 Current medications and allergies past drug use Family history 0 Personal history Disease 0 Menstrual function for females 0 Exercise 0 Socioeconomically factors Education marital raceethnic Diet history Conducted by nutrition professional 0 Interview or questionnaire 0 Include Food Weight current usual and goal Factors in uencing food and appetite Typical eating patterns Disordered eating Economic status Medications Exercise 0 24 hour diet recalls 0 Interview and responses 0 Recalls all food and beverage within 24 hours Serving sizes Food preparation Brands Foodfrequency questionnaire 0 List of intake over a period of time typically 37 days Anthropometric assessments provide objective data Height and body weight Body circumference Body composition 0 Measurements taken then compared to others witching category Finding malnutrition Primary de cienciesperson doesn t consume enough of nutrition 0 Direct 0 Secondary de cienciesperson cannot absorb nutrient too much excreted or not used effectively Subclinical de ciencylack of nutrient with no symptoms thus far 0 Require testing to determine covert 0 Once obvious overt o Interpreting research study results Applying scienti c method 0 Observation Hypothesis 0 Experimental design Collects and analyze data 0 Test 0 Create theory Types of research studies 0 Animal versus human 0 Animal testing Prevents ethical issues May not fully relate to human subjects Observational studies 0 Indicate relationships between factors 0 Case control 0 Group of individuals with condition and a control group 0 Finds signi cant relationships 0 Clinical trials 0 Intervention given to determine effects on the subjects Medication special diets etc o Intervention and control Randomized trials 0 Random assignment to groups Single and double blind o Singleparticipants are not aware of which group they are in Doubleneither participants or researchers are aware o Prevents placebo effect Evaluating Media Reports Con icts of interest 0 Who conducted research Who paid for it 0 Who does the research bene t 0 Determining reliable websites 0 Look at credentials 0 Date of website 0 Sources of information 0 Message of website 0 Other Research Evaluation Issues 0 Who is reporting o Is the report reputable o Is it from testimonies or personal experience Are conclusions made 0 Does it seem too good to be true Quackeryunproven remedy promoted by unlicensed mentor 0 Who can you trust Trustworthy Experts 0 Registered Dietician o Bachelor s degree 0 Clinical supervision 0 National examination 0 Maintaining registration 0 Licensed dietician o Meets accreditations within state 0 Nutritionist o No law regulated de nition 0 Professional with advanced degree 0 Teachers nutrition 0 Fitness and health care 0 Physician 0 Medical professional 0 Government sources 0 Centers of Disease Control Prevention Human health and safety 0 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey Tracks nutrient consumption of Americans Gathers information from interviews and examination 0 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Track lifestyle behaviors increasing risk of chronic disease 0 National Institutes of Health Medical research center ProfessionalOrganizations 0 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 0 American Society for Nutrition Research society American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 0 Society for Nutrition Education Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 0 The American College of Sports medicine Integrate research 0 North American Association for the Study of Obese Chapter Two 0 Healthful Diet Healthful dietproper combination of energy and nutrients Adequate o Adequate dietenergy energy and nutrients to maintain a person s health 0 Vary from person to person 0 Moderate 0 Moderate eatingeating in moderate amounts Balanced o Balanced dieteating leading to proper portion of nutrients o Varied o Varied eatingeating many different foods on a regular basis Designing a healthful diet 0 Reading labels 0 Five components Statement of identity 0 Common name of food Net contents on package 0 Quantity of food 0 Weight 0 Volume 0 Numerical count Ingredient list 0 Listed according to weight Name and address of food manufacturer Nutrition 0 How to read and use nutrition panels 0 Serving size and servings per container 0 Calories and calories from fat 0 List of nutrients 0 Percent daily values Based on a 2000 calorie diet 0 lt5 is low in that nutrient 0 gt20 high in nutrient o Footnote Notes about the DV being based on 2000 calorie diets Food labels can claim many things 0 FDA regulates nutrient and health claims Low in sodium 0 140 mg or less in sodium Health Claim Report Card 0 Unregulated Structurefunction Builds stronger bones o Improves memory Slows aging signs Dietary guidelines for Americans 0 Updated every