COM 107 Outline of Chapters 1, 14, 16
COM 107 Outline of Chapters 1, 14, 16 COM 107
Popular in Communications and Society
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
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Different Types of Communication 0 lntrapersonal Inside yourself Interpersonal Person to person Group Organizational Public communication Mass communication Eras of Communication Oral communication spoken word Written communication hieroglyphics Printed communication Gutenberg Printing Press Electric Communication Morse Code and telegraph Digital communication Gateke oping Theory Selective Retention Messages have to stick People have a tendency to remember only things they broadly agree with Postman 1986 argues that we now live in a three minute culture Cognitive Dissonance state of being psychologically uncomfortable Belief position that is founded on our perceptions of the world 0 Dif cult to change Value Thing on which a person places the most emphasis or importance 0 Dif cult to change but not as dif cult as beliefs Attitude The approach a person takes when dealing with situations Opinion an evaluation of a situation person or concept based on your values and attitude 0 Can be swayed very easily Framing The way in which you display or show a story but it all covers the same story 0 HOW THE STORY IS ACTUALLY LOOKED AT IS FRAMING Gatekeeping the decision on what will be covered or not covered decide which news gets out to the public Responsible Capitalism Want businesses to make money but not TOO much money YellowJournalism journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration Individualism America loves to champion that person instead of the group Public Communication does not need to go through a mediated communication but mass communication is going through a channel that is solely designated to reach multiple audiences PUBLIC COMMUNICATION IS NOT MEDIATED Advertising information placed in the media by an identi able sponsor that paid for the time and or space It is a controlled method of placing messages in the media Marketing the anticipation management and satisfaction of demand through the exchange process Evans amp Berman Public Relations Serves more than the consumer market and uses other techniques that are not paid or controlled Libel the defamation of character in written expression Slander the spoken language that defames a person39s character Textbook Chapter 1 quotThe media39s job of presenting the world to is and documenting what39s going on is enormously importantquot4 Media and the Elections 0 2014 Midterm Election had the lowest percentage of voter turnout since 1942 0 Voter ads are created to build up one candidate and tear down other candidates 0 Most media today communicate to niche markets and interest groups 0 Instead of marketing to the mass audiences of the past 0 ln election cycles news media often reduce the story of an election to twodimensional quotright vs leftquot narratives Partyism c When people feel displeased that their son or daughter marries outside of their political party 0 quotWhen people are exposed to messages that attack members of the opposing party their biases increase and the destructive power of partyism is extending well beyond politics into people39s behavior in daily lifequot 4 o In 1960 5 of republicans and 4 of democrats stated that they would be displeased if their son or daughter married outside their party in 2010 the numbers had skyrocketed to 49 and 33 respectively Media Literate o quotCritiquing the media not as detached cynics or rabid partisans but as informed citizens with a stake in the outcomequot At its best the media tries to help us understand the events the affect us however at its worst the medias appetite for telling stories can lead to them misrepresenting or exploiting the story 0 A process that delivers the values of a society through products or other meaningmaking forms 0 The American idea of quotrugged individualismquot Depicting heroic characters overcoming villains of corruption 0 The ways in which people live and represent themselves at particular historical times 0 Culture is always changing 0 Includes a societies Art Beliefs Customs Games 0000 o Technologies 0 Traditions o Institutions 0 Links individuals to their society by providing both shared and contested values Languages Morse Code Motion pictures Onezero binary computer codes 0000 0 Development of media and communication can be traced through several overlapping phases or eras in which newer forms of technology disrupted and modi ed older forms 0 When technology disrupts and modi es older forms it is also called convergence 0 Began calling it convergence with the arrival of the internet 0 Accompanied the shift of rural populations to urban settings and the rise of a consumer culture Oral and Written Eras in Communication 0 Information and knowledge rst circulated slowly through oral traditions passed on by poets teachers and tribal storytellers 0 As alphabets and the written word developed culture began to develop and eventually overshadowed oral communication 0 Manuscript culture served the ruling class 0 Working people were generally illiterate 0 Economic and educational gap between rulers and the ruled was vast o Philosophers feared that the written word would overshadow the threaten public discussion The Print