Part 1 of Study Guide for CH. 2
Part 1 of Study Guide for CH. 2 18761, BIO 1320 002
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zana Jones on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 18761, BIO 1320 002 at a university taught by Joel J. Bergh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Study Guide Biology 1320 Exam 2 Chapters 45 Chapter 4 Energy The ability to do work and move matter Kinetic Is the energy of movement eX Light sound movement potential energy Is stored energy exergonic Reactions that release energy breaking down glucose in cellular respiration endergonic reactions Reactions that require an input of energy generating carbohydrates in photosynthesis entropy Measure of the degree of disorder in system the higher the entropy the greater the disorder enzyme Is a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction Without being consumed 0 substrate The material or substance on which an enzyme acts 0 noncompetitive inhibition Inhibitor that binds to a part of the enzyme other than the active site 2What is chemical energy and What specialized molecule stores the energ Energy released from a substance or absorbed in the formation of a chemical compound during a chemical reaction The energy released from Q or glucose during a chemical reaction is an example of chemical energy 3In your own words What are the first and second law of thermodynamics 1 energy can39t be created nor destroyed 2 Entropy is increasing as energy changes forms 4 Is cell respiration endergonic or exergonic and why What about photosynthesis 1 Cellular Respiration Exergonic 2 Photosynthesis Endergonic 5What is activation energ The activation energy is the energy required to start a reaction Enzymes are proteins that bind to a molecule substrate to modify it and lower the energy required to make it react 0 How does an electron transport chain work The electron transport chain aka ETC is a process in which the NADH and FADHz produced during glycolysis B oxidation and other catabolic processes are oxidized thus releasing energy in the form of ATP The mechanism by which ATP is formed in the ETC is called chemiosmotic phosphorolation 0 What is a couple reaction How does coupling transfer energy from ATP to muscles chemical reaction with a common intermediate in which my is transferred from one side of the reaction to the other An example is the formation of at whichis an endergonic process and is coupled to the dissipation of a proton gradient 0 Describe in simple terms a metabolic pathway a feedback loop 2 a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell In a pathway the initial chemical metabolite is modified by a sequence of chemical reactions 0 What are the two main mechanisms for regulating metabolic activity Changing the activity of a pre eXisting enzyme Changing the amount of an enzyme 0 Define solute solvent gradient concentrations How do each of these items in uence diffusion 0 1Solute is a substance that can be dissolved dispersed as atoms ions or molecules 0 2Solvent is a uid capable of dissolving a soluteWater is called the quotuniversal solventquot 0 3Gradient is a physical difference in temperature pressure charge or concentration of a particular substance in a uid between two adjoining regions of space 4Concertration defines the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent What is diffusion and what are the underlying principles this is closely related to the item above Particles move from high concentration to low concentration that is they move down their concentration gradient facilitated transport and osmosis Facilitated Transport is passive transport that requires membrane proteins Osmosis the diffusion of water down its concentration gradient Explain the difference and understand the principles behind isotonic hypertonic and hypotonic hypotonic solution Has a lower solute concentration Water moves across a membrane away from the hypotonic solution A hypertonic Solution is one with a greater solute concentration Water moves across a membrane toward the hypertonic solution Isotonic solutions have equal concentrations of water and equal concentrations of dissolved substances No net water movement What is active transport the cell uses energy and a transport protein to move a substance against its concentration gradient 0 Endocytosis is the energy requiring process of bringing material into the cell from the extracellular space What are the three different types of endocytosis and What items are brought into the cell for each type Endocytosis allows a cell to engulf uids and large molecules and bring them into the cell There are three types of endocytosis Pinocytosis quotcell drinkingquot moves liquids into the cell Receptor mediated endocytosis moves specific molecules into the cell Phagocytosis quotcell eatingquot moves large particles into the cell What is exocytosis Exocytosis uses vesicles to transport substances out of cells Chapter 5 Photosynthesis 0 What is the structure and function of the different parts of the leaf mesonhvll and stomatal Mesophyll the inner tissue parenchyma of a leaf containing many chloroplasts Mesophyll is the green material of a leaf that allows the plant to enact the process of photosynthesis 0 Know the chemical equation for photosVnthesis 6 C02 6 H20 light energy C6H1206 602carb0n water sunlight glucose oxygendioxide sugar 0 What are the different parts of the chloroplast and Where do the different steps of DhotosVnthesis take place nurse r INNER l39lEtllltiEsllttiiE quot if Eri ltaln LAMELLAE Harriett AA Ef h Ef f rhl 0 What is the reactants that 0 into the li ht reaction and What roducts are created ATP and NADPH and water is produced 0 What are the reactants for the li ht inde endent reaction Where do the come from and What are the products of the Calvin chle C02 that comes from the ATP to make sugar glucose 0 What is the role of chlorophyll a and the accessory pigments in the light reaction Chlorophyll a The primary photosynthetic pigment Absorbs blue violet and red light Re ects green light and instead re ects those wavelengths thus making it green 0 Explain the path of energy from light through the light reactions and Calvin cycle to the generation of the final end products Include the intermediaries we discuss in class Calvin Cycle is a lightindependent metabolic pathway occurring in the chloroplast stoma that converts carbon from carbon dioxide into sugar C02NADPHATP 3 carbon sugar pyruvatesynthesizes simple sugars from carbon dioxide The Calvin cycle takes place in the stoma of chloroplasts 0 How do we measure the intensity of light Which is stronger red light or blue light and why Red light is stronger because of high intensity 0 Understand the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis What light does chlorophyll absorb or re ect Chlorophyll a is the primary photosynthetic pigment in plants It absorbs mostly blue and red light
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