Study Guide Midterm #1
Study Guide Midterm #1 BIOH 112 - 01
Popular in Human Form and Function I
Popular in Biological Sciences
BIOB 260 - 00
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Corymarie Notetaker on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOH 112 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Heather Dawn Labbe (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 267 views. For similar materials see Human Form and Function I in Biological Sciences at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Chapter 1 Key points and Checkpoint Questions WNA Levels of a structural organization in the human body chemical cellular tissue organ system and organismal level Eleven Systems of the Human Body Table 11 two or more atoms join together to form what To which level of organization does this belong Which levels of structural organization are you unable to see with your naked eye Which level of organization is composed of two or more different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function How are organs and tissues different Homeostasis is the maintenance of relatively stable conditions in the body s internal environment 5 What are some examples of movements that occur inside the human body 6 Shivering when a cold wind blows over you is an example of what basic life process 7 Where would you find intracellular fluid extracellular fluid and interstitial fluid 8 A spinal tap is a procedure in which fluid is drawn from the space between the membranes that surround the spinal cord What type of body fluid is being extracted The three basic components of a feedback system are the receptors a control center and effectors Know how to differentiate between positive and negative feedback loops If the response reverses the stimulus a system is operating by negative feedback If the response enhances or intensifies the stimulus a system is operating by positive feedback ex childbirth 9 Which two body systems are largely responsible for maintaining homeostasis 10 What is the name for the body structure that responds to the control center signal in a feedback system 11 The response to a stimulus in either a negative or positive feedback system is initiated by what body systems 12 How are negative and positive feedback systems similar How are they different Which one bears primary responsibility for maintaining homeostasis 13 Why do positive feedback systems that are part of a normal physiological response include a mechanism to stop them In the anatomical position the subject stands erect facing the observer with the head level and the eyes facing forward The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward and the upper limbs are at the sides with the palms facing forward Directional term precisely locate various parts of the body relative to one another Frontal transverse sagittal and oblique planes divide the body in specific ways Planes divide the body in various ways to produce sections 14 Describe the anatomical position in your own words 15 Blood is typically drawn from the antecubital space Where is this 16 Is the esophagus anterior or posterior to the trachea Is the urinary bladder medial or lateral to the ascending colon Is the radius proximal or distal to the humerus Are the ribs superficial or deep to the lungs 17 Which directional terms can be used to specify the relationships between 1 the elbow and the shoulder 2 the left and right shoulders 3 the sternum and the humerus and 4 the heart and the diaphragm 18 What is the difference between a plane and a section The major cavities of the trunk are the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities The thoracic cavity contain three smaller cavities pericardial pleural and parietal and the mediastinum The abdominopelvic cavity extends from the diaphragm to the groin 19 The diaphragm separates what two cavities 20 In which cavities are the following organs located urinary bladder stomach heart small intestine lungs thymus and liver Use the following symbols for your response T thoracic cavity A abdominal cavity or P pelvic cavity 21 Which of the following structures are contained in the mediastinum right lung heart esophagus spinal cord trachea ribs thymus left pleural cavity 22 What is the name of the cavity that surrounds the heart Which cavities surround the lungs 23 What organ lies distinctly in both the abdominal and pelvic cavities 24 What is the function of serous membranes 25 What is the meaning of the term retroperitoneal Chapter 1 Checkpoint Answers molecules chemical level chemical cellular tissue organ organs composed of different kinds of tissues which join together tissues groups of cells and the materials around them which work together to perform a particular function 5 movement of blood food through the GI tract skeletal muscles 6 responsiveness 7 intracellular fluid inside cells extracellular fluid outside cells interstitial fluid between cells of tissues 8 cerebrospinal fluid 9 