ve years 0 Balance calories to maintain weight 0 Control what you eat Nutrient dense food 0 High nutrients for the least amount of calories 0 Increase activity Consume fewer foods and food components with concern 0 Sodium Linked to 0 High blood pressure 0 Loss of calcium Keep below 2300 mg 0 Or 1500 mg 0 Fat Keep saturated fat between 710 of daily calories Less then 300 mg of cholesterol 0 Replace solid fats with vegetable oils 0 Eating less meat 0 Low fat or nonfat milks 0 Sugars O Limit sweets Alcohol Drink in moderation One drink a day for women 0 Two for men Consume more healthful foods and nutrients O O O O 0 Increase fruit and veggie intake More whole grains Fat free or low fat milks Eating meats lower in solid fat Fiber 0 Follow healthy eating patterns 0 000 0 Clean your hands food surfaces and food itself Separate raw and cooked food Cook foods to safe temperature Chi perishable foods Avoid unpasteurized foods USDA Food Patterns 0 MyPIate Food groups 0 Grains Make half your grains whole 0 Bran outer shell 0 Provide the ber 0 Removed in re ned foods Endospermmiddle Germkernel o 2 grams of ber for every 100 calories 0 Look for quotwhole grainquot at the rst spot on the ingredient list Veggies Variety 2 12 cups each day Fruit 1 12 cups everyday Dairy Low fat or fat free 3 cups Protein Low fat or lean meats Bake broil or grill 5 12 oz each day Small amount of carbs in organ meat liver 0 Concept of empty calories 0 0 Limit Sweets gelatin soft drinks alcohol Solid fats Added sugar Empty caloriescalories with little to no nutritional value 0 Number and size of servings 0 0 One oz equivalent One slice of bread 12 cup cooked brown rice No standard de nition Can vary between MyPIate de nition and food label Increasing sizes of served food 0 Ethnic variations of MyPyramid O 0000 Not yet developed for MyPIate Can incorporate food from heritage Latin American Diet Asian American Diet Mediterranean Diet Red meat monthly Sweets weekly Olive oil for cooking Lots of grains fruit beans and dairy yogurt and cheese Eating Out Healthfully Hidden costs 0 0 One meal lots of calories High fat and sodium Deceiving portions 0 Healthy way 0 O O 0000 Choosing smallest sizes Diet beverages Adding salads Low fat or nonfat dressing quotLitequot items on the menu Avoid appetizers Share meals Order off kids menu 0 Trading styles of cooking and meats 0 Take leftovers home 0 Skip dessert or share 0 Chapter Three 0 Why Do We Want to Eat What We Want To Eat Hungerphysiological drive Nonspeci c foods will satisfy Appetitepsychological drive 0 Speci c foods satisfy Hypothalamus Prompts Hunger in Response to Stimuli Hypothalamusproduces hunger o Signals and hormones produce hunger Nerve cells Lining of the stomach and small intestine s cells stimulate brain Hormones Secreted into blood stream to regulate the body 0 Insulin and glycogen regulate blood sugar levels Amount and type of food 0 High fat keeps us fuller longer 0 So does high ber and water content Environmental causes of appetite o Smell o Sight 0 Taste 0 Texture Role of social and cultural cues 0 quotForbidden foodsquot allowed on special occasions o Visuals o Emotions Role of learning 0 Introduction to food from an early age 0 Change when normal is not available 0 Change when trying to achieve health 0 Change with conditioning o What happens to the food we eat Digestion Occurs in gastrointestinal tract mouth to anus o Controlled by sphincters Absorption of nutrients Elimination of undigested food Begins in the mouth Cephalic phasethought process that stimulates digestive juices BEFORE eating Salivary glands and saliva 0 Taste 0 Olfactory receptor cells Esophagus propels food to stomach Bolusmass of chewed food Swallowing o Epiglottis covers windpipe 0 Upper esophageal sphincter moves food into esophagus Moves the food down with peristalsis and gravity Stomach Mixes Digests and Stores Food Stomachjshaped organ 0 Volume 6 oz when empty Expands to hold one gallon o Rugaeinnermost folds of stomach allowing expansion and repulsion o Gastrinstimulate G cells to release gastric juice Gastric glands Parietal cells 0 HCI PH of 10 Kills bacteria Breaks down proteins 0 Intrinsic factor Absorbs B12 0 Chief cells 0 Pepsinogen Combines with HCI to form pepsin allows for protein digestion o Gastric lipase Lipid digestion Chymemass created by the churning of the stomach partially digested food Stored in stomach until small intestine is ready for it o Regulated by pyloric sphincter Mucus neck cells gastric and mucus surface cells stomach lining secrete protective barrier of mucus Other lining cells secrete bicarbonate to neutralize acid Digestion and Absorption in the Small Intestine 0 Small intestinelong but very narrow 0 Three sections Duodenum Connected by sphincter to stomach Jejunum eum Connects to large intestine by ileocecal valve 0 