Midterm Study Guide
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CSCI A110: Intro to Computers and Computing
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Austin Courter on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BUS-K 201 at Indiana University taught by Cynthia Stone in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 36 views.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
ariindianaedu Intro to MIS is the most important class in the business school because of moore39s law The cost of data communications and data storage is essentially zero 0 Future business professionals need to be able to assess evaluate and apply emerging info technology to business 0 Job security with skills like abstract reasoning systems thinking collaboration and ability to experiment What is MIS Management information systemsthe management and use of information systems that help organizations achieve their strategies 3 components Sbelow management systems and strategies Management systems develop maintain and adapt to the new systems you will learn Strategies IS is there for the progression of the business Fivecomponent framework This is what is within an IS 0 Computer hardware software databridge bw comps and people procedures and peopemost important componental of these are in every Info system Listed from smallest to largest as well as by difficulty Hardware is easy to change changing the way people work isn39t People and Hardwareactorstake actions Soft and procinstructions Databridge Difference between IT and IS 0 IT refers to products methods inventions and standards that are used for the purpose of producing info IT drives the dvlpt of new Info systems 0 IS Can39t buy an IS Includes people and procedures which you can t buy What is Information 0 Data raw facts and gures becomes info when you can relate it to something so it is meaningful Information data presented in a meaningful form Knowledge you gain from data Necessary Data Characteristics Accuracy people need to be able to rely on results from the info system Timely available by time of use Doesn39t have to be up to date by the second Relevant relevant to both context and subject Just suf cient inundated with info Worth its cost relation bw cost of data amp value Chapter 2 Characteristics of Collaboration 0 Difference bw cooperation and collaboration 0 Cooperation is a group of people working separately or together to get a job done 0 Collaboration better uses iteration and feedback A person in the group gets feedback for what they have done and x it to form an iteration which is something that is reviewed again Criteria for Successful Collaboration 0 Successful Outcome 0 Growth in Team Capability did the team get better Did it make better work processes As one person does something over and over they get better at it Meaningful and Satisfying experience good experience Four Purposes of collaboration 0 Become informed most fundamental and rst purpose of collaboration 0 Making Decisions3 levels Figure 23 pg 39 0 Operational Decisions support day to day activities Mostly structured but can be unstructured Doesn39t require much collaboration EX How many things should we order from person A o Managerial decisions about allocation and utilization of resources Doesn39t always use collaboration but still does often Tend to be both structured and unstructured EX How many square feet of warehouse do we need for next year 0 Strategic support broad scope organizational issues Almost Always requires collaboration Generally is always unstructured EX Should we start a new product line Structured vs Unstructured opinion STRUCTURED Process in which there is an understood and accepted method for making a decision UNS Process in which there is no agreed upon decision making method 0 Problem Solving rst and most important task to this is de ning the problem 0 Project Management Four phases starting team roles rules etc planning assign tasks to be done doing do it nalizing Collaboration involves two types of data 0 Project data that is part of the collaborations work product 0 Project Metadata data used to manage project How to use collaboration tools to improve team communication Synchronous Communication meet face to face conference calls webinars Basically you are talking to one another at the same time Asynchronous Email discussion forum Not meeting at the same time 0 Virtual Meeting can be either of the things above Except you don39t go to meet them in a place or even a certain time sometimes How to share content with collaboration tools 0 File Server share things with this It is a computer that shares les essentially Version Control process that occurs when the collaboration tool limits and sometimes even directs user activity Windows Sigdrive Version Management Google Drive wikis and windows live Slqdrive tracks changes and provide features and functions to allow concurrent work Chapter 5 Purpose of a Database keeps track of things Lists of data with a single theme belong in a spreadsheet Multiple themes database What is a Database self describing collection of integrated records 0 Collection of tables relationships and metadata Tablefile rowrecord Columnfield Metadata data that describe data Design view is what shows this Components of a Database Application System User database app DBMS Database DBMS program used to create process and administer a database 0 Access is a DBMS 0 Used to create tables relationships and other structures 0 Used to process the database read insert modify or delete data 0 Structured Query LanguageSQLint39l standard language for processing a database 0 Database administration acting as administrator you do things like set security for the database Database Applications make databases more useful 0 Database Application collection of forms reports queries and