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GC 440 - Exam 1 (Study Guide)

by: Allie S

GC 440 - Exam 1 (Study Guide) GC440

Marketplace > Clemson University > Graphic Communications > GC440 > GC 440 Exam 1 Study Guide
Allie S
GPA 3.46
Commercial Printing
Dr. Weisenmiller

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About this Document

This is the official study guide for the first GC 440 Test
Commercial Printing
Dr. Weisenmiller
Study Guide
GC 440, Clemson, Commercial Printing, Weisenmiller, Graphics, Study Guide
50 ?




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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie S on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GC440 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Weisenmiller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Commercial Printing in Graphic Communications at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 09/29/15
GC 4400 Exam I Study Guide Note While this study guide is intended to help you focus your preparation for the exam it is by no means a comprehensive outline of the content of the exam items themselves Take into consideration all of the lecturelab material presented in its totality Reference the reading that corresponded to the material we ve addressed so far including Chapters 245 6 and pp 250263 pp286 2972 Ed in A Guide to Graphic Print Production as well as the supplementary readings from A Basic Understanding of Typography Basic Principles of Layout amp Sappi Guide to Designing for Print found on BB Theoretical gray is RGB 127R 1276 1273 CMYK 50C 50M SOY 0K LAB 50L 0a Ob Actual gray is CMYK 50C 40M 40Y 10K RGB and CMYK are device DEPENDENT 0 Lab is device INDEPENDENT Metameric pairs appears to be the same under one light but is different under another GC Mission Statement 0 To develop dedicated practical problem solving people for the printing publishing imaging packaging and allied industries What s the product of this class You Halftone screen frequency is stated in LPI The density of a solid black printed by means of sheet fed offset litho on coated paper would likely read 175 Density Every pixel in an RGB image in an 8bit config can assume one of 168million colors Your booklet for class will be printed on fine coated paper resolution for line art should be 1200 dpi All are non destructive methods RAW Adjust layers 16 bit channel capture if a halfton screen is not able to create enough gray tones to render a smooth continuous tone transition the resulting visual appearance of BANDING not smooth WHY do we print with Dots 4 elements Press limitation one ink lm can t print continuous tones We aim to simulate visual densities Using dots SIMULATE always losing tones Halftone screening process modulates dotsspots Different types of half tones and paying attention to TVI Deception of the eye What distance will this be viewed An icon on computer desktop that is create to carry out an ACTION for photoshop is called a DROPLET of bits assigned to each color channel in a digital image is known as BIT DEPTH All would give digital noise Low lighting conditions Choosing a high ISO J peg Format Inteprpolation damage When prepping files for print on a coated sheetfed offset press digital photos require 300 400 ppi 150LPI will be ran need 300DPI 21 Optimal sampling facto between image resolution dpi and line screen frequency lpi is 21 Photo shop has integrated support for labeling images according to International IPTC Standard When an electronic image is going to be sharpened you have to adapt the sharpness to how sharp the digital image is to begin with Unsharp Mask uses RADIUS If you were to increase image s size to 9 width 6 height FROM 3x2 300 resolution the EFFECTIVE resolution 100 When the lightest parts of an image has lost all tones completely your image includes a SPECULAR Highlight the only reason you would NOT print a tonedot Considerations of choosing appropriate line screen frequency LPI are Substrate density TVI When using layer mask in Photoshop areas that are BLACK Conceal Tonal Compression inherited in process reduction in tonal range due to Digital file type overunderexposure substrate ink Principles of Design Five Principles of Design Contrast Rhythm Balance Unity Proportion Contrast differences in Color Sizevisual weight Shape Texture 0 Color Contrast stark vs subtle D backgrounds