Prenatal Development & Birth I & II
Prenatal Development & Birth I & II CPSY 2301
U of M
Popular in Introductory Child Psychology
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CPSY 2301 at University of Minnesota taught by Henriette Warren in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Introductory Child Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Prenatal Development amp Birth I amp ll September 15 amp 17 2015 1 Women Beware of alcohol amp other drugs caffeine herb etc Get appropriate vaccines Improve nutrition take vitamins amp folic acid Quit smoking if applicable Reduce stress Men Same or less 1 2 Better health associated with healthier sperm Healthier sperm in uence viability of pregnancy Healthier sperm related to higher IQ in offspring In uenced mother to reduce stress level The germinal period 02 weeks Start out as zygote single cell The rst cells of life The zygote moves slowly through the fallopian tube where fertilization occurred amp into the uterus Ends with zygote enters the uterus Can t be too early or too late organism will be destroying uterine environment will not be hormonally prepared The Embryonic Period 2 weeks8 weeks Enters the period of embryo they begin to form All the basic organs of the body take shape organism begins to respond to direct stimulation Week 3 form brain heart Week 4 eyes ears digestive system Sensitive period highly susceptible to teratogens 3 The Fetal Period 9 weeks birth Fetus grows 10x bigger Increased in length from approximately 1 12 inches to 20 inches Increased in weight from approximately 002 to 71 pounds Organs more differentiated amp re ned 34 months distinguish external sexual char s 4 months bones distinct hair appears re exes 78 months can breath air eyes openclose Fetal movement Around 4 months start feeling kicks Age of viability Between 22 amp 26 week infant can rst survive outside womb 3 Experiments with chick embryos for example suggest that prenatal activity is crucial to normal limb development If chick embryos are treated with drugs that prevent them from moving the elimination of excess neurons that ordinarily accompanies neuromuscular development does not occur The results are disastrous Fetal movements are believed to play a similar role in establishing basic neuronal connections in human 4 Teratogens Environment agent that can cause deviations from normal development amp can lead to abnormalities or death The most common teratogenic agents to which fetuses are exposed environment agents such as toxins disease drugs amp alcohol Effects They will increase the risk of deviations in normal development amp can lead to serious abnormalities or death The Embryonic period they are the major structural abnormalities In general the greater the expose to teratogenic agents the greater the risk of abnormal development Overall the gravest danger to life comes during the rst 2 weeks before the cells of the organism have undergone extensive differentiation amp before most women are even aware that they are pregnant During this critical period a teratogenic agent may completely destroy the organism 5 The number of infants born in the rst half of the 1942 was much loner than normally amp stillbirths doubled These newborns were on average more than a pound lighter than babies born before the siege amp they were much more likely to be premature They were also in very poor condition at birth they had little vitality amp were unable to maintain body temperature adequately When infants are still in the fetus severe prenatal malnutrition First 3 months most likely to result in abnormalities of the central nervous system premature birth amp death Last 3 months most likely to retard fetal growth amp result in pregnancy low birth weight Undernourished amp malnourished mother frequently live in impoverished environments where housing sanitation education amp medical care including prenatal care are also more likely to suffer from disease or simply to be in a weekend state than one women who liv in a better material circumstances 6 Researchers have been began to produce a detailed picture of the development of sensory capacities before birth We are able to know more towards a fetus sense of hearing vision smell taste in the womb Sight Least developed at birth Little is known for certain about the extent of the fetus s visual expenence Aidan Maefarlane 1977 suggested that the fetus s visual experience of light that has penetrated the mother s stretched stomach wall maybe similar to the glow seen Headng Auditory receptors developed by 67 months Fetus responds to sound at 5 to 6 months after conception The average sound level inside the womb is approximately 75 decibels about the level at which we hear the outside world when we ride in a car with the windows up Cat in the Hat study mothers read CinH out loud 2xday for last 6 weeks of pregnancy 3 days after birth measured babies sucking rates Results sucked at rate increase or decrease needed to hear the familiar story can hear amp learn in utero womb Smell Olfactory receptors developed by 7 months Waterborn odorants eg food perfume tobacco Varendi et al 2002 study slow preference fro smell of own amniotic uid Taste Fetus swallows amniotic uid DeSneo 1937 study Sweet or bitter substance injected into amniotic uid Sweet drink more Same taste preferences as us Touch Almost all areas sensitive to touch by 3 months The vestibular system