module 2 intensive study guide
module 2 intensive study guide BIOL 1510 - A
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Abdulhameed on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1510 - A at Georgia Institute of Technology taught by Jung H Choi (P), Christine C Spencer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see Biological Principles in Biology at Georgia Institute of Technology.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Module 2 Study Guide Learning Objectives Introduction to Ecology Major patterns in Earth s climate gt Define ecology and describe the major sub disciplines behavior population ecology community ecology gt Organism gt population gtcommunity gtecosystem gtbiosphere Behavior individual response to stimulus studying ecology at the organismal level are interested in the adaptations that enable individuals to live in specific habitats These adaptations can be morphological physiological and behavioral Population ecology how the SAME species interact with each other a group of interbreeding organisms that are members of the same species living in the same area at the same time Organisms that are all members of the same species are called conspecifics A population is identified in part by where it lives and its area of population may have natural or artificial boundaries natural boundaries might be rivers mountains or deserts while examples of artificial boundaries include mowed grass manmade structures or roads The study of population ecology focuses on the number of individuals in an area and how and why population size changes over time Community ecology how different species interact Community ecologists are interested in the processes driving these interactions and their consequences often focus on competition among members of the same species for a limited resource Ecologists also study interactions among various species members of different species are called heterospecifics Examples of heterospecific interactions include predation parasitism herbivory competition and pollination These interactions can have regulating effects on population sizes and can impact ecological and evolutionary processes affecting diversity Population ecology how they interact with non living parts of their environment Ecosystem The ecosystem is composed of all the biotic components living things in an area along with the abiotic components non living things of that area Some of the abiotic components include air water and soil Ecosystem biologists ask questions about how nutrients and energy are stored and how they move among organisms and the surrounding atmosphere soil and water Biosphere entire set of interactions on the planet gt Recognize the temperature and precipitation profile for 6 terrestrial biomes and the ocean biome biome temperature Precipitation Subtropical desert low Tropical wet forests Cold winter hot summer annual rainfall is highly The temperature and sunlight profiles of tropical wet forests are very stable year round plant growth variable rains a lot though Arctic tundra Super cold none Temperate grasslands hot summer cold winter relatively lower annual precipitation coniferous forests taigaboreal 40 cm to 100 cm 157 39 in and usually takes the form of cold dry winters and short cool wet summers SHOW Temperate forests moderate moderate The temperature and precipitation is driving the location of latitude and longitude Ocean biome characterized by liquid and saline 0 Aquatic Fresh water biome 0 Marine salt water 0 A much slower pattern of ocean circulation results from water temperature and salinity changes More saline water is denser setting up a thermohaline conveyor belt SALINITY DENSER 1 Explain the physical features of Earth that cause patterns in atmospheric and ocean circulation and lead to discrete regions of climate temperature and precipitation patterns with associated plant and animal communities 6 g biomes Location ex the Andes in South America set up north to south biomes along the west coast disrupting the east to west patterns evident in Africa 1 0 Terristrial biomes are arranged by l latitude amp 2 elevation 0 Aquatic biomes are arranged by along the margins of shore close to shoreshallow far from shore deep Emery sourc Predict how changes in climate can alter species ranges and biome locations climate change effects THE ENVIROMENTAL CHANGES CAN ALTER THE BIOME FOUND IN A SPECIFIC LOCATION 0 biomes governed by water temperature and winds determine arrangement amp precipitation matters less 0 Ex ocean upwelling process that recycles nutrients and energy in the ocean As wind green arrows pushes offshore it causes water from the ocean bottom red arrows to move to the surface bringing up nutrients from the ocean depths 0 smaller freshwater aquatic systems seasonal temperature change causes the greatest uctuations in water temperature and water movement called turnover 0 winter the nutrients are at the bottom and the water has stratified layers Spring air warms the surface and the water at the top becomes denser than the bottom bc its hotter so it sinks to the bottom and nutrients go to the top process repreated in fall but its opposite gt Abiotic factors such as temperature and rainfall vary based mainly on latitude and elevation As