Revolution 0 Modern printing did not emerge until the middle of the fteenth century 0 Gutenberg39s invention of movable metallic type and the printing press ushered in the modern print era o Gradually the size and costs of books were reduced making them more accessible and affordable First mass marketed products in history Machine duplication replaced hand copied books Duplication could occur rapidly Faster production of multiple copies brought down the cost of each unit 0 Writers used print to communicate views that went against commonly held beliefs Paved the way for major social and cultural change Protestant Reformation Rise of modern nationalism 0 Print Era supported the ascent of more centralized nationstates 0 Machine production of mass quantities that resulted in lower cost of books led to the Industrial Revolution modern capitalism and the consumer culture of the 20th century 0 Brought the rise of the middle class 0 Print media became key tools that commercial and political leaders used to distribute information and maintain social order 0 Dif cult for a single business or political leader to gain exclusive control over printing technology 0 Mass publication in the US helped democratize knowledge 0 Literary rates rose in the working and middle classes 0 Industrialization required a more educated workforce Promoted literacy and extending beyond the world of wealthy upperclass citizens 0 Printing press nourished the idea of individualism 0 People came to rely less on their local community and political or religious leaders for guidance Fostered the modern idea of individuality 0 Many individuals became cut off from the traditions of rural and smalltown life 0 Democratic impulse of individualism became a fundamental value in American society in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries The Electronic Era o Factories replaced farms as the main centers of work and production 0 During the 1880s roughly 80 of Americans lived on farms or in small towns o By the 1920s and 1930s most had moved to urban areas 0 The information age began with the development of the Telegraph in the 18405 Separated communication from transportation which made media messages instantaneous Transformed quotinformation into a commodity a 39thing39 that could be bought or sold irrespective of its uses or meaningsquot 0 Made it easier for military business and political leaders to coordinate commercial and military operations especially after the instillation of the transatlantic cable in the late 1860s 0 The telegraph led to future technological developments 0 Wireless telegraphy radio 0 Fax machine 0 Cell phone Ironically resulted in the telegraph39s demise 0 Last telegraph sent in 2006 by the Western Union Telegraph Of ce 0 Electronic phase of the Information Age boomed in the 1950s and 1960s with the arrival of television and its dramatic impact on daily life 0 Soon the information phase transformed into the digital age The Digital Era 0 Technology developed so quickly that traditional leaders in communication lost control over the information o By the 2012 elections Facebook Twitter and social media sites had become key players in politics 0 Become information resources for younger generations 0 Email assumed many functions of the postal service Outpacing attempts to control communications beyond national borders The turn to digital media has fundamentally overturned traditional media business models The Linear Model of Mass Communication 0 The digital era brought a shift in the models that media researchers used over the years to explain how media messages and meanings are constructed and communicated in everyday life Senders Author producers and Organizations Messages Programs texts images sounds and ads Mass Media Channel newspapers books magazines radio television or the Internet Receivers readers viewers or consumers Gatekeepers news editors executive producers other media managers Feedback citizens and consumers COMMUNICATIONS PROCESS M EDlI U M Encode Receiver r MESSAGE quot 7 7 l 39JJW F u39393939 M39 Feedback 0 Problem with the linear model is that media messages don t move smoothly from point A to point Z 0 Anything that interferes with the communications process is called noise 0 Senders often have very little control over how their intended messages are decoded or whether the messages are ignored or misread by readers and viewers A Cultural Model for Understanding Mass Communication The concept of a cultural message recognizes that individuals bring diverse meanings to messages given factors and differences such as gender age educational level ethnicity and occupation o Suggests the complexity of the linear process and the lack of control that senders often have over how audiences receive messages and interpret their intended meanings 0 Rise of the internet and social media has complicated the traditional roles in both the linear and cultural models of communication 0 The internet largely eliminated the gate keeper role Development of Media and Their Role in our Society The word media is a Latin plural form of medium meaning an intervening substance through which something is conveyed or transmitted Media Innovations go through four stages 0 Emergence or Novelty Stage 0 Inventors and technicians try to solve a particular problem 0 Entrepreneurial Stage 0 Inventors and investors determine a