Macronutrients are broken down into their smallest components to be absorbed Large Intestine Stores Waste Until Excreted Large intestine colon O O O Cecal Connects to small intestine with the ileocecal valve Ascending colon Descending colon Haustramoves food to the sigmoid colon which moves food to the rectum Anal canal GI Floracollection of bacterial cells probiotics Finish digestion Synthesize vitamins Stimulates immune system Stops harmful bacteria growth Feces o How does the body accomplish chemical digestion Enzymes speed up digestion via hydrolysis Hydrolysisbreaking down chemicals with the help of water Enzymes 0 Usually speci c to macromolecules Hormones assist in regulating digestion 0 Second messenger system 0 When attached to protein releases targeted response Accessory organs produce store and secrete chemicals that aid in digestion Gallbladder stores bile o Releases bile to break down lipids Pancreas produces digestive enzymes and bicarbonates o Pancreas Createsholdssecretes enzymes 0 Liver produces bile and regulates blood nutrients o Synthesizes body s chemicals 0 Receive digestive products Drain into bloodstream Absorbed into capillaries o How does the body absorb and transport digested nutrients Special linin of small intestine allows absorption of food Mucosal membrane 0 Expands and folds o Villitrap nutrient molecules Made of enterocytes Contain capillaries and lacteal Sort nutrients 0 Water soluble go to the blood 0 Fat soluble to the lymph Microvilliincrease surface area Four types of absorption of the small intestine Passive diffusion o Nutrients enter without assistance Moved by concentration gradient across permeable barrier o Facilitated diffusion Moved with the help of carrier protein across concentration gradient 0 Active transport Uses ATP and carrier proteins 0 Endocytosis Contents engulfed and pulled Blood and lymph transport nutrients and wastes Bloodtransports nutrients Lymphcarries fats and vitamins escaped uids 0 Lymph nodes lter 0 How Does the Body Coordinate and Regulate Digestion Muscles and Gastrointestinal Tract Mix and Move Food Peristalsis 0 Continuous contraction and relaxation of muscles circular and longitudinal Stomach churning o Constant contraction and relaxation moving foods toward the pyloric sphincter Slowly releases chyme into intestines Segmentationrhythmic contractions of intestine walls Colon o Haustrationslow movement of wastes Mass movement occasionally Nerves Control the Contractions and Secretions of Gastrointestinal Tract o Enteric nervous systemautonomic system in the GI walls 0 Control peristalsis and segmentation alone Parasympathetic and sympathetic ANS o CNS 0 Use itself and ENS to stimulate hunger pains o Stimulates saliva glands alone 0 What are disorder related to digestion absorption and elimination Belching and atulence o Belching 0 Normally caused by swallowed air Flatus intestinal gas 0 Odorless unless sulfur is included in gas mixture 0 Caused by High bers Starches Sugar Fat substitutes Sugar alcohols Quornfungus meat substitute 0 Eat smaller portions 0 Medications Heartburn and Gastro esophageal Re ux Disease GERD Heart burn o Stomach acid seeps up into the chest 0 Medications GERD o More painful heartburn occurs twice a week or more Can cause permanent damage 0 Other symptoms Chest pain Asthma Trouble swallowing Burning in mouth Feeling food stuck in throat Hoarseness o Caused by Smoking Alcohol Weight Pregnancy High acidic foods Large high fat meals Lying down after a meal Avoid trigger foods Eat smaller meals 0 Do not lie down until after three hours Or elevate the head 0 Medications OO Ulcers Peptic ulcerarea eroded away 0 Either in the stomach gastric or in the duodenum of the small intestine duodenaD Causes 0 Burning pain 0 Vomiting 0 Blood in stools anemia o Infections H Pylori bacteria 0 Treated with medications Disorders with Speci c Foods 0 Food intolerances 0 Food removed form the body after eating Symptoms stop once food is passed 0 Food allergies o Immune system reacts to food in ammation Can be limited or widespread anaphylactic shock Treated with Epipen Celiac disease celiac sprue o Damages lining of small intestine and absorption of nutrients Caused by immune system 0 Genetic 0 Found by blood tests Triggered by GIiadinprotein in gluten 0 In ammation erodes villi Other symptoms Irritable bowel syndrome 0 Fatty stools Odd smelling stools o Bloating and cramping o Diarrhea Constipation o Vomiting Weight loss 0 Dermatitis herptiformis Treatment Avoiding foods Vomiting Acute or Chronic o quotBackwards peristalsisquot o Caused by Eating contaminated food or water Medical procedures Drugs Motion sickness Pain 0 Cyclic vomiting syndrome Recurring nausea and vomiting Crohn s Disease and Colitis are In ammatory Bowel Disease 0 Crohn s Disease In ammation of small intestine