test 1 study guide py 365
test 1 study guide py 365 PY 365
Popular in Psychology of Aging
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Helen Hardin on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 365 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Forrest Scogin in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Aging in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
PY 365 Forrest Scogin TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE How old is old 0 How old do you have to be before a child calls you old 0 What is a kid s eye View on being old 0 From the book Old age ain t no place for Sissies O my daddy is 40 and you can tell he s getting old because he s so tired all the time 0 I say you re not old if you can still eat regular food 0 I guess 80 is old because that s when a lot of people die Old age 0 Age is a question of mind over matter If you don t mind it doesn t matter 0 Being able to embrace old age is the best thing to do 0 Your Views become more extensive 0 Youth has no age 0 What is old What is aging Stereotypes of Older Adults 0 Myths of aging lead to negative stereotypes of older people which can result in AGEISM or discrimination against older adults based on their age 0 PHYSICAL STEREOTYPE 0 People think most people over 65 are physically impaired in some way but this is false The majority report no impairments although older adults do suffer from at least one chronic disease 0 COGNITIVE STEREOTYPE 0 People think people over 65 are unable to think clearly remember things or learn new things and that a large percentage are senile but this is false Most are alert mentally capable and able to learn Only 57 have dementia 0 EMOTIONAL STEREOTYPE 0 People think people over 65 are unhappy fearful and depressed but this is false Rates of many emotional disorders are at their lowest ebb for older adults 0 SOCIAL STEREOTYPE 0 People think people over 65 are isolated but this is false Older adults are typically in close contact with family or close friends Defining AgingAge 0 Chronological Age O A poor descriptor of timedependent processes and serves only as a shorthand for the passage of calendar time 0 Perceived Age 0 The age you think yourself as being 0 Biological Age 0 Represents the person s present position with respect to potential life span 0 Psychological Age 0 Refers to psychological abilities that people use to adapt to changing environmental demands Why Study Aging 0 1 Personal reasons 0 younger people want to know what to expect 0 better interaction and ability to care for older adults 0 2 Population trends 0 rapid increase in number of older adults increase in proportion of older adults in total population increase in life expectancy increase in political power There will be an increase in older adults in years to come Alabama s population is 138 older adults Florida has the most old people In 2010 80 of older adults are nonhispanic whites but that is projected to decrease by 2050 0 3 Professional reasons 0 career may involve working with older people 0 career may entail carrying out research on aging OOOOOOO LECTURE 3 General Issues in Studying Adult Development and Aging Research Methods Basics of Research Methods 0 1 What to examine 0 2 Study designs used 0 3 Seattle study example Developing a research question 0 What is a research question 0 The problem to be investigated in the study stated as a question 0 It is usually more exploratory than a hypothesis 0 Examples I What is the relation between age and depressive symptoms I How does age affect cognition Independent vs Dependent Variables 0 Independent variable IV 0 Presumed cause in the study 0 Aspect of the environment that an experimenter modifies or manipulates to measure its impact 0 Dependent Variable DV 0 Behaviors or outcomes measured in an experiment 0 Aspect of behavior that is measured in an experiment and assumed to be under the control of the independent variable 0 How does exercise affect depressive symptoms example 0 Exercise IV depressive symptoms DV General Designs for Research 0 Experimental design 0 The experimenter directly manipulates one or more IVs I With random assignment causality can be established 0 Strength internal validity 0 One can be more certain than With any other design about attributing cause to the independent variables 0 Weakness external validity 0 It many be inappropriate to generalize results beyond the laboratory 0 Correlational design 0 Examine the relations among two or more variables as they exist naturally I We can t make causal attributions I We observe behaviors and try to determine Whether any relations exists I Commonly