Comprehensive Study Guide - test 1
Comprehensive Study Guide - test 1 GC440
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie S on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GC440 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Weisenmiller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Commercial Printing in Graphic Communications at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
GC 4400 Exam Study Guide Spring 2015 Exam I will cover paper ink color theory digital image editing and offset lithography basics Take into consideration the readings listed below Study for detail while keeping in mind the larger conceptual context within which the details exist The exam will include truefalse multiple choice and matching questions What is the GC Mission Statement verbatim To develop dedicated practical problem solving people for the printing publishing imaging packaging and allied industries What is the product of this course US Color Theory GGPP pp 5367 pp 6977 2ndEd 0 Additive and subtractive color theory and their interaction with one another 0 000000 0 Additive RGB Red Green Blue White Subtractive CMY Cyan Magenta Yellow Black really brown Red Green yellow Yellow minus Blue Green Blue Cyan Cyan minus Red Blue Red Magenta Magenta minus Green Cyan Yellow Green Magenta Cyan Blue Magenta Yellow Red 0 Requirements for color to exist 0 Observer Light source and object reflecting light 0 Ink as filters how they work O 0000 Printers use Cyan Magenta and Yellow to Subtract one of the Additive Colors These inks are just chemical filters that absorb different wavelengths Red filters absorb blue and green and pass red same for green and blue filters Cyan absorbs red and passes green and blue Magenta absorbs Green and passes red and blue Yellow absorbs Blue and passes red and green 0 Color perception 0 Factors that affect color perception I Observer Physiological Factors a Male or Female 0 Age 0 Color Vision o Eye Fatigue I Light Source a Type of llluminant a Time of Day Object Substrate I Surround 0 Dimensions of common color Models refer to the Color Quiz exercise 0 Numerical specification of Lab HSLCMYK RGB 0 Digital ranges of above color models I LABorClELABlargestcolorrangemorethanRGBampCMYK 0 Vertical colors called L lightness channel this consists of another full range of colors called B BlueYellow axis 0 Horizontal colors called A GreenRed axis 0 How Photoshop specifies color numerically o How Clemson University specifies color I HEX RGB CMYK Pantone o How is color difference measured 0 Spectrophotometer 0 Delta E 0 Spot vs Process Color explain the limitations requirements challenges involved in reproduction 0 Limitations I Inability to reproduce entire range I Color Gamut 0 Range of Color 0 Overlapping of different systems 0 Compression I Delta E A measure of color difference 0 Reguirements 0 Challenges 0 Explain the reasons why colors sometimes don t match from device to device 0 because different devices aren t always calibrated the same way so a color may appear as one way on a screen but look much different on another because they weren t calibrated 0 Understand how to interpret spectral reflectance curves 0 0 Color White Balance how and where is it set corrected 0 first set white balance on a camera if it doesnt look correct when imported onto computer and opened in photoshop you can correct it by setting the blackwhitegrey point in the image photoshop 0 Basic requirements of Color Reproduction 0 Tone Reproduction I Objective To achieve a onetoone rendition of the tints and shades seen in the original I AND To improve on selected portions of this overall scale all within limits of dot sizes and the density range of the paper and ink I Tone reproduction refers to the lightness and darkness of the highlights midtones and shadow areas I Using CURVES or LEVELS setting the highlight and shadows and setting contrast according to whether your photo is high key or low key will help you create a good tone reproduction 0 Gray Balance I Achieving neutrality I The ability to reproduce a gray scale without a cast or overall hue I Theoretically equal parts of CM amp Y I Actually hue error requires different and unknown percentages of each color 0 Color Correction I Necessary to account for the deficiencies in the inks and substrates that we print on 0 Detail Enhancement I This may be accomplished by applying an unsharp mask using a third party extension or by varying GCRUCR levels or using special effect options in Photoshop Be careful not to overdo Effects or you might loose information o What is Metamerism o Metamerism metamerism failure is observed when two color samples appear to match under a particular light source and then do not match under a light source with a different spectral power distribution Digital Images amp Photoshop Techniques for Print Chapter4 pp 8397 pp 101 1 18 2nd Ed amp Chapter 5 What should you consider when using Software types of applications and their purposes what s the correct