should be subtle to allow for contrast in foregroundtypography D Size Contrast Works with the element of Proportion for emphasis 0 Shape Contrast Organic shape vs Geometric shapes 0 Textural Contrast Tactile sensation depth Rhythm the repetition of elements 0 Repeating of colors shapes patterns to direct the eyeconvey some meaning Proportion size RELATIONSHIPS to convey an elementmove the eye 0 Appropriate size relationships between visual elements 0 Textual proportion Text size should be appropriate to the format of the layout Balance distribution of visual elements 0 If a design is balanced the visual elements appear to be equalized I Formal balance symmetrical I Informal balance asymmetrical conceptual M inclusion andor placement of visual elements so that they don t clash with one another or the overall tone theme or message 0 All visual elements should support each other I Common visual elements unify pages in a publication Read the documents Basic Principles of Layout amp Sappi Guide to Designing for Print found on BB Techniques for creating Contrast Rhythm Proportion Unity and Balance Five Principles of Design Contrast Rhythm Balance Unity Proportion Contrast Provides emphasis amp catches the eye directs Techniques Color sizevisual weight shape texture Color subtle background with boldvibrant textforeground Size Creating certain elements of importance larger Shape Organicfree owing shapes vs geometricframing shapes Textural tactile sensation shadows and highlights creating Texturedepth Rhythm repetition to lead the eye Techniques patterns shapes colors words Balance distribution of design elements Techniques Informal formal Informal Asymmetrical but typically more conceptual balance Formal Symmetrical Unity common trend elements found within a piece Techniques All visual elements need to support each other and fit the overall Tone Theme or message Typographic Design and typographic points covered in lecturelab including What is the difference between a font and a typeface Typeface is the type used the physical type Font the STYLE of the typeface bold italic regular semi Ex Goudy Old Style Itallic 12pt Typeface Goudy Old Style Font Italic 12 pt the specifics Identify Common Design Mistakes 3 rules of Graphics Rule 1 Deliver the message Rule 2 Do NOT let the design Obscure the message Rule 3 Don t use COMIC SANS 0 Using Bad Artwork Goodoriginal photosartwork saved correctly ORIGINALS matter 0 Paragraph Indents 0 Avoid default indents Use Em Quadsquot Em space the distance a font creates U Insert whitespace gtEm Space ShifttCommandM a Do 2 EM spaces at beginning of every paragraph 0 Justification 0 Choose justification for legibility 0 Avoid Rivers of Whitequot HUMELl in 952 Kdnh Syw icmx h llld ward winning wz i39aan wluciims 39n Eb and prim publishin39 Its grzphic design imaging dynmmi mini and authoring tumla unable cumulus and licliscr 1151111 ric wr wrinm types of 39 The company39s bw39lphi pn fc Minan publishes dwurmni inicnsivc lusimss users and H the mutt l rest pctmnu wz mu with annual billion It employs v 3l li cmplnyccs world39squot 43 quotms nqmrmium in North umpc the Tacit c and 1min America umlduid E icudgumtcrw 39 Jmc ulifim39zi i mi its Vc39h sic ix 0 All CAPSUnderliningBold 0 Bad TrackingKerning o tracking is the whole moving 0 Kerning refers more to pairs AV or We 0 WidowsOrphans o Widows A single word on last line of PARAGRAPH o Orphans Last word or so in the next COLUMNPAGE Spacefilleritis 0 Don t crowd the page OR the edges of the page Respect your page margins Don t Just fill space 0 Typographic Concerns Line length Widows amp Orphans Spacing Letter Word Line Using ALL CAPS Being too Bold Unjustified Justi cation Bad Runarounds Tracking amp Set Width 39 39 H The Spacebar y 39 I 39 Hyphens 39 Using tabs amp indents quot Quotes amp Apostrophes Paragraph Indents A 39Ilu klm Im39 Checking Your 39139 pc Reverse Type amp 39 Headline Hierarchy amp Keep yourself in check Spacmg Serifs amp Sans Serifs How is the choice of a typeface important See Helvetica Type conveys so much A brand s identity the essence of a company Mood values tone it s a first impression Know the Typography Handout quot A Basic Understanding of Typography COIOI39 Theory GGPP pp 53 67 pp 69 77 2ndEd Clemson University Brand Concept Additive and subtractive color theory and their interaction with one another very important ADIIVE SU BTTIVE