these abiotic factors change the composition of plant and animal communities also changes gt Plants can be endemic or generalists endemic plants are found only on specific regions of the Earth while generalists are found on many regions Isolated land masses such as Australia Hawaii and Madagascar often have large numbers of endemic plant species Some of these plants are endangered due to human activity Behavioral Ecology gt Define behavior and know what types of organisms exhibit behavior 0 Behavior actions in response to stimuli 0 all organisms exhibit some form of behavior 0 even single celled organisms react to their environmental surroundings I some bacteria emit small chemical signals into their environment I quorum sensing I kinesis the undirected movement in response to a stimulus 0 Orthokinesis is the increased or decreased speed of movement of an organism in response to a stimulus Woodlice for example increase their speed of movement when exposed to high or low temperatures This movement although random increases the probability that the insect spends less time in the unfavorable environment 0 Plants also respond to stimuli such as growing or turning toward the light growing away from the pull of gravity and some even respond to touch 0 animals behave gt Recognize that behaviors are encoded by genes and can evolve by natural selection 0 every behavior can be considered for how the action occurs proximate cause and why the action occurs ultimate cause gt Define and differentiate between proximate and ultimate behaviors 0 Proximate how the action occurs red color cue 0 Ultimate why the action occurs to protect O proximate cause of the stickleback attack behavior is a red visual cue The ultimate cause of the behavior is to protect their offspring which will increase their reproduction a key component of evolutionary tness gt Learn how behavior generates evolution of life history strategies through an evolutionary cost benefit analysis 0 So the cost according to natural selection is outweighed by the benefit of sexual selection the red bellies make them target for predators but it lets them have more offspring bc its attractive to female 0 It shows relatedness gt When an organism behaves in a way that is costly natural selection should act to remove those organisms from the population However some behaviors are costly in one way but beneficial in another way 0 Exaggerated physical traits like long and showy tails that might slow down escape from a predator but have an uneXpected advantage in attracting mates gt Connect behaviors with individual and inclusive fitness and the potential for altruism inclusive fitness is dictated by the relatedness between individuals 0 These seemingly altruistic acts can be eXplained evolutionarily using a cost benefit formula that includes a surprising element the relatedness between the altruist and the recipient of the altruistic act 0 Inclusive tness individual fitness relatedness X fitness of relative 0 individual fitness how much offspring produced by the altruist O relatedness percent of genes shared 0 tness of relative the offspring produced by the benefitting organism gt Hamilton 1963 Rule Showed that altruism can occur via natural selection if r B gt C called Hamilton s Rule where gt r fraction of shared genes between altruist and recipient coefficient of relatedness C the fewer offrspring that altruists are producing due to COST r B gt C 0 According to Hamilton39s rule rB gt C altruistic behaviors can be maintained in a population when Relatedness combined with an increase in fitness more than balance the fitness costs to the altruist Crickets proximate noise making chirps ultimate to attract females Population Ecology gt Define population population size population density geographic range exponential growth carrying capacity logistic growth and metapopulation 0 population is a group of interacting organisms of the same Species and contains stages pre reproductive juveniles and reproductive adults demographic structure characterization of the numbers of individuals of each age or stage ex having a miX of young and old individuals 0 population size number of individuals in the group 0 population density how densely packed together those individuals are 0 population s geographic range limits or bounds established by the encroachment of other species by the physical limits that the organisms can tolerate such as temperature or aridity gt Compare and distinguish between geometric and logistic population growth equations and the resulting growth curves 0 ExponentiaUgeometric how an ideal bacterium in unlimited resources would reproduce 0 assumption that every individual produces two offspring in its lifetime double the population Size each generation Pmpulatimn size Time 0 The growth rate of the population in this image is constant 0 growth rate is the intrinsic rate of natural increaser for this population of size N r is the birth rate 9 minus the death rate d of the population The exponential growth equation 0 Lamda If the population size at the next generation is the current population size times the growth rate in that time interval or N tl N t expr then we see stepwise population growth We define expr as the discrete growth rate lambda O The values