application programs that process a database Multiuser processing two people attempt to buy something at the same time and one buys the item before the other has a chance to and it doesn39t update in time for the person to not place the order for something that no longer exists 0 Lostupdate Problem This occurs when two transactions that access the same database items have their operations interleaved in a way that makes the value of some database item incorrect Two categories of a DBMS Access is both a DBMS AND an application development product because it had features that allow you to process applications 0 Enterprise DBMS products process large organizational and workgroup databases 0 Personal DBMS products are designed for smaller simpler database apps Used for small workgroup apps with less than100 users but usually less than 15 Access is an example of one of these How are data models used for database development 0 Data model developers construct a logical representation of database data known as a data model De nition describes data and relationships that will be stored in a database AKA a Blueprint Basically what a database will look like EntityRelationship data model a tool for constructing data models Developers use it to describe the content of a data model by de ning the things that will be stored in the database and the relationships of those entities Entity something that users want to track like an order or customer 0 Attributes of entities describe the entity Order number 0 Identi er of entities Attribute whose value is associated with one and only one entity Sales person name is the identi er of sales person Crow39s feet shorthand for multiple lines that link the relationships A one to many relation would have crows feet on the many part How is a data model Transformed into a database design Normalization process of converting shitty structured table into 2 or more not shitty structured tables 0 Goal of Normalization is to construct tables so that each table has a single topic or theme 0 Data integrity problem produces incorrect and inconsistent results ONLY occurs if data is duplicated Like having 2 elds say Accounting and Finance but one says only Accounting when it is supposed to say both in the eld Chapter 9 Bl Systems 0 Bl System info systems that process operational social and other data to identify patterns relationships and trends for use by business professionals 0 Purpose nd and identify patterns relationships trends for use by business Examples of where a BI system may acquire is data 0 Purchase the data social media other companies employee knowledge 3 Primary activities in the BI Process Acquire data perform analysis and publish results 0 Data acquisition process of obtaining cleaning organizing relation and cataloging source data 0 Bl analysis process of creating business analysis 4 categories of this include data mining reporting Big data and Knowledge Management 0 Publish results process of delivering business intelligence to the knowledge workers who need it 0 Push Publishing delivers business intelligence to users without any type of request from them ie those bullshit push noti cations on your phone 0 Pull Publishing Requires users to request the BI results How do organizations use data warehouses and Data Marts to acquire data 0 Data Warehouse purpose of it is to manage an organization39s Bl data Why is it necessary for a large business to conduct Bl analyses because 0 Security and control 0 Designed for fast and reliable transaction processing 0 Analysis on operational data can dramatically reduce system performance 0 Functions include 0 Obtain Data 0 Cleanse Data 0 Organize and relate data 0 Catalog data 0 Problems with Operational Data 0 Dirty Data Things like inconsistent data missing values problematic data 0 Granularity level of detail represented by the data Better to have too ne than too coarse granularity 0 Data Mart data collection smaller than the data warehouse that addresses the needs of a particular department or functional area of the business How do organizations use data mining applications 0 Data mining is the application of statistical techniques to nd patterns and relationships among data for classi cation and prediction 0 Positives predict sales and peak periods trends 0 Negative they invade your privacy 0 Used by companies like amazon Unsupervised data mining no model or hypothesis is created before running the analysis 0 Cluster analysis identify groups of entities that have similar characteristics Supervised data miners develop a model prior to analysis and apply statistical techniques to data to estimate parameters of the model 0 Market Basket Analysis unsupervised data mining technique for determining sales patterns Shows patterns of products that certain customers tend to buy Role of Knowledge Management systems 0 KM help create value from intellectual capital what people know and share it with others Goals improve process quality 0 Expert systems put human knowledge into ifthen statements Do this before someone leaves the company so that you can have their knowledge stored in the system Hypersocial KM use of social media and apps to deliver knowledge throughout company Alternatives for Publishing Bl Dynamic reports Bl docs that are updated at the time they are requested 0 Static reports Bl reports that are xed at the time of creation and don39t change Chapter 10 Phases of systems development SDLC traditional process used to develop information systems and appHcanns Phases 0 De ne system cost feasibility schedule feasibility technical feasibility and organizational feasibility Determine Requirements Design system components Implement system Maintain system 0000 keys to success 0 Trade off balance of three factors requirement costs and time
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