Additive Color System Tv computer monitor R G B Equal amounts produce white Start with blacknothingness add color channels Red Blue Magenta Red Green Yellow Blue Green Cyan Subtractive Color System 0 Printing inks filters 0 C M Y K 0 Equal parts produce Black Cyan Magenta and Yellow to Subtract one of the Additive colors These inks are just chemical filters that absorb different wavelengths O Cyan Yellow Green Cyan Magenta Blue Magenta Yellow Red I drink my RC cola down BY the river in my GM truck Ink as lters how they work Blue Absorbs Red and Green but passes BLUE Green Absorbs Blue and Red but passes GREEN Red Absorbs Blue and Green passes RED LVL Magenta Absorbs Green and passes both RED and BLUE Magenta Absorbs Green and Passes the other two Red and Blue vAv lt1 D DVQ Cyan Absorbs Red and passes GREEN and Blue Cyan Absorbs Red and Passes the other two Green and Blue vAv lt1 D DVQ Yellow Absorbs Blue and passes GREEN and RED Yellow Absorbs Blue and Passes the other two Red and Green vAv lt1 D DVQ Absorptions re ections M C C R llike tl drink my RC co in my Y mmus B GM quotwk minus G down BYthe river CtiIfhown In THEORY mixing CMY should make BLACK However in printing usually creates a dark BROWN Need a neutral gray balance that is hard to achieve 0 Pigments are not pure 0 Paper is not truly white Color perception Factors that affect color perception To see color 1 Observer Physiological Factors a Sex Male or Female 0 1255 women and 112 men have some form of color vision deficiency women have fewer deficiencies than men n Age a Color Vision n Eye Fatigue a Light source a Type of illuminant a Time of Day 2 Object n Substrate n Surrounding 3 LightViewing Conditions a D50 or 5000K ISO standard for proofing Daylight n 4500K Fluorescent n 3400K Incandescent 0 THIS is why we use NEUTRAL gray light booth to view proofs 0 Light sources vary the color Metamerism The eye will always adapt to the ambient light source and see it as neutral white adjusting the perception of any colors viewed under it Dimensions of common color Models 39 Lab 39 HSL O I Red 39 Degrees O 365 39 S I O 100 saturation 39 L I O 100 lightness 39 CMYK 00 39 RGB o How Clemson University specifies color Recognize color ranges all Clemson colors GRAYS Spot RGB CMYK HeXhtml need to have a range 72 M 100Y Clemson Orange MaX range for RGB I 256 How is color difference expressed numerically Delta E Explain Why color differences occur between different output media lnput media usually uses RGB space Whereas output uses CMY K Calibration needs to occur often in order to ensure output devices match each other Be able to draw a spectral re ectance graph of the primary colors 100 ICC 100 1 ll 1 D o l o o C 39 C C 9 E S o l o I o m D d c I c I m I lt1 G a I I I 393 l 1 39l 0 i O 39quot quot 43933 JCC SCC 303 439v v 4393 3 503 503 u an Wavelength inm Wavelength inm Yellow Cyan 39nn an ynr UH all ll vv uu vv Wavelength Cnm Magenta Digital Images amp Photoshop Techniques for Print GGPP Chapter 4 Software types of applications and their purposes what s the correct tool for the job Indesign typography Photoshop photo editing Illustrator vectors Raster vs Vector Images Raster Flattened image cannot be scaled Vector free transform scalable infinitely Special Effects techniques and reasons for usage Duotones types curves purpose and terminology Purpose to set a mood for an image Colorful duotone Black Color curved Subtle duotone Black curved Color DoubleDot halftone what is it How is it produced What would the curves look like Duotone that uses two hits of black load separate black and increases density Ghost halftone maximum shadow values tone curve Using Curves to manipulate the shadows Must be higher than 35 Image Editing What to know about Photoshop GGPP Chapter 5 Considerations of digital images What to look for Type of Original Quality of CaptureFile Resolution Image Adjustments Output Considerations indoor outdoor small large Layer masks Black white and gray areas of a mask what do they represent Layer masks hide the layer it is applied to White Reveals Black Conceals Layer adjustments destructive or nondestructive Destructive Large adjustments change the pixels and level of detail in photos curveslevels etc leave the blanks Levels Channel 39 RGB mm Cancel InpUl LEVEIB g Load ullllll Auto b Q 0 100 25 5 Options Output Levels u L y El Preview 0 255 NonDestructive Creating