ANTH-0050 Prehistoric Arch: Hominins!
ANTH-0050 Prehistoric Arch: Hominins! ANTH0050
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Bu on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH0050 at Tufts University taught by Dr. Lauren Sullivan in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Prehistoric Archeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Tufts University.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
SPECIES Sahelanthropus tchadensis Orrin tugenensis Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus bahrelghazali Keng anthropus platg ops Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus garhi Australopithecus P aethiopicus Australopithecus P robustus Australopithecus P boisei Homo habilis Homo erectus Homo ergaster Homo heidelbergensis Homo antecessor Homo cepranensis Homo oresiensis Premodern archaic Homo sapiens Homo neandertalensis Denisovans Red Deer Cave People Anatomicallg modern Homo sapiens South Africa Georgia Dmanisi Location Time Stone Tools Africa Chad tchadensis 7 6 million gears ago None Africa Kenga 61 57 None Africa Ethiopia 44 None Africa Kenga Ethiopia 42 39 None Africa Ethiopia quotAfarquot region 4 3 IndlreCt39 Incomhgwe39 cut marks on animals Africa Chad 3 35 Africa Kenga 35 South Africa 3 2 None None or didn t preserve 25 cut marks on animals South Africa 2 12 None Africa Tanzania 23 12 None Africa Kenga Tanzania Ethiopia Zaire Malawi 24 14 01dowan chopping ake Africa southwest Asia Europe ngmetrical Acheulian 18 500000 east Asia Georgia Dman1s1 handaxes chopping ake Africa Tanzania Ethiopia Kenga 1 8 1 3 ngmetrical Acheulian handaxes chopping ake Europe 600000 400000 Acheulian chopping Europe Spain 13 Flores west Pacific 18000 Flake Africa Europe Asia 500000 200000 Mousterian Levallois Europe southwest Asia 130000 25000 Mousterian Levallois Denisova Cave Siberia 48000 30000 Caves in China 14300 11500 195000 present None Fire No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No Magbe Yes Yes Yes Notes Toumai Oldest brain size 350 cc primitive apelike Known biped because angle of spine entering skull quotMillennium Man fragments skeptical Mostlg skull 45 complete skeleton mag be forest dweller life in trees but bipedal Diet of fruits nuts forest food 4 ft tall Fossils from Kenga suggests bipedal lower humerus humanlike Lucg apelike face Large molars fibrous grass diet Longer finger and toes from tree life Brain 375 550 cc similar to chimps Latoli footprints Flat faced man of Kenga distorted fossil cannot identifg Mag be Kengan version of A afarensis Taung Babg back teeth smaller than afarensis but bigger than humans Slightlg larger brain More gracile less robust Also Paranthropus Crest on skull suggests grassland diet FIRST TO0L USER Mostlg scavengers dig for termites Flatter basicranium less range of pronunciation First hominin outside Africa FIRST FIRE 01dest find is in Dmanisi Dramatic change in adaptive strategg new cultural adaptaions more environment manipulation Rugged modern skeleton larger 1000 cc brain Rapid spread out of Africa More hunting less scavenging sites found Erectus teeth smaller re ect change in diet to softer cooked food Turkana Bog Between Homo habilis and Homo erectus earlg erectus earlg finds in Africa and recent in Dmanisi Footprints similar to humans Late transitional Homo erectus Lumped as Homo erectus Found jaw bone Suggests that Europe was occupied earlier than imagined Brainbodg size similar to Australopithecus structure similar to H erectus 1m tall 380 ting brain Possible dwarfed descendant of H erectus from Java island caused bg island dwarfism Adapted to env diversitg with two glacial periods Mindel glacial and Riss glacial and an interglacial period Adapted to extreme environmental conditions Shorter stockier barrelchested probablg for strength Large 1480 cc cranial capacitg atter skull Shorter forearms legs mag be adaptation to cold ngbolism art beads painting Burg their dead ritual Shanidar cave ower burial Some cannibalism Technologg Speech music Toothpick use Genetic tests does not match Neanderthals or earlg modern humans no assigned species genus get 3 of genes of people in Papua New Guinea from Denisovans DNA also found in Han 8r Dai people from China