Accumulation of white blood cells Symptoms o Diarrhea 0 Pain Rectal bleeding 0 Weight loss 0 Fever Delayed physical and mental development in children 0 If untreated then can lead to the in ammation of the digestive tubules stulas Nutritional de ciencies Treatment 0 Medication Supplements 0 Surgery 0 Ulcerative Colitis In ammation and ulceration of colon mucus Causes unknown Symptoms o Diarrhea o Discomfort Weight loss 0 Anemia Nausea o Fever 0 Fatigue 0 Bleeding o Rupture of GI wall 0 Distention o Dehydration Nutritional de ciencies Treatment 0 Medication Surgery 0 Small low ber meals 0 Diarrhea Constipation and IBS o Diarrhea Caused by 0 Infection in GI tract 0 Food intolerances Reaction Underlying diseases Acute diarrhealess than four weeks Chronic diarrhealasts more than four weeks Traveler s diarrheacatching an infection outside home country diarrhea o Constipation o IBS No stool passing for two or more days 0 Usually hard small and dif cult to pass Treatment can include drug therapy increasing ber uids Symptoms Cramps o Bloating Constipation o Diarrhea Seems to be linked to physiological stress Treatment 0 Medication Stress management 0 Exercise 0 Diet modi cations 0 Chapter Four 0 What are Carbohydrates quotHydrated ca rbonquot Chemical abbreviation CHO Mostly plant based Glucose 0 Created via photosynthesis Can be simple or complex 0 Simple Carbs Mono and Di Simple carbs Sugars one or two combined Glucose fructose galactose and ribose are monosaccharaides All contain six carbons twelve hydrogen and six oxygen 0 Slight changes alter sweetness Glucosemost abundant 0 Attached to other sugars 0 Preferred energy for brain Fructosenatural sugar in fruits and vegetables 0 Also called evuose o Sweetest of the sugars Galactoseglucose and lactose combined never is alone 0 Condensation reactions produce the galactose Ribosefive carbon monosaccharide 0 Body produces ribose from food 0 Contained in DNA and RNA Lactose maltose and sucrose and disaccharides Lactose milk sugar 0 One glucose and one galactose 0 Breast milk is higher in lactose than cows makes it sweeter Maltose malt sugar 0 Two glucose molecules 0 Not normally by itself By product of breakdowns Created with fermentation Yet little maltose is in alcohol Sucrose 0 One glucose and one fructose Sweeter than lactose or maltose 0 quotRaw sugarquot is a myth Actually is the sugar right after its been processed Honey molasses and sugar are all the same nutritional value 0 Alpha digestible and beta indigestible bonds 0 Lactose intolerance from the inability to break down actase Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are complex carbs Complex carbslong chains of glucose molecules 0 Three or more Oligosaccharides 3 to 10 glucose molecules 0 Raffinose Galactose glucose and fructose Are not digested by the stomach o Ferment in the large intestine o Stachyose Two gaactose molecules glucose fructose Are not digested by the stomach o Ferment in the large intestine Polysaccharideshundred or thousands of glucose molecules 0 Starch stored by plants Amylose Chain of glucose Amylopectin Branched glucose 0 Increases surface area more rapidly digested Broken down into monosaccharide s 0 Fiber resistant to digestion o Ferment creating butyrate o Glycogen stored by animals Broken down quickly for energy 0 Taken from muscles and liver Little found in meat already dead 0 Fiber Polysaccharide chains 0 Not easily digested Dietary ber Nondigestable plant s skeleton leaves stems seeds Functional ber Nondigestable plant portions extracted in labs o Added to foods ber supplements Cellulose guar gum pectin and psyllium Total ber 0 Sum of dietary and functional ber Soluble bersdissolve in water 0 Form a gel when wet Fermentable easily digested o Pectins galacturonic acid and monosaccharaides Found in fruits cells walls and ssues o Gums Galactose galacturonic acid and monosaccharide Seeds Thickening agents 0 Mucilage Galactose mannose monosaccharaide s Psyllium and carrageenan Seed husk and seaweed Insoluble bersdo not dissolve 0 Do not gel 0 Not digestible Ligninsnoncarbohydrates o Woody parts of cells walls in plants brans and whole grain Cellulose 0 Beta bonds of glucose 0 Can be extracted and added for anticaking thickening and texturizing Hemicelluloses o Glucose mannose galacturonic monosaccharaides 0 Plant cell walls 0 Can be soluble or insoluble Fiberrich carbohydrates 0 Fruit vegetables and whole grains 0 Pay attention to dietary ber per servings 0 How do our bodies break down carbohydrates Digestion Breaks Down Most Carbs in Monosaccharaides Salivary amylaseenzyme to breaks down food into smaller particles and into maltose o Inactivated by stomach acid Majority of digestion occurs in the small intestine o Pancreatic amylasedigests any starches into lactose o Villi contain enzymes to further break sugars down