nervous system endocrine system 10 effector 11 nervous system endocrine system 12 a both occur in response to a stimulus to regulate a controlled condition b negative feedback reverses the stimulus positive feedback enhances the stimulus c negative feedback systems 13 if unstopped the mechanism can produce lifethreatening conditions in the body 14 subject stands erect facing the observer head is level eyes face forward feet are flat on the floor and directed forward upper limbs are at the sides with palms turned forward 15 front of the elbow 16 a posterior b medial c distal d superficial 17 a proximal and distal b medial and lateral c medial and lateral d superior and inferior 18 planes are imaginary flat surfaces that pass through various parts of the body a section is a cut through a structure along a plane 19 thoracic and abdominopelvic 20 urinary bladder P stomach A heart T small intestine A lungs T thymus T liver A 21 heart esophagus trachea thymus 22 a pericardial b pleural 23 large intestine 24 reduce friction 25 between the abdominopelvic wall and the peritoneum AWNA Chapter 2 Key points and Checkpoint Questions 0 An atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains the properties and characteristics of its element 0 The atoms of different elements have different atomic numbers because they have different numbers of protons o A free radical has an unpaired electron in its outermost electron shell 1 Which subatomic particles allow atoms to form ions or combine into molecules 2 What is the charge of protons neutrons and electrons Why is the charge of an electrically neutral atom zero 3 What are the atomic number mass number and atomic mass of carbon How are they related 4 What are isotopes and free radicals An ionic bond is the force of attraction that holds together oppositely charged ions In a covalent bond two atoms share one two or three pairs of valence electrons Hydrogen bonds occur because hydrogen atoms in one water molecule are attracted to the partial negative charge of the oxygen atom in another water molecule 5 Which electron shell is the valence shell of an atom and what is its significance 6 What is the principal difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond 7 How does a hydrogen bond form The number of atoms of each element is the same before and after a chemical reaction Activation energy is the energy needed to break chemical bonds in the reactant molecules so a reaction can begin 0 Catalysts speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required to initiate them 8 What is the relationship between reactants and products in a chemical reaction What is the collective term for chemical reactions occurring in the body 9 Why is the reaction illustrated in Figure 28 exergonic 10 How do catalysts affect activation energy 11 Define anabolism and catabolism Which of the two usually involve endergonic reactions 12 What are reversible reactions 0 Water is a versatile solvent because its polar covalent bonds in which electrons are shared unequally create positive and negative regions Dissociation is the separation of inorganic acids bases and salts into ions in a solution The lower the numerical value of the pH the more acidic is the solution because the H concentration becomes progressively greater A pH above 7 indicates a basic alkaline solution that is there are more OH than H The higher the pH the more basic the solution 13 How do inorganic compounds differ from organic compounds 14 What functions does water perform in the body 15 What is the difference between a solvent and a solute 16 How do hydrophilic molecules differ from hydrophobic molecules 17 What is hydrolysis 18 Which pH is more acidic 682 or 691 19 Why are buffers important in maintaining homeostasis In standard shorthand carbon atoms are understood to be at locations where two bond lines intersect and single hydrogen atoms are not indicated Monosaccharides are the monomers used to build carbohydrates 20 How do polymers and monomers differ Glycogen is made up of glucose monomers and is the stored form of carbohydrate in the human body 21 What is the primary function of carbohydrates 22 Which body cells store glycogen One glycerol and three fatty acids are the monomers of triglycerides Phospholipids are the main lipids in cell membranes Cholesterol is the starting material for synthesis of other steroids in the body 23 How do saturated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats differ in structure What is one dietary source of each type of triglyceride 24 How does a phospholipid differ structurally from a triglyceride Which portion of a phospholipid is hydrophilic and which portion is hydrophobic 25 What is the importance to the body of triglycerides phospholipids and steroids Body proteins contain 20 different amino acids each of which has a unique side chain Amino acids are the monomers used to build proteins The unique shape of each protein permits it to carry out specific functions a The