EXAM 1- STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 1- STUDY GUIDE ISS 310
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Torres on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ISS 310 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Lucero Radonic in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 289 views. For similar materials see People and Environment (I) in Social Work at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
I55 310 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 What is anthropology The study of human diversity across time and space Biology society language and culture Unilineal Evolution mid 1800 The theory that hypothesized that all societies evolve quotalong a common track from barbarism to literate civilizations A societies would pass through the same basic sequence of stages starting from hunting and gathering Example Colonizers believed that the places they colonized where at an early stage in this evolution so they wanted to make those cultures resemble western civilization FRANZ Boas 18481942 Proposed the idea to understand other cultures 1 Biological race does not exist 2 Change occurs in response to current pressures and opportunities KEY TERMS o Ethnocentrism To judge a culture using one own cultural standards and values 0 Cultural relativism An individual s beliefs and practices should be understood by other in terms of the individual39s culture 0 Holism Commitment to study the full scope of human life across space and time A crosscultural and comparative approach 0 Culture System of knowledge beliefs patterns of behaviors artifacts and institutions that are created learned and shared by a group of people Culture is not biological it is symbolic shared and constantly changing o Enculturation The process of learning culture 0 Cultural relativism Questions if ethnocentrism is wrong or right The four fields in Anthropology Physical or biological Archeology Linguistic anthropology Cultural anthropology Focus of the class Study of social and cultural similarities and differences It is global includes rural and nonrural areas It has a bottom up approach Begin studying people and patterns of human life at the local scale PWP Understanding economies Economies are cultural systems that allows you to survive Economy helps us adapt to the environment Key terms Mode of production The various ways in which people produce the means of subsistence to survive This includes social relations of production that indicate how labor is displayed and how they are managed Means of production The tools we use to produce Land wood machinery etc Adaptive strategies Main system of economic production 1 Foraging Main adaptive strategy Reliance of nature Hunting fishing and gathering Many indigenous population still use this 0 Foragers Live in small social groups This groups are seminomads They move with the seasons They share resources There is not much differentiation between social classes 2 Horticulture Refers to shifting cultivations or domestication of plants 0 It is enough for a family but not for an entire population 0 There is trade and exchange 3 Agriculture Complete intense production of domesticated plants Systems for food production Animal domestication Use animals for Food production Irrigation Terraces Intensive fertilization People are sedentary They are able to feed a large population Labor intensive This system creates a ranked social organization Diversification and stratification of labor 4 Pastoralism Domestication of animals Supplemented by hunting You can be a nomad or you can be transhumance Which means that only the people that take care of the animals move Also live in small groups 5 lndustrialism NOTE Adaptive strategies 1234 are not exclusive nor linear Forms of distribution and exchange Reciprocity You don t expect an immediate return but eventually you will get the favor back There are 3 forms of reciprocity o Generalized o Balanced 0 Negative Redistribution Money that is redistributed for a common good Example taxes are system of redistribution because you give money that then is distributed for things that we all use Market exchange Standardized and common medium of exchange What we call money The Green revolution Refers to a series of development and technology initiatives that increased agricultural production worldwide 0 Two perspectives in the green revolution 0 Technical The creation of bioengineered seeds This seeds will produce more food but need more water and fertilizers Created more variety of seeds Increased crop yields of basic cereals like rice and wheat o Anthropological perspective The green revolution is the adoption of modern agricultural practices in less technologically developed countries NOTE READ CLASS NOTES FROM LECTURE 3 TO KNOW DETAILS AND HISTORICALPOLITICAL BACKGROUND ABOUT THE GREEN REVOLUTION The blue revolution Refers to the emergence of aquaculture productive agricultural activity Blue revolution means that we can also cultivate the ocean Human Adaptability Strategies Cultural systems of adaptation to the environment We use resources to survive oEvolutionary adaptation Genetic adaptation Changes in gene frequency that will help you adapt a particular environment Example Charles Darwin Natural selection Survival of the fittest not survival of the fit person it means survival of the most reproductive Some individuals have a genetic advantage that help them reproduce in