practical and marketable use for the new device 0 Mass Medium Stage 0 Businesses gure out how to market the new device or medium as a consumer product 0 Convergence Stage 0 Older media are recon gured in various forms on newer media This does not mean that the older forms of media cease to exist Media Convergence 0 Two different meanings One referring to business and one referring to business Dual Roles of Media Convergence o In the late 1920s the Radio Corporation of America purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company 0 Introduced machines that could play both radio and recorded music This collaboration helped radio survive the emergence of television 0 Contemporary media convergence is much broader than the simple merging of older and newer forms 0 Goal is to better manage resources and maximize pro ts 0 A corporation employing the convergence model can use fewer employees to generate multiple versions of the same story Media Busrness In a Converged World Google is the internet39s main organizer and aggregator because it nds both quotnewquot and quotoldquot media content 0 Is dependent on news organizations to produce the quality information and journalism that healthy democracies need and that google can deliver The next challenge in the converged world is to resolve who will pay for quality content and how that system will emerge Media Convergence and Cultural Change 0 Internet and social media have led to signi cant changes in the way we consume and engage with media culture 0 We are increasingly making our media choices on the basis of Facebook YouTube or Twitter recommendations from friends 0 We upload our own media rather than watching mainstream media breaks down shared media experiences in favor of our individual interests and pursuits 0 Media multitasking means that we are more distracted and we engage less with each type of media that we consume Often we play closer attention to the media we are using than the people immediately in our presence 0 Also brings the idea of quotlive tweetingquot This type of participation could indicate that audiences are engaging more with the media they consume Choice makes us more engaged media consumers because we have to actively choose the media we want to consume from the growing list of options Stories The Foundation of Media 0 The stories that circulate in the media can shape a society39s perceptions and attitudes o In the 1950s and 60s stories on the Civil Rights movement led to crucial legislation 0 In the late 1960s and early 1970s the persistent media coverage of Vietnam led to the loss of public support 0 Stories told through a variety of media outlets played a key role in changing individual awareness cultural attitudes and public perception Part of the appeal of reality TV is that we are better able to relate to the characters or compare our lives against theirs because they seem just like us The cultural blending of old and new ways of telling stories is another form of convergence 0 Ordinary citizens are able to participate in and have an effect on the stories being told in the media 0 Stories provide models of the world quotWe are a narrative species We exist by storytelling by relating situations and the test of our evolution may lie in getting the story rightquot The Power of Media Stories in Everyday Life The earliest debates date back to the ancient Greeks Aristotle combined Plato39s and Euripides39 ideas and argued that stories should provide insight into the human condition but should entertain as well Immigrants to the United States who spoke little English gravitated toward cultural events 0 Boxing o Vaudeville 0 Silent lm These popular events became a ash point for some groups 0 Daughters of the American Revolution local politicians police vice squads Feared that these quotlowquot culture formw would undermine what they saw as traditional American values and interests 0 In the 1950s the emergence of television and rock and roll generated several points of contention 0 Elvis Presley was seen as quotpoor white trashquot Today Mass Media play an even more controversial role in society 0 Many are critical of the quality of much contemporary culture and concerned about the overwhelming amount of information that is now available 0 Pop culture is seen as unacceptably commercial and sensationalistic 0 To become media literate we must attend more thoughtfully to diverse media stories that are too often taken for granted Surveying the Cultural Landscape Though categories change over time and from one society to another there are two metaphors that have contrasting views about the way culture operates in our daily lives 0 The Skyscraper Model 0 Views culture as a hierarchy o The Map Mode 0 Views culture as a process The Skyscraper Model 0 There are supposedly superior products at the top and inferior ones at the bottom 0 Identi ed with good taste higher education and was supported by wealthy patrons and corporate donors 0 Associated with ne art which is available in libraries theaters and museums o Aligned with the quotquestionablequot tastes of the masses commercial quotjunkquot circulated by the mass media 0 Reality TV celebritygossip websites violent action lms The HighLow hierarchy determines or limits the ways which we view and discuss culture today 0 Five main areas of concern about this way of viewing culture 0 