primary structure is the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide b Common secondary structures include alpha helixes and beta pleated sheets For simplicity c The tertiary structure is the overall folding pattern that produces a distinctive threedimensional shape d The quaternary structure in a protein is the arrangement of two or more polypeptide chains relative to one another An enzyme is a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction without being altered or consumed 26 How are the components of proteins different from those in carbohydrates or lipids 27 What is a peptide bond How many peptide bonds would there be in a tripeptide 28 What is the difference between a peptide a polypeptide and a protein 29 List the important properties of enzymes 30 Describe the mechanism by which enzymes are able to speed up the rate of chemical reactions Nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids 31 What are the functions of DNA and RNA 32 What are the components of a nucleotide ATP transfers chemical energy to power cellular activities 36 What are some cellular activities that depend on energy supplied by ATP 37 What is the composition of ATP Chapter 2 Checkpoint Answers 1 electrons 2 a proton positive neutron zero electron negative b the neutral atom has a zero charge because the negatively charged electrons and positively charged protons equal each other 3 a atomic number 6 mass number 12 atomic mass 12011 b atomic number is the number of protons in an atom the mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in an atom the atomic mass is the average mass of all of the naturally occurring isotopes of the element 4 a isotopes are atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers b a free radical is an electrically charged atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in the outermost shell 5 the outermost electron shell around an atom the number of electrons in the valence shell will determine whether or not another atom will form a chemical bond with that atom 6 ionic bond involves transfer of electrons from one atom to another atom covalent bond is sharing of electrons between two atoms 7 a slightly positive charge of a hydrogen atom forms a weak bond with a negative charge of a neighboring atom 8 a reactants are the starting substances in a reaction products are the ending substances b metabolism 9 the reaction shown releases more energy than it absorbs 10 they lower the amount of energy needed to start the reaction 11 a anabolism a chemical reaction that forms a new and larger molecule catabolism a chemical reaction that splits larger molecules into smaller chemical components b anabolism reactions 12 reactions in which products can revert back to the original reactants 13 How do inorganic compounds differ from organic compounds 14 What functions does water perform in the body 15 What is the difference between a solvent and a solute 16 How do hydrophilic molecules differ from hydrophobic molecules 17 What is hydrolysis 18 Which pH is more acidic 682 or 691 19 Why are buffers important in maintaining homeostasis 20 Monomers are small buildingblock molecules polymers are macromolecules made up of monomers bonded together 21 Primary source of chemical energy for generating ATP 22 Liver cells and skeletal muscle cells 23 a saturated fats contain only single covalent bonds between fatty acid carbon atoms monounsaturated fats contain fatty acids with one double covalent bond between two fatty acid carbon atoms polyunsaturated fats contain more than one double covalent bond between fatty acid carbon atoms b saturated fats meats nonskim dairy products a few plant products monounsaturated fats olive oil peanut oil canola oil most nuts and avocadoes polyunsaturated fats corn oil safflower oil sunflower oil soybean oil and fatty fish 24 a a triglyceride consists of a single glycerol backbone with three fatty acid molecules attached to it a triglyceride has a glycerol backbone with two fatty acid molecules and a phosphate group attached to it b The polar phosphate group and charged group form the hydrophilic head and the nonpolar fatty acids form the hydrophobic tails 25 triglycerides are the body39s most highly concentrated form of chemical energy phospholipids make up much of the membrane that surrounds each cell steroids are required for cell membrane structure cholesterol regulating sexual functions estrogen and progesterone maintaining normal blood sugar levels cortisol digesting and absorbing lipids bile salts and bone growth vitamin D 26 Proteins contain carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen and are much more complex than carbohydrates or lipids 27 a The covalent bond joining two amino acids together b 2 28 Peptide is a chain of four to nine amino acids polypeptide is a chain of 10 to 2000 or more amino acids protein is a polypeptide that contains as few as 50 or as many as 2000 amino acids 29 Specificity efficiency control 30 Enzymes lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction by decreasing the randomness of the collisions between molecules They also help bring the substrates together in the proper orientation so that the reaction can occur 31 DNA forms the inherited genetic material inside each human cell whereas RNA relays instructions from the genes to guide each cell39s synthesis of proteins from amino acids 32 A nitrogenous base a fivecarbon sugar and a phosphate group 36muscle contractions movement of chromosomes during cell division movement of structures within cells transport of substances across cell membranes and synthesis of larger molecules from smaller ones 37three phosphate groups attached to adenosine Chapter 3 Key Points and Checkpoint Questions 0 The cell is the basic living structural and functional unit of the body 1 What is the difference between cytoplasm and cytosol o Membranes are fluid structures because the lipids and many of the proteins are free to rotate and move sideways in the bilayer o Membrane proteins largely reflect the functions a cell can perform 2 How do hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions govern the arrangement of membrane lipids in a bilayer 3 What is the glycocalyx 4 Which substances can diffuse through the lipid bilayer Which cannot 5 Explain in your own words the concept of selective permeability of the plasma membrane 6 What factors contribute to an electrochemical gradient n diffusion a substance moves down its concentration gradient In simple diffusion a substance moves across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane without the help of membrane transport proteins In facilitated diffusion a substance moves across the lipid bilayer aided by a channel protein or a carrier protein 0 Channels are integral membrane proteins that allow specific small ions to pass across the membrane by facilitated diffusion Osmosis is the movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane Cells placed in an isotonic solution maintain their shape because there is no net water movement into or out of the cell Cells swell in hypotonic solutions because water enters cells faster than they leave Cells shrink in hypertonic solutions because water leaves the cell quicker than they enter 0 Sodiumpotassium pumps which are primary active pumps maintain a low intracellular concentration of sodium ions and a high concentration of potassium ions 0 Secondary Active transport mechanisms use the energy stored in an ionic concentration gradient Because primary active transport pumps that hydrolyzed ATP maintain the gradient secondary active transport mechanisms consume ATP indirectly Receptormediated endocytosis imports materials that are needed by cells Phagocytosis is a vital defense mechanism that helps protect the body from disease Most cells carry out bulkphase endocytosis the nonselective uptake of time droplets of extracellular fluid 7 What is the key difference between passive and active transport 8 Which factors can increase the rate of diffusion 9 What is osmotic pressure 10 How do primary active transport and secondary active transport differ 11 How do symporters and antiporters carry out their functions 12 What is transcytosis o The cytoskeleton is a network of three types of protein filaments that extend throughout the cytoplasm microfilaments intermediate filaments and microtubules 0 Located near the nucleus the centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles and pericentriolar material 0 A cilium contains a core of microtubules with one pair in the center surrounded by nine clusters of doublet microtubules Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membraneenclosed sacs or tubules that extend throughout the cytoplasm and connect to the nuclear envelope Most proteins synthesized by ribosomes attached to the rough ER pass through the Golgi complex for further processing All proteins exported from the call are process in the Golgi complex Lysosomes contain several types of powerful digestive enzymes Within mitochondria chemical reactions of aerobic cellular respiration generate ATP 13 Which cytoskeletal components help form the structure of microvilli Which help form centrioles cilia and flagella 14 What is the functional difference between cilia and flagella 15 Where are subunits of ribosomes synthesized Where are they assembled 16 What are the structural and functional differences between rough and smooth ER 17 What are the three general destinations for proteins that leave the Golgi complex 18 What is autolysis 19 What happens on the cristae and in the matrix of mitochondria The nucleus contains most of the cell s genes which are located on chromosomes A chromosome is a highly coiled and folded DNA molecule that is combined with protein molecules 20 How do large particles enter and exit the nucleus 21 How is DNA packed inside the nucleus 22 What are the components of a nucleosome Transcription occurs in the nucleus translation occurs in