Maltasebreaks down maltose into glucose Sucrosebreaks down sucrose into glucose Lactasebreaks down lactose into glucose 0 Mucosal cells absorb the monosaccharaides and are delivered the blood stream o Glucose and galactose absorbed across the enterocytes using a sodium infused carrier protein 0 Fructose absorbed using facilitated diffusion Takes longest Draws water into the intestine Liver Converts NonGlucose Monosaccharaides into Glucose Glucose and galactose are converted into glucose 0 Either secreted into blood or stored as glycogen Used when needed exercise Carb loading required for endurance athletes Once muscles and liver reach storage capacity the additional carbs are stored as adipose tissues 0 Fiber Excreted for the Large lntestine o Passes through small intestine undigested Ferments in large intestine Used for energy not all of it Undigested adds bulk to stools and then excreted Variety of Hormones Regulate Blood Glucose Levels 0 Insulinsecreted by pancreas Stimulates glucose carrier proteins in cells to help glucose enter cells Stimulates the storage of glucose as glycogen o Glucagonsecreted by pancreas Stimulates liver to convert glycogen back to glucose Helps in breaking down proteins into amino acids Gluconeogenesisgenerating new glucose from amino acids 0 Epinephrine and norepinephrinesecreted by adrenal gland Increase glycogen breakdown in the liver Increase gluconeogenesis o Cortisol and growth hormonesecreted by adrenal gland Cortisol Increases gluconeogenesis Decreases use of glucose by body s muscles and organs Growth hormones Decreases glucose uptake of muscles Increases use of fatty acids 0 Increase liver s output of glucose Glycemic Index Shows How Foods Affects Our Blood Glucose Levels 0 Glycemic indexpotential for foods to raise blood levels Affected by 0 Type of food 0 Preparation 0 Fat and ber content 0 Glycemic loadnumber of grams of carbohydrate multiplied by glycemic index of that carb Low glycemic load is better for those with diabetes 0 Higher HDL and lower LDL associations 0 Reduced risk of prostate cancer 0 Why do we need carbohydrates Provide energy 0 4 kcal of energy per gram 0 Heavy reliance of the body from glucose Carbohydrates fuel daily activity 0 Need a combination of fats and carbs Fat used while at rest and low energy activity Carbohydrates fuel exercise 0 High energy activity uses more glucose than fat Can be used with or without oxygen 0 Low carbohydrate intake can lead to ketoacidosis O Ketosisbreaking down of stored fat Ketonesenergy produced 0 Provides energy to the brain during lowcarb moments and hard exercise Suppress appetite Cause dehydration Cause quotacid breathquot Ketoacidosisexcessive amount of ketone acids change the pH of the blood Interferes with body functions Loss of lean body mass Damage to body tissues Potential death Carbs spare protein 0 Not enough carbs The body makes some from proteins Uses the needed protein to make new ells and repair damage Fiber helps us stay healthy 0 Reduce the risk of colon cancer 0 O O Binds and speeds out cancer causing elements from the colon May not be that strong of a correlation Prevent hemorrhoids constipation and other intestinal problems Keeps stools moist and soft Reduces risk for diverticulosis Pressure to move hard stools can create pockets in the large intestine allowing for infection and in ammation Reduce the risk of heart disease by blocking absorption of cholesterol Can enhance weight loss Keeps you full Lower risk for type two diabetes Slow release of glucose into blood 0 How many carbohydrates should we eat RDA based on how much glucose the brain needs for funcUon 19 and older130 g a day AMDR is 4565 total energy intake Should be high in ber whole grain and unprocessed Most Americans Eat Too Much Added Sugar 0 Added sugars the bulk of American carbohydrate intake 0 Soft drinks Baked goods Fruit drinkspunches Candy Peanut Butter Yogurt Flavored rice mix 0 Salad dressing 0 Added sugars are not chemically different than added sugars but the food that typically have them are lower in nutrition Sugars are blamed for many health problems 0 Sugar causes tooth decay o Bacteria clings to sugars Brush teeth after each eating event Fluoride water and toothpaste o No link between sugar and hyperactive children 0 Children actually less active after a high sugar meal 0 High sugar intake can lead to unhealthful level of blood lipids 0 Higher intakes of sugar associated with higher LDL and triglycerides o Decreases HDL High sugar intake does not cause diabetes but may contribute to obesity 0 More overweight people drink more sugary drinks than those of normal weight 0 Most Americans eat too little berrich carbohydrates 0 What makes a whole grain whole Branoutermost covering of grain Most of the ber and vitaminsminerals OOOOOO Endospermgrains midsection Most