Inability to appreciate ne art Pop culture distracts students from serious literature and thosophy Pits pop culture against high art Assumption is that pop culture is made for pro t and cannot be experienced as valuable artistic experiences in the same way as high art Tendency to exploit high culture Pop culture exploits classic works of literature and art Example being Mary Shelley39s 1818 Frankenstein VS the 1974 Mel Brooks comedy Young Frankenstein Core themes are lost or trivialized in favor of a more simplistic form 0 A throwaway ethic Many elements of pop culture have a short life span Many critics think that higher forms of culture have more staying power Lower forms of culture are unstable and eeting Follow public taste instead of leading it LOP Strategy 0 Least objectionable programming 0 Diminished Audience for High Culture Pop culture has inundated the cultural environment driving out higher forms of culture and cheapening public life Prevalence of so many pop media products prevents the public from experiencing genuine art Fails to note the number of choices and options now available to media consumers o Dulling our cultural taste buds Pop culture undermines democratic ideals and reasoned argument May inhibit not only rational thought but also social progress by transforming audiences into cultural dupes lured by the promise of products Distractig citizens from examining economic disparity and implementing change 0 quotBig Mac Theoryquot suggests that people are so addicted to mass produced media menus that they lose their discriminating taste for diner fare and much worse their ability to see and challenge social inquiries Culture as a Map In the map theory culture is an ongoing and complicated process 0 Rather than high low vertical it allows us to judge forms of culture as good or bad based on a combination of personal taste and the aesthetic judgments a society makes at particular historical times 0 Map tells us that we can pursue many connections from one cultural place to another and can appreciate a range of cultural experiences without simply ranking them from high to low 0 The large multidirectional map may be a more exible multidimensional and inclusive way of imaging how culture works The Comfort of Familiar Stories 0 Appeal of culture is often its familiar stories Pulls audiences toward the security of repetition and common landmarks on the culture map Innovation and the Attraction of quotWhat39s Newquot 0 Adults like children seek comfort but also crave cultural adventure 0 Seek new stories and new places to go Aspects of culture that demonstrate originality and complexity Part of what culture provides is the impulse to explore new places Wide range of Messages 0 Our cultural treasures contain a variety of messages 0 As part of an ongoing process cultural products and their meanings are all over the map and spread out in diverse directions Challenging the Nostalgia for a Better Past 0 Critics argue that society was better off before the latest developments in mass media Resist the idea of reimagining an established cultural hierarchy as a multidirectional map 0 Impulse to criticize something is driven by a fear of change or of cultural differences Cultural Values of the Modern Period Many ways to de ne what it means to be modern 0 Ef ciency 0 Individualism o Rationalism 0 Progress Modernization involved captains of industry using new technology to create ef cient manufacturing centers Modernization elevated individual selfexpression to a more central position quotForm Follows Functionquot 0 This value is echoed in journalism 0 Modern news deemphasized complex analysis and historical context and elevated the new and the now 0 Progressive era reformers championed social movements that led to constitutional amendments for both prohibition and women39s suffrage 0 Music videos remote controls nike ads shopping malls fax machines email video games 0 Critics argue that most modern culture represents a way of seeing a new condition or malady of the human spirit 0 Four major features or values that resonate best with changes across media and culture Populism 0 Diversity 0 Nostalgia o Paradox Many forms of postmodern style blur modern distinctions not only between art and commerce but also between fact and ction 0 Boundaries are blurred between the staged and the real mixing serious themes and personal challenges with comedic interludes and romantic entanglements The Colbert Report and John Stewart A big value of the postmodern period is the emphasis on diversity and fragmentation 0 Wild juxtaposition between old and new cultural styles Critics and politicians criticize modern values for laying the groundwork for dehumanizing technological advances and bureaucratic problems Fourth Aspect of Postmodern times is the willingness to accept paradox 0 While modern culture emphasized breaking with the past in the name of progress postmodern culture stresses integrating or converging retro beliefs and contemporary culture 0 While we are nostalgic for the past we embrace new technologies with a vengeance Modernists warn that new technologies can isolate people or encourage them to chase personal agendas Critiqumg Media and Culture Cultural boundaries are being tested 0 Arbitrary lines between information and entertainment have become blurred We are witnessing media convergence It is ultimately