certain environments Meaning that thy will be able to transmit their genes Non genetic forms of adaptability Phenotypic plasticity the ability of an organism to change in phenotype because of the environment Interaction between the environment and the genotype We change something in our external appearance or behavior with the environment Example growing a six pack Human adaptability focuses in how we change in environment to survive 0 Culture is highly adaptive 0 Most environments have been modifies by humans 0 Cultures influence other cultures 0 Environment does not dictate culture but it influences it Environmental determinism People who live in the same environment should have the same culture Cultural Ecology Study how society adapts to the environment and cultural adaptation to the environment Multilinear evolution The study of human adaptations to social and physical environments Reflects on both biological and cultural processes that let us survive Cultures produce subsistence adaptations Societies progress at different paces Unilineal evolution is unproved unilineal evolution definition page 1 ECOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Study the role of cultural practices and beliefs in enabling human populations to adopt to environment and maintain undegraded local ecosystem o The ecosystem concept Humans are part of the ecosystem What influence animals also influence us We are not only part of the environment but we are also part of the larger ecosystem The human adaptability horticulture agriculture foraging pastoralism and industrialism change over time coexist and influence each other Today industrialism is the main form but the rest of the adaptability form coexist with it GLOBALIZATION Worldwide intensification of the interaction and increased flow of money people good and ideas The idea of being interconnected is not new but the intensification of it is Distant locations are linked We get to know news from distant places Local events are also influences by things that happen in other places NEW ECOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY We are interested in understanding culturally informed solutions to issues as resources access environmental degradation environmental racism and the role of the media and NGOs etc Holistic approach POLITICAL ECOLOGY Studies power relations shaping environmental access management and transformation Study of the relationship between political economic and social issues with environmental problems and modifications THE MYTH OF WILDERNESS Wilderness is a human creation Ideas of wilderness have changed over time Before wilderness was quota black nothing but today is a space to find ourselves It challenges western environmental thoughts 0 Political ecology s is influences by wilderness WHAT CAUSES A DISASTER 0 Social structures that generate unequal exposure to risks that make people more prone to hazards than others Social structure gender class ethnicity age etc o Vulnerability A measure of the degree and type of exposure to a risk Basically we are all affected differently by disasters depending on our political influences The disaster happens when the natural event hits vulnerable people DISASTERS DO NOT AFFECT PEOPLE EQUALLY POLITICAL ECOLOGY VS APOLITICAL ECOLOGY Apolitical ecology oView systems as nonpolitical oBlame proximate and local forces oClaims to be objective Types of apolitical ecology Environmental determinist environment determines culture Environment determines morality The more complex cultures show superiority Read previous notes 1 This naturalized the segregation of people 2 Dismissed colonial domination and extermination 3 Dismiss the influence of human and nature We do not shape nature nature shape us ECOSCARCITY Human population will grow until we exceed the carrying capacity of the environment We will not have enough food production for everyone RESULT starvation disease etc THOMAS MAKTHUS and PAUL EHRLICH Blamed the poor for having too many children 0 Main assumption Population growth will never stop Dismissed the effects of affluence technology and human adaptability FREE MARKET Encourage competition and efficiency in resource use POLITCAL ECOLOGY FACTS 0 Environment has been shaped by humans directly or indirectly 0 Locals are always connected to regional and global political and economic processes 0 Cost and benefits are distributed unequally Not everyone wins and not everyone loses 0 Relationship across scales from workers to CEOs 0 Identifies structural causalities What causes a specific event Evaluate processes 4 thesis in political ecology 1 Degradation and marginalization How farmers adopt to the environment Social adaptations help people survive Thesis Local production system start overexploiting natural resources as a response to state development interventions 2 Conservation and control thesis Conservation has taken away the control from local producers This affects livelihood and social structures Think What are the effects of conservation 3 Environmental conflict thesis Explain environmental access Environmental conflicts are part of gendered classes and raced struggles 4 Environmental identity thesis Political and social struggles are linked to issues of livelihoods and environmental protection Create social organizations in reaction to unfair situations NOTE READ MY LECTURE NOTES FOR MORE DETAILED INFORMATION
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