tool for the job Photoshop image effects and resizing lnDesign layouts Illustrator Rastervector design Raster vs Vector Images Raster image is data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels or points of color bits Vector use of points and Bezier curves based on mathematical equations to represent Special Effects techniques and reasons for usage Principles of design reverse type bleed images or tint areas line art duotones posterizations vignettes ghost halftones outline halftones four color process separations composited images HDR Purpose Press limitations A press can only print one density of ink Simulation of densities of the original the best you can do Modulation Spots or dots screening Deception viewing distance Simulation of Densities Relation of the original to the reproduction Dots of various sizes simulate the various ct densities gray levels of the original Adding Detail Height in the Curve increases the degree of the tonal change or tonal separation thereby adding detail Duotones types curves purpose and terminology Duotone a halftone reproduction of an image using the superimposition of one contrasting color halftone traditionally black over another color halftone Duotones only have one set of highlight dots Colorful duotone has the color and a subtle duotone has black this can be adjusted via the curves in the duotone menu DoubleDot halftone what is it How is it produced What would the curves look like A halftone in which two halftone negatives have been combined into one printing plate resulting in greater tonal range than a conventional halftone Curves are similar to a subtle duotone just with black on black or black on gray instead of black on another color Ghost halftone maximum shadow values tone curve Normal halftone whose densityhas been reduced to a maximum of 35 to produce a very faint image Created using Adjustment gt Curves What to know about Photoshop 30nsiderations of digital images What to look for Type of Original Is your photo reflective art line art transparent art compressed or raw files Screen Photos are bad images Quality of CaptureFile Resolution Consider the quality of the input device you are using Consider lighting when taking the photo Control processing the image and any correction or enhancement Image Adjustment Use layermasks Blending Modes Visibility use layers for Vignettes and selective editing Remember RAW retains data JPEG lossy compression and Tonal Adjustments may cause loss Output Considerations ayer masks Black white and gray areas of a mask what do they represent black not image there white image area gray semitransparent part of image similar to a 50 opacity ayer adjustments destructive or nondestructive Using layerscan help prevent destructive image editing Adjustment layers are saved along with the document when you save it as a PSD file which means you can reopen and reedit the document Also avoid resampling loss of data or saving as JPEGs file compression 3hannels RGB or CMYK can turn certain colors off or on lnfo Palette What can it tell you CMYK or RGB values widthheight and XY coordinates 3urves input valuesintensities vs output valuesintensities Curves the existing amount of information as it compares to the tonal range lnput intensity on the X axis will match up linearly to output intensity on Y axis High keycurve steepen the highlight curve towards the left losing details in the shadows Low key steepen the shadows lose details in the highlight listogram What can it tell you Tells you how many tones and in what sections highlights shadows in the image they are contained lignette How to execute with a layermask what is important What can go wrong with a layer mask need to make sure only the area that you want to be shown is in the white area 30nverting to grayscale what is important 5 ways to convert Adjustments gt Black and White Adjustments gt Saturation 0 Adjustments gt Desaturate Adjustments gt Channel Mixer Mode gt Grayscale 30nverting to process color CMYK how and why use a profile Image gt Mode gt CMYK make sure the correct profile is selected Images often use RGB and we print in CMYK use a profile so that we can better understand the gamut limitations of the press and other machinery we will be using down the line Extracting an image using selectionsmasks Composite images use of blending modes layers opacity adjustments and masks Study your notes from the lnDesign lmage Effects Creating a Posterization Setting Up an lnDesign Document for an Offset Booklet Paper amp Kodak Prinergy lab demonstrations Halftones Nhat is the difference between continuous tone and a halftone cont tone have an infinite range of colors and is not made up of a dot structure used for photosnot as much used for text halftone are made up of dots What is a Process Color Separation Media that is printed using the 4 colors CMYK Nhyhow do printer s use dots to render photographs using the offset lithographic printing process Press limits us to one ink density across a sheet so to