more useful to replace a cynical perception of the media with an attitude of genuine criticism 0 Need to develop a profound understanding of the media focused on what they offer or produce and what they downplay or ignore Media Literacy and the Critical Process We should be moving toward a critical perspective that takes into account the intricacies of the cultural landscape 0 Requires a working knowledge of the particular book program or music under scrutiny It is essential to understand the contemporary context in which cultural phenomena are produced Steps of the critical process 0 Description 0 Might critique the fairness of several programs or individual stories 0 Start by describing the programs or articles 0 Begin comparing what we have found to other stories on similar topics 0 Analysis lsolate the patterns that call for closer attention 0 Decide how to focus the critique 0 Interpretation 0 Try to determine the meanings of the patterns we have analyzed 0 Most dif cult stage in criticism 0 Demands an answer to the quotso whatquot question 0 Evaluation 0 Focus on making an informed judgment 0 Better able to evaluate the fairness of a group 0 Engagement 0 Must actively work to create a media world that helps to serve a democracy 0 Writing a formal letter or email to media outlets or participating in web discussions Bene ts of a Critical Perspective Allows us to participate in a debate about media culture as a force for both democracy and consumerism 0 Media can be a catalyst for democracy and social progress 0 Helped to renew interest in diverse cultures around the world and other emerging democracies o Competing against democratic tendencies is a powerful commercial culture that reinforces a world economic order controlled by relatively few multinational corporations Culture cannot easily be characterized as one thing or another 0 Liberal and conservative or high and low have less meaning in an environment where so many boundaries have been blurred A healthy democracy requires the active involvement of others Chapter 16 Notes THE FIRST AMENDMENT CONGRESS SHALL MAKE NO LAW RESPECTING AN ESTABLISHMENT OF RELIGION OR PROHIBITING THE FREE EXERCISE THEREOF OR ABRIDGING THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH OR OF THE PRESS OR THE RIGHT OF THE PEOPLE TO PEACEFULLYASSEMBLE AND TO PETITION THE GOVERNMENT FOR A REDRESS OF GRIEVANCES The cultural and political struggles over what constitutes free speech or free expression have de ned American democracy 0 Of all issues that involve mass media and pop culture none are more central or explosive than the freedom of expression In the US the freedom to criticize and poke fun at the government is often taken for granted 0 Only 1 in 7 people live in in a country with a free media system Models of Expression 0 Four conventional models for speech and journalism have been used to categorize free expression 0 Authoritarian Model Developed about the time the printing press rst arrived in England Advocates that the general public needed guidance from an elite educated ruling class Censorship was frequent and the government issued printing licenses primarily to publishers who were sympathetic to government and ruling class agendas Communist or State Model Press is controlled by the government because state leaders believe the press should serve the goals of the state Myanmar Burma China Cuba North Korea 0 Social Responsibility Model Characterizes the ideals of mainstream journalism in the US Outlined in 1947 by the Hutchins Commission Development of press watchdog groups because the mass media had grown too powerful and needed to become more socially responsible A socially responsible press is usually privately owned 0 Fourth Estate Unof cial branch of the government that monitors the legislative judicial and executive branches for abuses of power Keeps the news media independent of government The press supplies information to citizens so that they can make informed decisions regarding political and social issues 0 Libertarian Model Encourages vigorous government criticism and supports the highest degree of individual and press freedoms No restrictions would be placed on mass media or individual speech In North America and Europe many alternative newspapers and magazines operate on such a model Puts a great deal of trust in citizen39s ability to distinguish truth from fabrication The First Amendment and the Constitution The writers of the Constitution were ambivalent about the freedom of the press The Bill of Rights was adopted in 1791 In 1798 the Federalist Party passed the Sedition Act 0 In order to silence the opposition to the war in France 0 Led by John Adams federalists believed the defamatory articles by the opposition Democratic Republican party might stir up discontent against the government and undermine its authority 0 Sedition act expired in 1801 Censorship as Prior Restraint The rst amendment theoretically prohibited censorship Supreme courts have de ned censorship as prior restraint Unprotected Forms of Government 0 Despite quotcongress shall make no lawquot many laws have been made restricting speech 0 Especially concerning false or misleading advertising expressions that intentionally threaten public safety and certain speech that compromises war strategy and other issues of national security 0 State laws and ordinances have