of the middle ear which controls the sense of balance begins to function in the human fetus about 5 months after conception amp is fully mature at birth Fetus is capable of sensing changes in the mother s posture amp orienting itself as it oats inside the uid lled amniotic sac 7 Utero function is providing a good uterine environment for the zygote to implants amp develop during pregnancy The wall of utero are much thicker than those of the cervix as they provide for the protection amp support of the developing fetus amp contain the muscles that propel the fetus out of the mother s body during childbirth They provide a environment for the uterine amp the organism 8 Prenatal Care Factors Money Doctor how educated developed hightech facilities of the neonatal health in order to check the healthiness of the baby Birth weight 9 The signal from fetus stimulates maternal hormone production triggers the process of childbirth The infant maybe adapted for normal birth amp their skill maybe not completely fussed Can developed a quick amp simple method of determining whether a body requires emergency care Stress hormone rush Blood to brain amp heart Opens bronchial tubes Arouses baby to altertness Universal 1 Dilation of cervix up to 24 hours 2 Pushing amp birth 12 hours 3 Delivery of placenta Cultural variations in childbirth Method of delivery Highly medical contexts lntimacy of home birth Water birth Where delivery occurs hospital vs home with assistance with a midwife Role of father Can be present vs not present eg waiting outside of the emergency room Attitudes policies surroundings pregnancy birth Treated as illness or 39disability Everyday experience or something special 10 Using painkillers anesthetics analgesics 7 sedatives Helpful to mother can t feel contractions as much Not helpful to the baby Slows down labor Increase chance of fetal hypoxia oxygen depdvann Baby may have depressed response But generally no longer term effects on the baby Ceasarean section csection Typically used in case of difficult labor when the baby is deemed to be in distress during delivery or is not in the head rst position Pental Stress Not helpful to mother longer recover time Concerns Newborn often has difficulty breathing Higher mortality rate Very expensive Higher rates of asthma amp allergies Reasons Overestimates potential problems Hospital wish to earn more money 11 Physical Condition Anesthesiologist works in a delivery room developed a quick amp simple method of determining whether a baby requires emergency care Apger scale A quick simple test used to diagnose the physical state of newborn infants 5 vital signs heart rate respiratory effort muscle tone re ex responsivity amp coor The individual scores are totaled to give a measure of the baby s overall physical condition Behavior Condition Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale A scale used to access a newborn s neurological condition Major purpose Access the neurological condition of newborns who are suspected of being at risk for developmental difficulties Access the developmental progress of infants to compare the functioning of newborns of different cultures amp to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to alleviate developmental difficulties 1 Orientation to animate visual amp auditory To see if the baby focuses on the examiner amp follows the examiner s movements with smooth eye movements 2 Pull to sit If the baby tries to adjust the posture of his or her head when in a seated position amp if so how well the baby succeeds 3 Cuddliness See whether the baby resists being held is passive or cuddles Up 4 Defensive moments See if the baby tries to remove it either by turning away from it or by swiping at it 5 Selfquieting activity Notes whether the baby exhibits selfquieting behavior eg thumb sucking or looking around during an epospde of fussing 12 Causes Multiple births intranterine in ections chromosomal abnormalities maternal smoking or use of narcotics maternal malnutrition amp abnormalities of the placenta or umbilical cord Exposure to teratogens Malnourishment Young age of mother Having twins triplets etc Unknown in 50 of cases Consequence Medical problems Risk of neurological damage Susceptibility to infection In fant moratality higher Higher risk of heart disease diabetes obesity Social problem Less stimulation touch Parents maybe less responsive infant often more fussyirritable Cognitive de cits Attention problems Poorer motor coordination Lower academic achievement Rate Rates of low birth weight are increasing 13 These development believes that examination of what cause nonhuman mothers to protect or reject their young can shed light on the factors that in uence human mothers Parents tend to pay more attention to amp respond more positively to 39cute infants perhaps because their attractiveness signals physical tness amp good prospect for survival Human parents do interact less frequently amp less lovingly with infants they consider unattractive than they do with those they consider attractive Human parents also attribute less competence to unattractive babies Eg This pattern is particularly noticeable for baby girls While still in the hospital with their newborn girls mothers of less attractive babies directed their attention to people other than their babies more often than did mothers of attractive babies
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