the cytoplasm During transcription the genetic information is DNA is copied to RNA Ribosomes have a binding site for mRNA and a P site and an A site for attachment of tRNA During protein synthesis the small and large ribosomal subunits join to form a functional ribosome 23 What is the difference between transcription and translation 24 What are the functions of mRNA rRNA and tRNA 25 Which roles do the P and A sites serve In a complete cell cycle a cell duplicates its contents and divides into two identical cells In somatic cell division a single diploid cell divides to produce two identical diploid cells In reproductive cell division a single diploid starting cell undergoes meiosis and meiosis II to produce four haploid gametes that are genetically different from the starting cell that produced them The phases of mitosis and meiosis II are similar 26 What is the difference between somatic and reproductive cell division What is the importance of each 27 What are the major events of each phase of interphase 28 What are the major events of each stage of the mitotic phase of the cell cycle 29 When does cytokinesis begin during the cell cycle 30 How does anaphase of meiosis differ from anaphase of mitosis and anaphase II of meiosis 31 What is the significance of meiosis Chapter 3 Checkpoint Answers A I 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 cytoplasm is all the cell components between the plasma membrane and nucleus while cytosol is the liquid portion of the cytoplasm the hydrophobic ends of the lipids face inward and the hydrophilic ends face outward the carbohydrate portions of glycolipids and glycoproteins which enable cells to recognize one another uncharged nonpolar molecules and some small uncharged polar molecules can pass through the lipid bilayer ions and large uncharged polar molecules selective permeability allows some substances to pass readily across the membrane and prohibits others from crossing differences in chemical concentration and electrical charges between the cytosol and extracellular fluid sides of the plasma membrane energy input from the cell steepness of the concentration gradient temperature mass of the diffusing substances surface area diffusion distance a force proportional to the concentration of the solute particles that cannot cross the plasma membrane the key difference is the source of energy used to drive the process energy obtained from hydrolysis of ATP powers primary active transport and energy stored in an ionic concentration gradient powers secondary active transport symporters move substances in the same direction antiporters move substances in opposite directions an active process by which vesicles are used to successively move a substance into through and out of a cell a microfilaments b microtubules cilia move substances across the cell surface a flagellum moves the entire cell they are formed in the nucleolus and assembled in the cytoplasm rough ER has ribosomes attached to the membrane and is involved in the synthesis of proteins smooth ER lacks ribosomes and is involved in the synthesis of lipids extracellular fluid plasma membrane other cytoplasmic organelles such as lysosomes process by which lysosomes digest an entire cell ATP is produced by the aerobic phase of cellular respiration via nuclear pores in chromosomes doublestranded DNA linker DNA and histone proteins transcription is the copying of a region of DNA into a complementary copy called mRNA translation is the production of a protein based on the mRNA copy mRNA enters the cytoplasm to direct the synthesis of a specific protein rRNA joins with ribosomal proteins to make ribosomes tRNA binds to an amino acid and holds it in place until it is incorporated into a protein during translation P site holds the first tRNA with its amino acid A site holds the next tRNA with another amino acid in somatic cell division a cell undergoes mitosis and cytokinesis to produce two identical cells reproductive cell division is a mechanism that produces gametes which have half the chromosome number of the somatic cells 27 28 29 30 31 G1 phase cell growth organelle duplication beginning of centriole replication S phase DNA replication G2 phase synthesis of enzymes and other proteins completion of centrosome replication prophase chromatin fibers condense into paired chromatids nucleolus and nuclear enveolope disappear centrosomes move to opposite poles of the cell metaphase centromeres of chromatid pairs line up at the metaphase plate anaphase centromeres split identical sets of chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell telophase nuclear envelopes and nucleoli reappear chromosomes resume chromatin form mitotic spindle disappears in late anaphase in anaphase of meiosis chromosome pairs are separated in mitotic anaphase and anaphase of meiosis II the chromatids of the individual chromosomes are separated to reduce the chromosome number by onehalf
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