on occasion curbed expression Seditious Expression 0 For more than a century after the Sedition Act congress passed no laws prohibiting dissenting opinion 0 Sentiments of the Sedition Act reappeared in war times 0 Espionage Act of 1917 and 1918 made it a federal crime to disrupt the nation39s war effort authorizing severe punishment for seditious expression Schenck vs United States Supreme Court upheld the conviction of a socialist party leader for distributing lea ets urging American men to protest the draft Socialist lea ets were entitled to rst amendment protection but only during times of peace Copyright Infringement o The rst copyright act in 1790 only gave authors the right to control their published work for 14 years with renewal for another 14 years 0 The idea was for authors to get nancial incentive to create original works The Copyright has been extended to the life of the author plus 50 years 1976 Copyright is extended for an additional 20 years 1988 Fair Use the same standard that enables students to legally attributed text from other works in their research papers Libel Defenses against Libel Charges The best defense against Libel has been the truth Absolute Privilege when prosecutors are not prevented from making accusatory statements without being accused of libel toward defendants Quali ed Privilege allows reporters to report judicial or legislative proceedings even though public statements being reported may be libelous Opinion and Fair Comment a defense against libel that states that libel applies only to intentional misstatements of factual information rather than to statements of opinion Libel laws also protect satire comedy and opinions expressed in reviews of books plays movies and restaurants Laws may NOT protect malicious statements in which plaintiffs can prove that defendants used their free speech rights to mount a damaging personal attack Obscenity Obscenity does not constitute a legitimate form of expression protected by the rst amendment Test of Obscenity 0 Whether to an quotaverage personquot applying quotcontemporary standardsquot the major thrust or theme of the material quottaken as a wholequot appealed to quotprurient interestquot in other words was intended to quotincite lustquot Current Legal De nition 0 The material must meet three criteria 0 The average person who is applying contemporary community standards would nd that the material as a while appeals to prurient interest 0 The material depicts or describes sexual conduct in a patently offensive way 0 The material as a Whole lacks serious literary artistic political or scienti c value The Right to Privacy Right to Privacy addresses a person39s right to be left alone without his or her name image or daily activities becoming public property In general the news media have been granted wide protections under the First Amendment to do their work 0 Most newspapers and broadcast outlets use their own internal guidelines and ethical codes to protect the privacy of victims and defendants especially in cases involving rape and child abuse First Amendment vs the Sixth Amendment The rst amendment protections of speech and the press often clash over the sixth amendment which guarantees a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury Gag Orders and Shield Laws Gag Orders sequestering juries moving cases to otherjurisdictions limiting the number of reporters and placing restrictions Legal restrictions prohibiting the press from releasing preliminary information that might prejudice jury selection Shield Laws Laws protecting the con dentiality of key interview subjects and reporters39 rights not to reveal the sources of controversial information used in news stories There is no federal shield law in the united states leaving journalists exposed to subpoenas from federal prosecutors and courts Cameras in the Courtroom The legal process has generally though not always tried to ensure that print and other news media are able to cover public issues broadly without fear of reprisals Film and the First Amendment New communication technologies have not always received the same kinds of protection under the rst amendment as those granted to speech or print media Socnal and Political Pressures on the Movnes During the early part of the twentieth century movies rose in popularity among European immigrants and others from modest socioeconomic groups 0 Spurred the formation of censorship groups Public Pressures came from o Conservatives 0 Saw them as a potential threat to the authority of traditional institutions 0 Progressives o Worried that children and adults were more attracted to movie houses than to social organizations and urban education centers Boxing lms became the target of the rst federal censorship laws afterjack johnson won the heavyweight championship in 1908 Mutual vs Ohio unanimously ruled that motion pictures were not a form of speech but quota business pure and simplequot and merely for quotspectaclequot for entertainment with quota special capacity for evilquot The Motion Picture Moral Code No picture shall be produced which will lower the moral standards of those who see it o The code in uenced nearly every commercial movie made between the mid 1930s and the early 1950s The Miracle Case granted lms the same constitutional protections as those enjoyed by the print media and other forms of speech The FCC