of the carbsprotein Germbase of kernel 0 High in fats and some vitamins Husksdry coats around kernel that is inedible Whole wheat ourkernels are milled and put together 0 Over time become ner and ner leaving the ber mostly obliterated Enriched foodsnutrients lost during processing and now are added back Forti ed foodshave nutrients added that did not originally exist in the food 0 We need at least 25 grams of ber daily Recommended 0 25 g for women 0 38 g for men 0 Or 14 g for ever 1000 kcal eaten Increase uid intake along with ber intake Too much ber Intestinal gas 0 Bloating Constipation Potential dehydration Reduction of absorption of iron zinc calcium vitamin D 0 Hunting for ber Whole grain bread Forti ed foods Vegetables fruits and axseed Legumes 0 What s the story on alternative sweeteners Nutritive sweeteners Sucrose fructose honey and brown sugar 0 Sugar alcohols Some health bene ts reduced glycemic response and decreased risk for dental caries Less energy 23 kcal Attracts water to intestine since they are not absorbed Nonnutritive sweeteners quotNocalorie sweeteners Limited use of alternative sweeteners is not harmful Saccharin O O 300 times sweeter than sucrose Links to cancer not proven quotSweet n Lowquot AcesulfameK O O O O O quotSunettequot and quotSweet Onequot 200 times sweeter than sugar Taste does not change when heated Excreted by kidneys Recommended lntake is 15 mg per day per kg of body weight Aspartame O 0 Equal quotNutrisweetquot Phenylalanine and aspartic acid 180 times sweeter than sucrose Cannot be used during cooking lntake recommended to be 50 mg per kg of body weight daily Should not be used by those with Phenylketonuria Doesn t allow metabolism of phenylalanine Using aspartame would cause brain damage Sucralose 00000 O quotSplendaquot Sucrose and chlorine Passes through the body unchanged 600 times sweeter than sucrose Can be used in cooking lntake at 5 mg of kg of body weight Neotame and stevia O O Neotame 7000 times sweeter than sugar Stevia Puri ed extract of stevia plant 200 times sweeter than sugar Using arti cial sweeteners does not necessarily prevent weight gain 0 Remember calories in calories out o What disorders are related to carbohydrate metabolism Diabetes Impaired Regulation of Glucose Hyperglycemiahigh levels of blood glucose Diabetesbody can no longer regulate glucose levels and becomes dangerously high 0 Comes from chronic exposure of high glucose Can lead to 0 Macro vascular and micro vascular complications Neuropathyloss of sensation in hands and feet Ketoacidosis o More common in African Americans Hispanic and Native Americans Gestational diabetespregnancy diabetes 0 Type One Diabetes 0 Body cannot produce enough insulin Kidneys attempt to get rid of it via urine 0 Excessive peeing is one symptom o Autoimmune diseasebeta cells in pancreas are destroyed by the body 0 Genetic link Diagnosed around 1014 years of age 0 Only can be treated by insulin injections and monitoring glucose levels 0 Type Two diabetes 0 Body cells are resistant to insulin Develops over time o Obesity is a trigger Excessive lipids prevent insulin response Insulin sensitivityexcessive insulin secreted for compensation but then cannot be used for glucose levels 0 lmpaired fasting glucoseglucose levels high but not high enough to be labeled Type 2 prediabetic Pancreas eventually stops producing insulin 0 Sedentary lifestyle common with Type 2 0 Metabolic syndrome High waist circumference Elevated blood pressure High blood lipids and blood glucose Increased age 0 Normally more common with people older than 45 0 Lifestyle choices for prevention or control Moderate exercise Healthy eating 0 Less carbohydrates 0 Avoid alcohol Healthy body weight Medication Hypoglycemia 0 Low blood sugar Can be caused by 0 Excessive amounts of insulin 0 Being undercar bed during exercise Reactive hypoglycemia Too much insulin after a high carb meal 0 Symptoms occur 16 hours after eating shaking anxiety sweating irritability headache weakness irregular heartbeat Smaller meals recommended Fasting hypoglycemia Too much insulin constantly 0 Symptoms normally more than four hours after meal Lactose intolerance Chapter Five 0 Symptoms limited to GI tract Gas Bloating Cramping Nausea Diarrhea Discomfort 0 People less likely to digest lactose with age 0 Discovered by 0 What are lipids Insoluble in water solid and liquid in food Stored in adipose tissues in the body Combine with phosphorous in cell membranes Steroids At home trial and error Testing Triglycerides three fatty acids attached to three carbon glycerol s Same form as body fat Fatty acidslong chains of carbon bound to each other and hydrogen 0 Carboxyl group at end of chain Glycerolalcohol made of carbon Classi ed by 0 Chain length Short chainfewer than six carbons Mediumsix to twelve carbons Longfourteen or