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PPT 2 + CH 3 (part 1) Notes

by: Jean Lee

PPT 2 + CH 3 (part 1) Notes 202.0

Jean Lee
GPA 3.5
Introduction to Psychology
Coffey,Patricia Mar

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About this Document

Here are notes for the 2nd PPT file with all the information you need to know from the book! I organized and categorized them very nicely so that the information isn't all over the place. I put rel...
Introduction to Psychology
Coffey,Patricia Mar
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jean Lee on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 202.0 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Coffey,Patricia Mar in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 269 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Madison.


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Date Created: 09/29/15
PPT z CH 3part 1 Notes Neuron Components enliriites Huclm Biminin nil r J quot 7 quot r l l39 TE 1 W V r t mm min quot quot 1 quot lE39FITIlMIE U all may mea x v i Flatairing nnugrnn Transmitlinga neural Amntenn ina 39r A 39 HEEEpl ltilll rend Synaptic ElE Ellendrle im wiinglneumn Neurons Cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform informationprocessing tasks Cell Body or Soma The part of a neuron that coordinates informationprocessing tasks and keeps the cell alive Dendrites The part of a neuron that receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body Axon The part of a neuron that carries information to other neurons muscles or glands Synapse The junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another Glial Cells Support cells found in the nervous system C Myelin sheath is composed of glial cells C Helps supply nutrients to neurons 0 10 1 Glial cells neurons CNS Myelin Sheath An insulating layer of fatty material 0 Made from glial cells 0 Provides insulation for axons O Speeds up neutral transmission by causing action potentials to quotjumpquot across the Nodes of Ranvier saltatory conduction Demyelinating Disease any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath is damaged 0 Multiple Sclerosis O Deterioration of myelin sheath results in slow down of transmission from one neuron to the next Nodes of Ranvier Little break points between clumps of myelin sheaths Saltatory Conduction The charge of an electric current jumping from node to node rather than traversing the entire axon O Helps speed the ow of information down the axon Terminal Buttons Knoblike structures that branch out from an axon Neurotransmitters Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron39s dendrites Receptors Parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate or prevent a new electric signal Types of Neurons and Nerves Hecaptrs thermal r and pain in th Ekl La mta ii 1 W L quotE 5L Ell ctnr biceps br l39lii muar ej Sensory Neurons Neurons that receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord 0 light sound touch taste and smell Motor Neurons Neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement Interneurons Neurons that connect sensory neurons motor neurons or other interneurons O Interneurons gt Motor and Sensory neurons Afferent Nerve Carries information from sensory receptors in skin to the brain Efferent Nerve Carries information from the brain to the neurons controlling leg muscles causing a response Mirror Neurons Neurons that are activated when an organism engages in a behavior or observes another engage in that behavior 0 Found in the frontal and parietal lobes and have been identified in other species in addition to humans 0 Recognizing another person39s goals or intentions O The neuron mirrors the behavior of the other as though the observer were itself acting Electrical Signaling action rafts atom 5 E pta tial period E I E E depolarizati n pana fr l fii li lrl I i 44 I E I a H i 3 i EL g A l E I resting patential quot E 3 m L v 5 E FEEhm pate mm h i r f l f ll quotNJ I I l I I II 39 I I 39 I El 11 E 3 it E I Ema lmillliaecuntlsl ctiln Potential in a Neuron Resting Potential The difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron39s cell membrane 0 In a resting state the electrical charge inside the neuron is slightly more negative than the outside 0 Potassium can ow freely but sodium ion molecules are kept out creating a different in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron39s cell membrane Depolarization The reduction of a membrane39s resting potential so that it becomes less negative Neurons fire when cell is depolarized Change in the permeability of the cell The gates open and sodium rushes into the neuron Inside of neuron is now more positively charged than outside Change from the negative charge to positive charge causes the action potential Action Potential An electrical signal that is conducted along a neuron39s axon to a synapse O Shuts down the potassium channels and opens the sodium ion channels allowing sodium ion to rush in and increase the positive charge inside the axon triggering the action potential Hyperpolarization A change in a cell39s membrane potential that makes it more negative Opposite of depolarization Neurons less likely to fire Sodium channels less likely to allow sodium into neuron Imbalance is reversed by an active chemical pump that moves sodium ions outside the axon and moves potassium inside the axon Neurotransmitters Steps in nearetmnsmitter action Termini Presynuptic membrane his 9 r1 4 Haira quot439 w 1 i ll W I H Tiaquot391 r if 7 r 4quot 331739 grew eptr Reuptake The absorption by a presynaptic nerve ending of a neurotransmitter that it has secreted Enzyme Deactivation Destroying of neurotransmitter by enzymes in the synapse Autoreceptors Type of receptor located in the membranes of presynaptic nerve cells 0 Detects how much of a neurotransmitter has been released into a synapse and signal the presynaptic neuron to stop releasing the neurotransmitter when an excess is present Agonists Drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter L dopa Increases production of neurotransmitters Amphetamine Increases release of neurotransmitters Clonidine High Blood Pressure Bind to autoreceptors and block their inhibitory 1x17 1 effect Prozac 8 Cocaine Block the deactivation or reuptake of neurotransmitters Nicotine Bind to postsynaptic receptors and activate them or increase the neurotransmitter effect Antagonists Drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter AMPT Block the production of neurotransmitters Reserpine Antihypertensive Cause depletion of neurotransmitters in vesicles Botulinum Toxin Block the release of neurotransmitters Caffeine Activate autoreceptors so that they inhibit release of neurotransmitters Propranolol Betablocker Haldol Antipsychotic Drug Bind to postsynaptic receptors and block neurotransmitter binding Acetylcholine Affects Motor Control and Mental Processes Acetylcholine Regulation of attention learning sleeping dreaming and memory Shortage Alzheimer39s Excess Spasms Monoamines Single Amino Acids Involved in affect arousal and motivation Norepinephrine Arousal and vigilance Shortage Depression Excess Mania Dopamine Regulates motor behavior motivation pleasure and emotional arousal Shortage Parkinson39s disease Excess Schizophrenia 78 N E OEquot tc39i39 O Amphetamine cocaine chlorpromazine O In Parkinson39s tracts of Dopamine neurons degenerate in Basal Ganglia leading to abnormally low levels in brain Serotonin Regulation of sleep and wakefulness eating and aggressive behavior Shortage Depression 0 Serotonin massively depleted by ecstasy terminal buttons often destroyed Amino Acids General inhibitory and excitatory transmitters in the brain GABA Gammaaminobutyric Acid Inhibits sending neuron Shortage Anxiety epilepsy Huntington39s disease Excess Unmotivated 0 Drugs that mimic for anxiety insomnia 0 Alcohol has similar impact on GABA receptors Glutamate Excites helps learning and memory 0 Increased speed of synaptic connections Peptides 2 or more Amino Acids Modulate neurotransmission CCK Cholecystokinin Learning memory pain 0 Can trigger panic attack 0 Administer before meal and fuller sooner Endorphins Dulls the experience of pain and elevates moods O Runner39s high 0 Natural pain relievers Shortage Chronic pain or difficulty with selfsoothing Substance P Involved in pain perception


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