Regulates Broadcasting Drawing on the argument that limited broadcast signals constitute a scarce national resource the communications act of 1934 mandated that radio broadcasters operate in the quotpublic interest convenience and necessityquot o Broadcaster39s responsibility to program in the public interest may outweigh their right to program whatever they want Dirty Words Indecent Speech and Hefty Fines 0 Law prevents the government from censoring broadcast content lndecency profanity after the fact 0 Concerns over indecent broadcast programming began in 1937 when NBC was scolded by the FCC for running an inappropriate sketch After a 1960s FCC investigation a couple of stations lost their licenses some were ned and 7bpess Radio was temporarily over Although no court had legally de ned indecency and still hasn t the supreme court39s unexpected ruling in the 1978 FCC v Paci ca Foundation case sided with the FCC and upheld the agency39s authority to require broadcasters to air adult programming at times when children are not likely to be listening Political Broadcasters and Equal Opportunity Section 315 of the 1934 Communications Act mandates that during elections broadcast stations must provide equal opportunities and response time for quali ed political candidates If broadcasters give or sell time to one candidate they must give or sell the same opportunity to others 0 Broadcasters claim that this law violates their rst amendment right to control content 0 Due to section 315 from the late 1960s through the 1980s many stations refused to air movies starring Ronald Reagan Demise of the Fairness Doctrine Fairness Doctrine required stations to 1 air and engage in controversial issue programs that affected their communities and 2 provide competing points of view when offering such programming 0 Ended with little public debate in 1987 after a federal court ruled that it was merely a regulation than an extension of the section 315 law Since 1987 periodic support for the fairness doctrine has surfaced o Argue that broadcasting is fundamentally different from and more pervasive than print media requiring greater accountability to the public Communication Policy and the Internet Many have looked to the internet as the one true venue for unlimited free speech under the First Amendment because it is not regulated by the government 0 Not subject to the communications act of 1934 Courts argued that because the FCC had not de ned the internet as a utility it couldn39t regulate it in this manner The eventual outcome will determine whether broadband internet connections will be de ned as an essential utility to which everyone has access and for which rates are controlled like electricity or phone service or as an information service for which internet service providers can charge as much as they wish as with cable TV The First Amendment and Democracy Citizens have counted on journalism to monitor abuses in government and business In journalism today the reporter mainly tries to answer the question quothow do these events affect consumersquot Focus less on the company39s problems and more on how the consumer will be impacted Chapter 14 Notes journalism is the only media enterprise that democracy requires and it is the only media practice and business that is speci cally mentioned and protected by the US Constitution 0 Mainstream journalism is searching for new business models and better ways to connect with the public Modern journalism in the Information Age Serious journalism has sought to provide information that enables citizens to make intelligent decisions 0 Society has developed an quotinformation glutquot that transforms news and information into a quotform of garbagequot o The amount of data the media now provide has questionable impact on improving public and political life What is News quotEvery news story shoulddispay the attributes of ction of drama It should have structure and con ict problem and denouement rising and falling action a beginning a middle and an endquot Characteristics of News o Journalists are taught to select and develop news stories relying on one or more of these criteria 0 Timeliness 0 Proximity 0 Con ict Prominence Human interest Consequence Usefulness o Nove y o Deviance Most issues and events that journalists select as news are timely or new 0 Although local TV stations and papers offer some national and international news readers and viewers expect to nd the bulk of news devoted to their towns and communities Most news stories are narratives and thus contain a healthy dose of con ict a key ingredient in narrative writing Surveys indicate that most people identify more closely with an individual than with an abstract issue 0 Therefore the media tends to report stories that feature prominent powerful or in uential people 0 Journalists also look for human interest stories 0 Extraordinary incidents that happen to ordinary people 0 Reporters often relate a story about a complicated issue by illustrating its impact on one quotaveragequot person family or town Other criteria for newsworthiness are consequence and usefulness 0 Many people look for stories With a practical use Finally news is often about the noveand the deviant Values in American Journalism Although newsworthiness criteria are a useful way to de ne news they do not reveal much about the cultural aspects of news 0 