more carbons Determines digestion method adsorption and metabolism 0 Saturation level Saturated fatty acidno double bonded carbons lots of hydrogen Monounsaturatedtwo carbons double bonded excluded hydrogen liquids at room temp Polyunsaturatedmore than one double bond even less hydrogen liquid at room temp 0 Shape Saturated fats are straight molecules o Hydrogenation of oils hydrogen is added to fats o Partially hydrogenated some double bonds of carbon are broken in the process Unsaturated Cishydrogen atoms located on the same side of double bond Transhydrogen bonds located on opposite sides of double bond 0 Straighter more rigid Contain essential fatty acids 0 Essential fatty acidsdouble bonds closer to methyl end Must come from food 0 Eicosanoidssynthesized from fatty acids with twenty carbons Prostaglandins Thromboxane s Leukotriene s Regulate GI tract secretions blood clotting vasodilationconstriction vascular permeability and in ammation Depend on Linoleic acid 0 Vegetable and nut oils 0 Metabolized into arachidonic acid Alphalinoleic acid 0 Dark green leaves axseedssoybeans walnuts and canola oil Precursor to eicosapentaenoic acid and docasahexenoic acids Come from marine life Phospholipids combine lipids with phosphate Phosphate attached to third carbon 0 Soluble in water Transports substances and helps with digestion of fats o Lecithincombination of phospholipids bile salts and electrolytes Sterols have ring structure 0 Less common in plants 0 Absorb dietary cholesterol 0 Animal sterols Not needed to consume cholesterol because it s produced by the body 0 How does the body break down lipids lnguinal lipasesalivary enzyme that partially digest food Stomach breaks down lipids into droplets Gallbladder liver and pancreas assist in fat digestion Gall bladder releases bile to aid digestion of fats o Cholecystokinin CCKstimulates contractions o Secretin from duodenal musoca stimulates contraction o Bilemade in the liver 0 Cholesterol 0 Lecithinphospholipids with phosphatechlorine compounds with carbon back bone Hydrophobic tails Hydrophilic heads Break lipids into smaller and smaller droplets o Phospholipids o Electrolytes Lipids require speci c enzymes 0 Also for cholesterol and phospholipids Absorption of Lipids in Small lntestine Micellecompound of bile salts and phospholipids that capture lipid digestion products and transfer for absorption 0 Hydrophobic core 0 Hydrophilic surface 0 Made into lipoprotein cluster with triglycerides in the middle and other lipids biproducts on the outside of the circle 0 Chylomicronlipoprotein to transport lipids Created by 0 Using triglycerides and cholesterol in loose outer shell with phospholipidsproteins 0 Now water soluble o Moved into lymphatic systems 0 Moves dietary fat into the blood 0 Triglycerides released with lipoprotein lipase LPL o LPL breaks chylomicron seal and allows fat to move into cell Leads to decrease in size more dense chylomicron remnants Removed by liver 68 hours after meal Fat stored in adipose tissue for later use 0 Fate of chylomicron fat in blood 0 Used for energy for body muscle cells 0 Used to make lipid compounds 0 Stored in muscle or adipose tissue Converted back into triglycerides Stored in body tissues or muscles If active 0 Why do we need lipids Provide energy 0 9 kcal per gram 0 Dense energy 0 Source of fuel while at rest 0 3070 of energy used while sleeping comes from lipids Lipids fuel physical energy 0 During exercise can be taken for energy from adipose tissue muscles and blood Adrenaline epinephrinestrong breakdown of fats o Create hormonesensitive lipase to remove fatty acids from triglycerides and release them into the blood Decreases amount of insulin in the body Fatty acids attach to albumin and are transported to muscle cells 0 Help produce ATP Free glycerol can be used to create glucose Body fat stores energy for later use 0 Body fat allows for energy when we are unable to eat when exercising and sleeping Protects heart in small amounts Essential fatty acids are components of important biological compounds 0 Make up cell membranes 0 Prevent DNA damage 0 Fight infection 0 Growth and development Dietary fat enables the transport of fatsoluble vitamins o Absorbs and transports vitamins A D E and K o Transported to gut and intestinal cells for the micelles to transport to blood Lipids help maintain cell function and provide protection to the body 0 Maintain membrane integrity determine cell permeability regulate cell binding 0 Cell uidity o lnsulates and protects organs Contributes to avor and texture of foods 0 Create smooth and creaminess 0 Moisture o Frying adds crispness Fats help us feel satis ed 0 Satiationfullness o More dense energy Stimulates satiation Slowed with constant fat ingeonn o How much dietary fat should we eat Dietary reference intake for total fat 0 