Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide NTR 108
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ndidiamaka Okorozo on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NTR 108 at University at Buffalo taught by Temple, J L in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Food Any substance the body takes in and assimilates it that enables it to grow Nutrients Component of food that is indispensable to the body s functioning body needs it to function properly Essential nutrients nutrients the body cannot make essential to be eaten Nonessential nutrients the body can make Classes of Nutrients Essentials Macronutrients provides energy 1 Carbohydrates CH0 4 kcalg simple sugars complex carbohydrates 2 Lipids fats and oils 9 kcalg Visible hidden 3 Proteins 4 kcalg Animal and vegetable sources Micronutrients doesn t provide energy 4 Vitamins water soluble all B Vitamins amp Vitamin C Excess excreted easier to get deficiency of and absorbed into blood stream Organic compounds Function in body in a regulatory or metabolic capacity Lipid soluble A D E amp K Consumed With fat and excess stored Toxicity Excess over consumption of lipid soluble 5 Minerals Inorganic substances Structural and metabolic roles in the body Co factor for enzymes and Vitamins Major more than 100mg a day Trace less than 100mg 6 Water MOST ESSENTIAL Nonessential 7 Other components phytochemicals carotenoids Come from plants bonus nutrients 0 Alcohol not a nutrients but supplies 7 kcal g Nutrition Research Design a Epidemiologic studies study of disease in a population b Laboratory studies on much smaller group of peopleanimals More precise and in a well organized condition like a lab c Intervention studies evokingobserving the effectiveness of a drug on people Alcohol not a nutrients but supplies 7 kcal g Nutrients and Disease 1 Singlefactor nutrition disease one lacking nutrient signs are usually rapid 2 Multi factor non modifiable caused by nonmodifiable factors like age gender genetic background etc Modifiable caused by diet exercise smoking habits etc Harder to treat onset accumulates Within years Desirable amount amount Which supports routine chemical processes and provides surplus store for use When needed gt Undernutrition doesn t consume enough for cellular activities gt Overnutrition excess intake Basic principles for food selection for nutritional health variety balance moderation and adequacy Nutrition Density Food nutrient content divided by calorie content a Nutrient dense foods high nutrient may also be high in nutrients b Empty calorie foods low nutrient but high in calories Energy Density comparison of calorie content with weight of food a Lower energy density rich in fiber and water lt 15 kcalg b Higher energy density rich in fat and sugar gt 4kcalg GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT Mouth chewing Saliva and mucus work on food amylase starts digesting carbs Stomach chumingmixing food into chime Enzymes uid and acid work on food Protein digestion starts low pH Small intestine MAJOR SITE OF DIGESTION amp ABSORPTION Large intestine sodium potassium amp water absorption excretion of wastes fermentation of fiber Accessory Organs Help with digestion sit outside of GI tract a Liver produces bile used for emulsification of fat b Gallbladder stores bile releases them into SI when needed c Pancreas makes digestive enzymes and insulin Functions 1 Secretion of substances like enzymes mucous and bile 2 Release of hormones to rest of body for regulation of digestion absorption and metabolism 3 Absorption of nutrients from the GIT into the circulatory system 4 Fermentation which produces short chain fatty acids gases and vitamins 5 Excretion of wastes undigested food bacteria water and minerals and true waste from liver and intestines Digestion physical and chemical breakdown of food in to component groups 1 Physical phase mixing and moving food throughout the GIT a Motility mixing pushed down the GIT by a process called peristalsis b Mixing occurs by contraction of muscles in GIT 2 Chemical phase a Stomach acid breaks chemical bonds b Enzymatic reactions in body are dependent on pH substrate and presence of coenzymes and other compounds 3 Regulation of digestion a Nervous system nerves send info from GIT to brain and other nerves send info from brain to organs and glands of GIT b Hormones control release of digestive enzymes and juices I Gastrin in the stomach Responds to food and stimulates stomach acids and enzymes I CCK in small intestine Responds to fat and protein and stimulates secretion of enzymes and bile by liver and pancreas I Secretin in small intestine Responds to acid Stimulate bicarbonate secretion to neutralize acid Absorption Movement of small molecules nutrients across the GIT wall from intestinal lumen to blood or lymph 0 Majority occurs in small intestine Water drugs and small amounts of alcohol absorbed in the mouth Fermentation products absorbed in large intestine a Passive transport no energy needed nutrients goes from high to low concentration occurs across membrane with or without a protein carrier Example is with absorption of fructose and fatty acids b Active Transport uses energy nutrients goes from low to high concentration and it requires a carrier Examples glucose amino acids and some vitamins Some common disorders of the GIT are gt gt VVVVVVV Ulcer erosion of op layer of cells in stomach or duodenum Heartburn re ux of esophagitis due to weakened lower esophageal sphincter which allows the back ow of stomach acid in to esophagus Gallstones blockage of bile duct from gall bladder results in fat malabsorption Lactose intolerance lack of the enzyme lactase and causes bloating and diarrhea Constipation painful and difficult bowel movement FIBER helps Hemorrhoids swollen veins of rectum and anus More FIBER needed Diarrhea watery stools Caused by excess or no enough fiber FIBER prevents it Celiac Disease mucosal malabsorption Diverticulosis small pouches in colon wall causes in ammation FIBER needed CARBOHYDRATES 1 Monosaccharides