separate layers for everything Channels can be in RGB or CMYK whichever mode your image is in and they allow you to turn certain colors on and off from View Info Palette What can it tell you Color values width height XY coordinates of where your mouse is Curves input valuesintensities vs output valuesintensities Curves WSquot lt Be able to draw curves that would generate Subtle duotone Black FULL Color curved Colorful duotones Black curved Color full Ghost halftone images Curve above 35 at all times hi gh contrast tonality in an image S curve shadow highlight oriented images hi gh low key detail High Key up curve Low Key down curve Histogram What does it tell you Tells you the range in lightness and darkness values an image possesses Be able to list and describe the tools that allow us to evaluate image quality 1 Manual Educating your clientchecklists 2 Design Elements are checked for design fundamentalssome general production points 3 Production Process Oriented 4 Automation Lends itself to productivity consistency ex EnFocus Pitstop EnFocus Switch Vignette How to execute with a layer mask what is important What can go wrong Blendinggradual shift is important Smooth transitions clipped edges Converting to grayscale what is important 5 ways to convert l 9593J ModegtGray Scale Adjustments gt black amp white Adjustments gt saturation O Adjustments gt desaturate Adjustments gt channel mixer Converting to process color CMYK how and why use a profile What pro le is most appropriate for sheetfed offset Heatset web offset Mode gtCMYK select profile based on swopGracol Extracting an image using selectionsmasks Composite images use of blending modes layers opacity adjustments and masks unsharp mask Digital Halftones GGPP pp 250263 pp 286297 2 Ed What is the difference between continuous tone and a halftone Contone image Halftone dots Why do we print using dots Due to Press Limitations 0 Presses can only run ONE density of ink 0 We are SIMULATING using halftones to create highlights and shadows due to press limitations On a press there is only ONE density therefore we need to use halftones to trick the eye into seeing highlights What is a Process Color Separation Media that is printed using the 4 colors CMYK What is the appropriate procedure for converting an RGB image to CMYK What should you consider Image gt mode gt CMYK choose the correct color profile Whyhow do printer s use dots to render photographs using the offset lithographic printing process Press limits us to one ink so we trick our eyes and use dots 0 Density A Measure of Reflectance What is dot gain TVI Dot Gain Total Value Increase Angles need to be 30 degrees apart Halftone angle C 105 M 75 Y 90 45 K Prepress Layout amp Pre ighting Chapter 6 The book addresses many of the concerns of layout bleed allowance font inclusion avoiding crossovers avoiding small reverse text etc and digital imaging maximization resolution cropping etc and many more points that you should have become very familiar with in preparing and pre ighting your booklet amp brochure files for their print output conditions In general know what is important about creating a responsible file Therefore for the exam I would expect you to be able to do the following 39 Using a Digital Imaging Checklist What to look for when evaluating an image for reproduction 39 What characteristics make an image suitable for graphic production on an offset press Good and bad 39 Know the appropriate software applications for specific layout workflow illustration and imaging functions 39 Know how to install embed fonts 39 Distinguish between Destructive vs Non destructive image editing 39 Know what tools can be used to preflight files 39 How can preflighting process be automated 39 Describe ways that we can manually pre ight files 39 Why are some preflight points designed to indicate risky design choices 39 What are the limitations of the preflighting tools that we ve used 39 What else would you add to a preflighitng list Margins Bleeds Column Guides Grids Small reverse type 0 8point minimum Body text color 0 No Rich Black body text 0 Do not design text lt 14 pt that will require color registration Any breaks in the text F Paragraph styles what purpose do they serve Allow for easily repeatable style choices F Normally folds in booklets are ok however pages 3amp4 connect


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