Supports multiregional hgpothesis Sima de los Huesos oldest mtDNA found Magbe Neanderthals and Denisovans mixed Remains of stone age people magbe another new species Unique skull mix of modern primitive features Earliest found in Afar region of Ethiopia Africa NOTES Piltdown Man Hoax Bipedalism adaptive can stand walk look farther carrg items use tools Cool bodg on savannah prevent overheating Magbe evolutionarg females prefer Endocast pour plaster into skull to get shape of brain Acheulian Handaxe movius line handaxes seen to west of India but not towards the east more advanced No nds but alternative materials eg bamboo is possible Terra Amata France late HOMO ERECTUS lived in late spring eat goats goung elephants mussels Post holes suggest temp shelters Torralba Ambrona site HOMO ERECTUS hunt kill site Fire Not ZhouKouDian Actuallg WONDERWERK CAVE South Africa 1 mga Other possible fire sites Africa Israel Vietnam Schoninger Germang world s oldest wooden tools Bipedalism evolved bg environment change more open space less trees Evolution 1 Mutation 2 Natural Selection 3 Genetic Drift HominiD include humans apes chimps gorillas HominiN onlg BIPEDS GEOLOGICAL EPOCHS Miocene 23 S mga Pliocene S Z mga Pleistocene Z l000 bp Holocene recent 10000 bp TOOL TYPES Oldowan 6 hits 2 inches Homo habilis Acheulian 60 hits 8 inches Homo erectus hunting Mousterian 100 hits at least 63 diff tool tgpes greater specialization adapt to environment More edges Neanderthals Levallois made in a consistent wag easier to identifg standardized shapes and sizes Neanderthals premodern Homo sapiens HYPOTHESES Population Replacement ngothesis modern humans evolve in Africa move out of Africa replace Neanderthals gt means not related at all Multiregional ngothesis modern humans evolve evergwhere and continuouslg genetic mixing form branches gene ow evolve simultaneouslg into modern form gt verg related Middle Ground ngothesis agrees with Replacement that Africa was source of modern humans disagree with idea of replacement Propose that first modern humans evolved in Africa theg interbred with late archaic Homo sapiens limited interbreeding to create hgbrids gt little bit related UPPER PALEOLITHIC CULTURAL ADVANCES l0000 ga end of ice age sedentarg agriculture Stone tool elongated blades rather than akes Faster development serrated quotknife edgesquot smaller and lighter Magbe simple arrows throwing materials More big game hunting small mammal trapping fishing catching birds 8 diff plant species Increased used of bone ivorg and antler to make tools Manufacturing nonutilitarian objects eg jewelrg eg buttons Large more sedentarg settlements Dolni Vestonice pile of animals and tools and broken bones two structures with roof one without Art fired clag figurines eg Venus Raw materials move longer distances elaborate burials nonutilitarian items eg bear tooth fox tooth necklace ochre stained skull LASCAUX CAVE Excavated earlg 1950 s Images created with bone sticks animal hair brush hands sharp rocks Paints came from earth crushed and mixed with water Dark caverns lit with torches prehistoric lamps of animal fat etc Few human depictions usuallg poorlg done Animals realistic Males females depicted differentlg Females from handprints longer index finger Animals for food and animals theg might have been afraid of Lascaux stone lamps sandstone NEANDERTHALS H Sapiens and Neanderthals interbreed Neanderthal genome lt 1 billion DNA fragments analgzed Part of genome analgzed mtDNA falls out of range of modern humans no evidence of interbreeding But still possible Neanderthals are geneticallg DISTINCT from modern Hsapiens Modern DNA Evidence mtDNA from 147 women ancestors from Africa Europe Middle East Asia New Guinea Australia All descended from ONE woman in subsaharan Africa ZO0000 gears ago Most people have 14 of Neanderthal DNA Parts of Neanderthal DNA match most closelg with European and Asians the least with those from Africa Inherit FOXPZ from Neanderthals gene found in mang species modern humans and Neanderthals have same version suggest high communication Human Leukocgte Antigen HLA Neanderthal genes associated and mag contribute to immune sgstems and disease defense
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