2030 of total energy 0 Minimize saturated and trans fats 0 Athletes More carbs less fat 2025 0 4555 g per day for 2000 kcal 7897 g per day for 3500 kcal Low fat diets less than 15 o No additional health bene ts 0 Less easy to achieve 0 Typically climate protein rich foods as well De ciencies Dietary Reference lntakes for Essential Fatty Acids Linoleic acid 0 1417 g per day for men 0 1112 g per day for women 0 1015 Alphalinoleic acid 0 16 g per day for men 0 11 g per day for women 0 0612 Most Americans Eat Too Much Saturated and Trans Fat 0 We have decreased our fat percent s but raised our total calories 0 Recommend 710 of saturated fat 0 Eat typically 1112 0 Trans fats should be kept to a minimum 0 23 in American diets Watch out for invisible fats o Visible fatsoil butter etc 0 Can be easily seen 0 Invisible fatsfats in prepared or processed foods Select bene cial fats Switch to vegetable oils 0 Low fat and fat free foods 0 Eat more sh 0 Twice a week More increases risk of toxins 0 Safe 0 Salmon o Trout o Flounder 0 Sole o Mahimahi o Cooked shell sh 0 Pick plants 0 Soyalmond milk 0 Tofu 0 Vegetable oils 0 Guacamole o Nutsseeds Flaxseeds Look out for lowfat O O No hydrogenated oils Low sat fat Liquid margarinesbutter made from plant oils Plant oils Reduced fat salad dressings mayo Low fat dairy Hard drier cheeses Lower fat cuts trimming fat removing skin Beans and legumes Watch when you re eating out 0 00000 O O 0 Choose sh or vegetarian Trim the fat Avoid fried Cut back on baked goods Split the meal Choose olive oil and vinegar over dressings Order a baked potato or rice Smaller servings Pizza with vegetable toppings Shareskip dessert Sorbet or angel food Coffee with skim milk Biscotti over brownie Be Aware of Fat Replacers Gastrointestinal side effects 0 What role do lipids play in cardiovascular disease and cancer What is cardiovascular disease Coronary heart diseaseheart blood vessels become blocked and reduced blood ow 0 Angina pectoris chest pain Strokeblock or rupture of blood vessel to brain 0 Hypertension high BP 0 Atherosclerosisnarrowing of arteries 0 Arterial walls narrow from scar tissue and lipid build up Cell injury 0 In ammation o Plaque build up Less blood ow Loss of function Heart attackstroke Risk factors for cardiovascular disease 0 Nonmodi able Age gender family history 0 Modi able Overweight Sedentary lifestyle Smoking Hypertension Type 2 diabetes In ammation Abnormal blood lipids Role of blood lipids in cardiovascular disease 0 Blood lipidslipids moved by blood lipoproteins Very low density lipoproteins 0 High ratio of lipids to proteins Produced in liver and intestines Move fats Chylomicrons Produced in enterocytes to moved dietary fat into lymph 0 Lowest density Low density lipoproteins 0 Higher in cholesterol phospholipids and protein 0 Deliver cholesterol to the cells o Slowed by a high saturated fat diet Overloads cholesterol in the blood Forms plaque High density lipoprotein 0 Low cholesterol high proteins 0 Transfer cholesterol to the liver 0 Creates bile Total serum cholesterol 0 Diet in crease of cholesterol less cholesterol produced by the body 0 Limit animal foods Role of dietary fats in cardiovascular disease 0 Saturated and trans fats Increase blood lipid levels Trans fatscan raise LDL and lower HDL Reduce intake of animal product hydrogenated vegetable products and commercial prepared foods Trans fatty acids must be listed on labels 0 Omega 3reduce in ammation blood triglycerides and increase HDL Lifestyle changes can prevent or reduce cardiovascular disease 0 Fat intake between 2035 Polyunsaturated 10 Monounsaturated 20 Saturated fat less than 7 of total energy Cholesterol less than 300 mg Minimum trans fatty acid intake Increase Omega 3 intake Dietary ber at 2030 g a day 1025 g from oat bran beans fruit 400 ug of folate Maintain blood glucose and insulin within normal range 0 Eat quotminimeals 0000 O OO 0 Only two drinks a day for men and one for women 0 Don t smoke 0 Active lifestyle 3060 mins 0 Maintain healthy body weight 0 Limit salt 0 Plant sterols Prescription medications can reduce cardiovascular disease risk 0 Lowers LDL Endogenous cholesterol synthesis inhibitors statins Lower LDL and VLDL o Antiin ammatory Bile acid sequestrates Bind bile acids 0 Reduced cholesterol Nicotinic acid 0 Lots of side affects Helps blood lipids Does a high fat diet cause cancer Breast cancer no link Colon cancerwestern diets have higher occurrences 0 Activity helps Prostate cancerlink between cancer and animal fats Recommendations Healthy weight Moderate physical activity Limit sugary drinks and empty calories Eat a variety of fruit vegetables and whole grains Limit red meat and processed meat Limit alcohol Limit salt Don t use supplements to protect against cancer 0000 0000
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