trick our eyes into seeing shades of color we modulate dots using a screening process 3asic densitometry what does a density reading indicate to a press operator how even the press is printing 3asics of Prinergy from the lab demonstration workflow for making plate Userdefined content standard PDF workflow 1 bit tif 2 colors represented Prepress Layout amp Pre ighting Chapter 6 The book addresses many of the concerns of layout bleed allowance font inclusion avoiding crossovers avoiding small reverse text etc and digital imaging maximization resolution cropping etc and many more points that you should have become very familiar with in preparing and pre ighting your booklet amp brochure files for their print output conditions In general know what is important about creating a responsible le Therefore for the exam I would expect you to be able to do the following serve Using a Digital Imaging Checklist What to look for when evaluating an image for reproduction What characteristics make an image suitable for graphic production on an offset press Good and bad Know the appropriate software applications for specific layout workflow illustration and imaging functions Know how to install embed fonts Distinguish between Destructive vs Non destructive image editing Know what tools can be used to preflight files How can preflighting process be automated Describe ways that we can manually preflight files Why are some preflight points designed to indicate quotrisky design choices What are the limitations of the preflighting tools that we ve used What else would you add to a preflighitng list Margins bleeds column guides grids what are they what purpose do they Margins Bleeds Column Guides Grids Risky Design Choices Small reverse type 0 8 point minimum Body text color 0 No Rich Black body text 0 Do not design text lt 14 pt that will require color registration What is important to look for when creating text wrap Any breaks in the text Know the risks involved with bleed allowance transparencies crossovers reverses large solids gamut Paragraph styles what purpose do they serve Allow for easily repeatable style choices Why is a crossover a risky design choice Why is a critical fold on a brochure for example a risky design choice Normally folds in booklets are ok however pages 3amp4 connect Review Theoretical gray is RGB 127R 1276 1273 CMYK 50C 50M SOY OK LAB 50L 0a Ob Actual gray is CMYK 50C 40M 40Y 10K RGB and CMYK are device DEPENDENT 0 Lab is device INDEPENDENT Metameric pairs appears to be the same under one light but is different under another GC Mission Statement 0 To develop dedicated practical problem solving people for the printing publishing imaging packaging and allied industries What s the product of this class You Halftone screen frequency is stated in LPI The density of a solid black printed by means of sheet fed offset litho on coated paper would likely read 175 Density Every pixel in an RGB image in an 8bit config can assume one of 168million colors Your booklet for class will be printed on fine coated paper resolution for line art should be 1200 dpi All are non destructive methods RAW Adjust layers 16 bit channel capture if a halfton screen is not able to create enough gray tones to render a smooth continuous tone transition the resulting Visual appearance of BANDING not smooth WHY do we print with Dots 4 elements Press limitation one ink film can t print continuous tones We aim to simulate Visual densities Using dots SIMULATE always losing tones Halftone screening process modulates dotsspots Different types of half tones and paying attention to TVI Deception of the eye What distance will this be Viewed An icon on computer desktop that is create to carry out an ACTION for photoshop is called a DROPLET of bits assigned to each color channel in a digital image is known as BIT DEPTH All would give digital noise Low lighting conditions Choosing a high ISO J peg Format Inteprpolation damage When prepping files for print on a coated sheet fed offset press digital photos require 300 400 ppi 150LPI will be ran need 300DPI 2 1 Optimal sampling facto between image resolution dpi and line screen frequency lpi is 21 Photo shop has integrated support for labeling images according to International IPTC Standard When an electronic image is going to be sharpened you have to adapt the sharpness to how sharp the digital image is to begin with Unsharp Mask uses RADIUS If you were to increase image s size to 9 Width 6 height FROM 3X2 300 resolution the EFFECTIVE resolution 100 When the lightest parts of an image has lost all tones completely your image includes a SPECULAR Highlight the only reason you would NOT print a tonedot Considerations of choosing appropriate line screen frequency LPI are Substrate density TVI When using layer mask in Photoshop areas that are BLACK Conceal Tonal Compression inherited in process reduction in tonal range due to Digital file type overunderexposure substrate ink
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