used in aging research 0 Cause and effect relationships can t be determined Designs for Studying Development 0 Crosssectional designs 0 Most common design in use in aging research 0 All measurements are made at the same time or approximate time 0 Advantages I Inexpensive I Good for exploratory investigations 0 Disadvantages 0 Looks only at age differences not changes 0 Confounds cohort effects I Age effect re ects the in uence of timedependent processes on development I Cohort effect re ects differences caused by experiences and circumstances unique to the historical time in which one lives ex WWII home computers 0 Longitudinal designs 0 The same individuals are observed repeatedly at different points in their lives 0 Advantages I Allows direct measurement of change I Less affected by cohort effects 0 Disadvantages O Expensive O Selective attrition dropout 0 Practice effects 0 Outdated measures 0 Sequential designs 0 Combination of crosssectional and longitudinal designs 0 Advantages I Can estimate the effects of aging and cohort O Disadvantages O Expensive and time consuming O Selective attrition is present here too Seattle Longitudinal Study 0 participants completed extensive batteries of intelligence tests including measures of inductive reasoning word uency and perceptual speed as well as plenty of other measures such as information on demographic background lifestyle personality and health These data are the basis of more than 100 scientific publications that inform today s knowledge of adult intellectual functioning MetaAnalysis 0 Technique that allows researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables 0 Metaanalysis allows researchers to determine whether a finding generalized across many studies that used different methods Ch 2 Neuroscience as a basic for adult development and aging The Neuroscience Approach 0 MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging 0 fMRI functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 0 these are important tools for understanding the brain 0 MRI gives snapshots 0 fMRI monitors dynamic activities with behavioral performance 0 allows study of age related pathologies O alzheimers O parkinsons Structure of Brain 0 deteriorating structural changes relate to cognitive function 0 less efficient information processing I speed I functions I ability to make and carry out plans I switch between tasks I maintain attention and focus 0 volume shrinkage in the brain linked to 0 lower cognitive test scores 0 poor performance of functions AgeRelated changes in brain activity 0 fMRI examines this Compensation and Prefrontal Bilaterality 0 studies show that when presented with similar tasks younger adults exhibit unilateral activity in left prefrontal region and older adults exhibit bilateral activity both left and right HAROLD Hemisphere Asymmetry Reduction in OLder aDults 0 suggest bilaterality is compensatory in older adults with reduced cognitive ability Biological Theories of Aging Why we age 0 theories 0 rate of living theories I assume people are born with limited energy in a lifetime 0 slow metabolic rates in animals 0 decreased caloric intatke O cellular theories I cellular level aging I Hay ic limit 0 Cells have limited ability to divide before dying 0 May be due to shortening of telomeres O programmed cell death theories l body is preprogrammed to self destruct l bodies age according to timetable in genes Changes in appearance 0 0000000000 Wrinkles 0 3050 and after Skin thinner drier Pigment containing cells decrease Age spots Moles Varicose veins Hair gets thinner Voice changes pitch trembling volume Height decreases Weakness of muscles Weight increases then decreases Changes in mobility O O O Muscles 39 Strength loss I No difference between men and women however Bones I Mass loss in late 30s 50s 70s 39 Sex difference 39 Osteoporosis degenerative bone disease where bone tissue deteriorates severely Joints 0 Begins in 20s 0 Osteoporosis O Rheumatoid arthritis Changes in sensory systems 0 O O 0 Vision and hearing most obvious changes Presbycusis reduced ability to hear high pitches primarily caused by noise exposure Presbyopia loss of ability to focus on nearby objects glasses Cataracts cloudy areas developing in lens from ultraviolet light 75 of people over 65 can be repaired with surgery Glaucoma build up of pressure on eye from uid not draining results in loss of vision Diabetic retinopathy Macular degeneration vision Changes in balance 0 Changes in vestibular system increases falls Changes in smell and taste 0 Number of olfactory receptors decreases may be due to environmental toxins 0 Tobacco use loss of