a Glucose basic unit of starch and cellulose Most common in all types of carbohydrates b Fructose sweetest found in processed food high fructose corn syrup c Galactose in milk and dairy products 2 Disaccharides two monosaccharides a Sucrose glucose and fructose In plants fruits table sugar etc b Maltose glucose and glucose Found in SI after starch breakdown c Lactose glucose and galactose Found in milk products Digestible by most children and no by most adults I lactose Intolerance 3 Oligosaccharides 3 10 monosaccharides a Starch products mostly made up of glucose and found in some sports drinks b Bean sugars indigestible fermented in large intestine 4 Polysaccharides more than 10 monosaccharides Examples are starch glycogen and dietary fiber Digestion 1 Mouth Saliva produces amylase which breaks down into glucose maltose and oligosaccharides 2 Stomach low pH Mixing With acid Protein breakdown by pepsin 3 Pancreas Excretes amylase and other enzymes into the SI 4 Small intestine Amylase digests starch Sucrase breaks down sucrose maltase breaks down sucrose and lactase breaks down lactose 5 Large Intestine Fermentation of undigested material Absorption occurs ONLY in small intestine facilitated diffusion for fructose and active transport for glucose and galactose gt Primary function of Carbohydrates provision of energy in the form of ATP in the presence of oxygen Primary form of carbs used is glucose and it releases 4kcalg I Excess stored as glycogen in liver and muscles and can be degraded by glycogenosis to supply glucose Vitamin B6 needed for this Blood Glucose 80 100mgdl gt Hyperglycemia gt100 causes release of insulin gt Hypoglycemia lt80 cause release of glucagon Disorders Diabetes major disorder of CHO regulation a Type onset at childhood pancreas doesn t secrete insulin hyperglycemia after glucose intake Unexplained weight loss Given prescribed insulin b Type II onset at adulthood Less severe Primary cause is obesity Insulin is secreted but body is insensitive to it Hyperglycemia Weight loss and good diet subsidizes it c Gestational onset during pregnancy Developed insensitivity to insulin Avoid weigh loss while pregnant Sugar Direct health risks Tooth Decay Cavities ONLY direct risk of sugar 0 Other are indirect such as blood lipid levels diabetes obesity and hyperactivity Alternative sweeteners Aspartame Saccharin Sugar alcohols Acesulfame Sucralose and Stevia which differ in form component and taste Fiber mostly polysaccharide in nature can t be digested by humans Daily intake 14g1000kcal 25g for women and 38g for men Should be obtained from FOOD not supplements gt Insoluble cellulose hemicellulose doesn t dissolve in water increased fecal bulk decreased fecal transit time seeds and whole grains gt Soluble dissolves in water delays gastric emptying slows nutrient absorption helps control blood glucose and cholesterol provides energy to colon Low Carbohydrate Diets similar diets to fasting and starvation because of lack of energy protection LIPIDS Types a Sterols Cholesterol from animals precursor to hormones bile vitamin D gt Phytosterols from plants b Triglycerides fats and oils made up of glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acids Fats are solid at room temp and oils are liquid at room temp Provide energy helps in absorption and storage of fat soluble vitamins gives texture and avor in food c Phospholipids glycerol backbone and 2 fatty acids and phosphate Amphiphilic and makes up lipid bilayer in cell membrane d Fatty acids chains of carbon atoms gt Saturated fatty acids SFA all C are bound by hydrogens straight and solid at room temperature gt Unsaturated some C have double bonds kinks in chain and more liquid at room temp Trans fat unusual generated from unsaturated plant oils produced during hydrogenation which makes it act like saturated fat Rancidity process of double bonds being destroyed and converted to other types of bonds 181 number of carbons number of double bonds n6 location of the double bond n6 like in omega 6 n3 like in omega 3 Digestion Mouth lipase in mouth for children to help for the digestion of fat but not in adu s Stomach fat droplet formed Small intestine lipase and fat released here Broken into micelles Absorption 1 Small and medium fatty acids are done through passive transport directly into the blood 2 Long chain packaged in chylomicrons fatty acids and glycerol reformed into triglyceride absorbed into small intestine Transport SCFA short chain fatty acids transported free in blood unbound and not in chylomicrons Chylomicrons Triglycerides from diet made in liver VLDL very low density lipoproteins full of TG from liver LDL Low density lipoproteins made in blood from VLDL TG cholesterol bad cholesterol HDL High density lipoproteins made in liver moves cholesterol out of blood and tissues to the liver good cholesterol 0 A diet high in fat but low in cholesterol can result in high cholesterol Cardiovascular Disease leading cause of death in men and women gt Atherosclerosis hardening of arteries buildup of plaque in arterial lining gt Arteriosclerosis refers to the buildup of plaque in the arterioles gt schemia lack of oxygen blood ow to the tissue gt Myocardial infarction heart attack and occlusion of blood vessels to heart gt Cerebrovascular accident stroke and occlusion of blood vessels to brain Risk factors for CVD smoking hypertension blood lipid Triglycerides low amount is good blood cholesterol low amount LDL cholesterol low amount and HDL cholesterol high amount obesity diabetes stress heredity and gender CVD Phases a Initiation plaque formation lesion and deposition of fat and cholesterol b Progressive thickening of plaque promoted by high blood LDL levels and less elastic arteries c Termination caused by narrow lumen and clot leading to occlusion of blood vessel Dietary Strategies to reduce risk change fat intake by replacement of saturated fats with monounsaturated fats decreasing transfat intake less than 10 calories of fat in daily diet etc
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