of lambda and r are fixed with time but the population doesn t grow linearly instead every individual that was born in that generation reproduces The population explodes in size very quickly In nature a population growing at this dramatic rate would quickly consume all available habitat and resources Natural populations have size limits created by the environment 25000 E 20000 15000 10000 quot Population Size NI 5000 quot I I 0 2 4 8 8 10 12 Time it 0 Logistic 0 A natural population at the maximum population size that the environment can sustain is said to be at carrying capacity 0 individuals must also be dying at a similar rate if the population size remains the same from one generation to the next 0 with the addition of a carrying capacity imposed by the environment population growth rate Slows as the population size increases and Stops when the population reaches carrying capacity 0 we can achieve this by incorporating a density dependent term into the population growth equation where K represents carrying capacity dN KN rN 5 K N Population size Kcarrying capacity r growth rate ttime r birth rate death rate 0 What happens to population growth when N is small relative to K When N is near K And when is the population adding the most individuals in each generation 0 Population growth increases when NSmall to K Doesn t increase when Nk 0 When population size is small Recognize that population growth rate is constant with exponential growth but that population growth rate slows with logistic growth with a carrying capacity Compare and contrast factors that regulate population size and looking at a graph be able to analyze it and determine if regulation is in uenced by density 0 Population size is regulated by factors that are dependentbiO or independent of population density 0 Biological factors include interspecific interactions 0 predation competition parasitism and mutualism disease 0 Nonbiological factors are environmental variables 0 temperature precipitation disturbance pollution salinity and pH 0 All of these factors can change population size but only the biological factors except mutualism can regulate a population meaning thev push the population to an equilibrium densitv or carrving capacitv I Of the biological factors mutualism does not regulate population size because mutualisms promote population growth through beneficial interactions with another species 393 The biological factors regulate population growth by affecting dense versus sparse populations di erently For instance communicable disease doesn t spread quickly in a sparsely packed population but in a dense population like a college dormitory disease can spread quickly through contact between individuals 0 Density plays a key role in population regulation 393 Territoriality Maintaining a territory will enable an individual to capture enough food to reproduce where space is a limiting resource 0 v Disease Transmission rate often depends on population density FREE LII E N Elf ax at 59 ads an n1 aumad gt gt Drigin al Hiczh a5 0 v Predation Predators may concentrate on the most abundant prey 3 Toxic Wastes Metabolic by products accumulate as populations grow group of different but interlinked populations with each different population located in its own discrete patch of habitat is called a metapopulation A population that requires net immigration in order to sustain itself acts as a w The extent of genetic exchange between source and sink populations depends therefore on the size of the populations the carrying capacity of the habitats where the populations are found and the ability of individuals to move between habitats Fecundity fertility Limiting factors living constraints 0 Temperature 0 Mates 0 Space 0 Precipitation Character displacement is an evolutionary divergence that occurs when two similar species inhabit the same environment In this instance natural selection favors those organisms that develop modifications either behavioral morphological or physiological that reduce their competitive pressures for resources thus increasing their chance for survival Character Displacment RE sauna LIEE are rilalp was ti tuti mg nn 3 I1ri1jr at EEEd ea aumptiu n1 Displaaad Niches Diamante ITIEI39It reduces nnmpntilin Ia favors Innaka arav a ally feeding on Dutar imits gt RESD UREE USE an SEE39d EiiE competitive exclusion When two species compete for a single resource even a slight reproductive advantage for one species will eventually lead to the elimination of the other species life history trade off survival and reproduction are optimized not maximized This is because when evolution increases one of these traits say survival of the parent the result is usually a decrease in some aspect of reproduction and vice versa The leading hypothesis for trade offs in survival and reproduction is that energy is the limiting factor 0 Organisms have finite energy so if they allocate energy toward survival then they don t have as much available to reproduce As a result some organisms like the Chinook salmon reproduce only once in their lifetime semelparous organisms while others such as Atlantic Cod and humans reproduce many times iteroparous organisms gt Identify key features of an organism s life history and how they respond to environmentnatural