teeth cognitive changes Exercise and Aging 0 Inactivity likely to accelerate aging 0 Adults should be physically active Longterm care 0 Long history of institutional care C Concerns regarding quality and cost 0 least restrictive alternative starting Community based 0 adult day care 0 younger M75 0 ADL impaired senior centers transportation meals on Wheels telephone reassurance case management financial management Home health services 0 nursing care respite care medical equipment 0 O 0 home repair 0 hospice O for older adults ADL impaired Residential care alternatives 0 inlaw apartments 0 housing 0 boardcare homes group homes 0 80 and older 0 ADL impaired 0 Assisted living 0 Life careCCRCs Skilled Nursing facilities 0 15600 nationwide I postacute 0 chronic care Problems with Nursing Homes 0 decreased autonomy 0 when to eat wake up sleep bathe what to do all day etc I CNAs and LPNs provide direct care Improving nursing homes 0 Improving quality of care Federal nursing home reform act Stronger federal role Revisions in standards and inspections Better training Improved assessments Residents rights Freedom from restraints Individualized car plans Emphasis on quality of care Culture change 0 Deinstitutionalize I Private rooms I Plants I Pets I Homelike environments 0 Promote autonomy I Residents control their day when to wake up bathe sleep eat etc 0 Decompartmentalize I Hierarchy is attened I Crosstraining Longevity Health and Functioning Longevity 0 Average 0 Average life expectancy 0 Increasing 0 Maximum 0 Maximum life span 0 Oldest age to which a species lives 0 120 years for humans 0 Active 0 Living to a healthy old age independently O Dependent 0 After losing independence 0 Life expectancy at birth 0 Years you will most likely live from birth 0 Life expectancy at a specific age 0 Additional years you can live from certain age 0 Oldest person ever lived 0 Jeanne Calment 122 years born in 1875 France 0 Genetic and environmental factors affect longevity O Strongest length of parents life 0 Health behaviors lifestyle toxins ses I Health behaviors smoking weight sleep diet exercise screening medication adherence O Sex differences 0 Women and men 7 years Health and Illness Health 0 State of complete physical mental and social wellbeing Illness 0 Presence of a physical or mental disease or impairment Acute diseases 0 Colds u food poisoning Chronic diseases 0 Last at least 3 months 0 Diabetes osteoarthritis Leading causes of death 0 Hearth disease 0 Cancer Stress and coping Physiological state Prolonged exposure results in damaging of the sympathetic nervous system 0 Cortisol Effects on health 0 Stress lowers the immune s system ability to fight off viral infections O Increases risk of atherosclerosis arteries which leads to strokes and heart attacks 0 Systemic in ammation Handling stress is a balancing act I Stressor 0 Agent condition or other stimulus that causes stress I Appraisal Coping 0 Dealing With stress 0 Problemfocused I Making a plan and taking action 0 Emotionfocused I Expressing anger I Stressful events 0 HolmesRahe life stress inventory I Life events scale I EX death of spouse death of family member retirement I Coping strategies 0 Past experiences 0 Religiousspiritual coping Functional health limitations 0 Activities of Daily Living ADLs 0 Basic selfcare 0 Daily function tasks 0 Bathing eating walking 0 Instrumental Activities of Daily Living IADLs O Require cognitive competence O Paying bills taking medications shopping planning 0 Medication use 0 Polypharmacy I Use of multiple medications at one time I Dangerous I Difficult With older adults I Multiple doctors complicate this I Caused of limitations 0 Cerebrovascular disease Arthritis Smoking Drinking Inactivity Depression Social isolation OOOOOO 0 Poor health Person environment interactions Models of personenvironment interactions Kurt Lewin conceptualized personenvironment interactions BfPE Behavior B is a function of both person P and environment E Applied to older adults Competence and environmental press model 0 Competence 0 Environmental press I Physical interpersonal social demands put on people 0 Adaptation O The less competent the more impact from the environment Housing longterm care People over 65 most likely live in the community not in institutions Most want to stay home Aging in place Problems because houses aren t built for older people Recent decline in nursing home residence Communicating With older adults 0 Do not I Patronize I Infantilize I Use inappropriate use of first name I Use terms of endearment I Assume impairment Cajole to demand compliance
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