News is both a product and a process Neutrality Boosts Credibility and Sales quotReporters have no special method for determining the truth of a situation not a special language for reporting their ndings They make sense of events by telling stories about themquot Journalists believe they are or should be neutral observers who present facts without passing judgment on them 0 The minimal use of adverbs and adjectives and a detached third person point of view all help reporters perform their work 0 Many modern journalists believe that their credibility derived from personal detachment Partisanship Trumps Neutrality Especially Online and on Cable Since the rise of cable and the internet today39s media marketplace has offered a fragmented world where appealing to the widest audience no longer makes the best economic sense The mass audience has morphed into smaller niche audiences who embrace particular hobbies story genres politics and social networks 0 Partisanship has become good business quotjournalism of assertionquot marked partly by the return to journalism39s colonial roots and partly by the downsizing of the quotjournalism of veri cationquot Today the new partisan fervor found in news both online and on cable has been a major catalyst for the nation39s intense political and ideological divide Other Cultural Values in journalism The neutral journalism model remains a selective and uneven process Several basic quotenduring valuesquot have been shared by most American reporters and editors o The most prominent of these values are c Ethnocentrism Responsible capitalism Small town pastoralism o Individualism o In most news reporting especially foreign coverage reporters judge other countries and cultures on the basis of how quotthey live up to or imitate American practices and valuesquot 0 Contends that journalists nai39vely assume that businesspeople compete with one another not primarily to maximize pro ts but quotto create increased prosperity for allquot 0 Favoring the small over the large and the rural over the urban 0 Many journalists equate smalltown life with innocence and harbor suspicions of cities their governments and urban experiences 0 Most prominent value underpinning daily journalism 0 Rewards the rugged tenacity needed to confront and expose corruption 0 Often journalism that focuses on personal triumphs neglects to explain how large organizations and institutions work or fall Facts Values and Bias Reporters have aligned facts with an objective position and values with subjective feelings Many reporters view themselves as neutral quotchannelsquot of information rather than selective storytellers or citizens actively involved in public life Conservatives tend to see the media as liberally biased and liberals tend to see the media as favoring the conservative positions Deploying Deception Ever since Nellie Bly faked insanity to get inside an asylum in the 18805 investigative journalists have used deception to get stories There are two major ethical positions and multiple variations 0 Suggests that a moral society has laws and codes including honesty that everyone must live by The ends exposing a phony clinic neverjustify the means using deception to get the story Promotes ethical decisions on a casebycase basis If a greater public can be served using deceit journalists and editors who believe in situational ethics would sanction deception as a practice The ethics code adopted by the Society of Professional journalists SPj is mostly silent on the topic of deception o It does say quotjournalists should be honest fair and courageous in gathering reporting and interpreting informationquot 0 Calls on journalists to quotseek truth and report itquot Con ict of Interest o On a broader level ethical guidelines at many news outlets attempt to protect journalists from compromising positions journalists should not place themselves in a situation in which they might have to report on the misdeeds od an organization or a political party to which they belong Resolving Ethical Problems 0 Most media professionals deal with ethical situations only on a casebycase basis as issues arise Aristotle Kant and Bentham and Mill Aristotle offered the concept of the quotGolden Meanquot 0 Desirable middle ground between extreme positions 0 Usually one is regarded as de cient and the other as excessive 0 Balance between sloth and greed Immanuel Kant developed the quotCategorical Imperativequot o Maintains that a society must adhere to moral codes that are universal and unconditional applicable in all situations at all times Bentham and Mill promoted an ethical principle derived from quotthe greatest good for the greatest numberquot 0 Distribute a good consequence to more people rather than to fewer whenever we have a choice Developing Ethical Policy Arriving at ethical decision involves several steps 0 Laying out the case 0 Pinpointing the key issues 0 Identifying involved parties their intents and their competing values 0 Studying ethical models 0 Presenting strategies and options 0 Formulating a decision Pretty Face and Happy Talk Culture pretty talk is the concept of having a young attractive TV personalities Happy talk is the ad libbed or scripted banter that goes on between news anchors 0 Happy talk often appears forced and may create awkward transitions
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