selection regimes This technique of demographic assessment requires key assumptions 1 The population sample of each age class is proportional to its numbers in the population 2 Age specific mortality rates remain constant during the time period meaning that subsequent cohorts will eXhibit similar pattern of birth and death Life Table 2 Number Survimrship e speui e Survimrship 2 fecundity K 111 fecundity 1111 1 ma 1 1 1 1 125 1 U 2 12 112 2 024 3 9 009 5 045 4 6 006 5 13 5 4 904 5 12 6 3 003 2 106 7 2 102 2 104 8 o o n n The first row represents the birth year of the cohort and each subsequent row of the life table shows that same group one year older the number alive nX column indicates that not all individuals survive from year to year Survivorship converts that mortality into a proportion alive of of the original cohort 1X nydn0 The average number of offspring born to individuals of each age is agespecific fecundity and it cannot be calculated from other information provided in the table but instead must be estimated from data R0 if the assumptions 1 and 2 above are met then the sum of the product of survivorship and fecundity at each age gives a population growth parameter called R0 pronounced R nought When R0 exceeds 1 the population is producing more offspring than its losing from deaths In other words the population is growing gt 4 Keys to population change burth immigtation death emigration of emigrants gt N1N0B DI E 2 hippos in 1993 how many in 2003 l calf every 2 years ANSWER64 Time s Number 0 2 4 2 4 8 6 16 2001 8 32 2003 10 64 N W i 1 0 LC If there were 2 hippos at time 0 and lambda 2 how many would there be after eight years 4 timesteps A 2 B 4 E 64 gt D gt Calculate population net reproductive rate from life tables to determine if a population is growing or shrinking Populations are growing when X gt1 or r gt 0 Populations are stable when X 1 or r 0 Populations are shrinking when X lt1 or r lt 0 where r b d and b d are rates NtZtN0 gt Predict population growth trajectories from life history tables and population demographic structure gt EAr takes place of lambdaGeometric and exponential growth related byzlambdaeArIdentical growth curves When population decreasing lambdaltl and rlt0increasing lambdagtl and rgt0 Survivarship Cuwe Number oi indiuitiuais surviving log scale WEE humans quot 39 Type ill birds Type REES Time Type I curves are observed in populations with low mortality in young age classes but very high mortality as an individual ages Type II curves represent populations where the mortality rate is constant regardless of age Type III curves occur in populations with high mortality in early age classes and very low mortality in older individuals Populations displaying a Type III survivorship curve generally need to have high birth rates in order for the population size to remain constant High birth rates ensure that enough offspring survive to reproduce ensuring the population sustains itself In contrast populations characterized by a Type I survivorship curve often have low birth rates because most offspring survive to reproduce and very high birth rates result in exponential population growth gt Continuing to use lambda 2 for our Colombian hippos how many hippos will there be after 20 timesteps 40 years 0 2A20x initial Community Ecology gt Describe resource resource partitioning and the niche concept 0 A resource in ecology is a thing or factor that causes population growth and that is reduced by use 0 Ex water not sunlightoxygen 0 Resource partitioning 0 limitng resource The resource that is reduced the most by use for example water in a desert and thereby limits population growth first is specially designated as a 0 niche full range of resources that a species can use combined with the range of conditions a species can tolerate 0 resource partitioning When species divide a niche to avoid competition for resources gt Identify factors responsible for species to occupy defined niches distinguish between fundamental and realized niches and explain an example of this concept 0 The figure above shows the fundamental niche the full resource axis of seed sizes that a finch species is theoretically able to use Frequently in nature we observe that a species only uses part of its fundamental niche the part they use is called the realized niche gt Recognize the positive neutral and negative pairwise effects that a species can have on another species and be able to name and define the following interspecific interactions competition predatior parasitismherbivory and mutualism 0 Positive mutualism herbivory sometimes promotes growth of new plant 0 Neutral 0 Negative competition predation 0 Predatorpreyl predation involve one species consuming eating the other I Predation results in continual co evolution of traits for agility and speed in both species as well as winter cryptic fur color in the hare against the snowy arctic background Predation is in part responsible for the stable cycling of the population sizes of these two species 0 parasitehost interaction parasitism where a species the parasite lives on or in another species the host that it harms over time sometimes resulting in host death Parasitism is a win for parasite and a loss for the host 0 Herbivory is similar to predation in the sense that a grazer eats a plant I some grazing interactions can be argued to provide a benefit because grazing can promote the growth of new plant material To determine if an herbivore plant interaction is a win lose the cost and benefit to the plant would need to be measured 0 mutualism both species benefit from the interaction For example plants have fungi that live on or in their roots called mycorrhizae The fungus gains access to sugars like glucose and sucrose from the root system and the plants use the phosphorus and nitrogen that the fungi fix or process into a biologically usable form gt Explain how competition reduces fitness for both species involved and explain the long term consequences of competition coexistence competitive exclusion resource partitioning and character displacement 0 They are litmited in resources 0 They waste energy on finding resources over bettering themseleves 0 Coexistence 0 Competitive exclusion 0 Resource partitioning 0 Character displacement gt Give a biological example of a mutualism and describe how mutualisms are vulnerable to cheating Mutualisms are vulnerable to cheating where one pair in the interaction saves time or energy and circumvents the benefit to the other species For example pollinating insects transfer pollen sperm from one plant to another as they forage for nectar in the plant s owers Exact matches between the ower structure and the pollinator s mouth and tongue structure show evidence of strong co evolution However some insects cheat on this interaction such as the bumblebee in the images below gt Explain how predators can exert strong selection on prey gt Recognize that species diversity richness and evenness is important for community function gt two metrics of species diversity in a community assemblage richness and evenness Species richness S is simply a count of the number of species in a community The skew if any in how common versus rare those different species are is captured by species evenness which we ll calculate using the Shannon diversity index gt where pi is the proportion of each species 139 in the community gt Describe the simple model of island biogeography and roles of island size and distance from a mainland source in determining number of species at equilibrium composition of those species They started with the observation that there s a very consistent log linear relationship between habitat area and the number of similar species that tend to pack into that area as can be seen here for reptiles and amphibians in the West Indies Species Area curve for herpetofauna in the West Indies This species area pattern is consistent for birds mammals and lots of other groups MacArthur and Wilson assumed that gt more isolated islands have lower immigration rates a in figure below gt larger islands have lower extinction rates and by extinction they meant loss of the species to the island One way that a species can remain on the island is to re migrate which is more likely to happen by chance on larger islands b in figure below Ti i l Mainland Mn i n39i i39nril immigration extinction 1 Rate S Number of Species S The intersection of the immigration and extinction rates for an island predict an equilibrium number of species S hat assuming island size and island distance from mainland gt Describe the concept of keystone species provide examples of how a keystone species is responsible for community species composition and appreciate that the keystone species is not necessarily strongest competitor Sometimes a single species serves as the unintentional lynchpin for stability of a complex set of community interactions For example the banded tetra a fish in tropical streams provides phosphorus to other species in the community Source OpenStax Biology We ll learn another example in class In most cases the keystone species isn t the most numerous one nor the best competitor for resources in the ecosystem gt Island Biogeography Theory size extinction closeness immigration 0 Far away islands low immigration 0 Close islands high immigration 0 Small islands high extinction 0 Large islands low extinction 0 Small amp far have low Ecosystems and Biogeochemical Cycling gt gt Understand that the biological communities present in an ecosystem interact with the ecosystem s climate soil atmosphere andor water Define primary producer primary consumer secondary consumer and omnivory and be able to accurately identify these in a food web 0 primary producer 0 primary consumer 0 secondary consumer 0 omnivory Read and interpret a food web diagram with multiple trophic levels and how these interact using top down and bottom up terminology 0 Bottom up gains 10 of energy transferred 0 Top downloses 90 Be able to interpret food chains and food webs and be able to locate a food chain within a food web Explain why energy ows but matter cycles 0 The entire planet can be thought of as one huge ecosystem called the biosphere where energy flows into and out of the system openly but matter cycles within the system 0 Energy flows but matter cycles meaning that matter is not lost the way that energy can leave the system as heat Instead matter is retained in some form in the ecosystem Matter is stored in compartments such as carbon stored in rock plants the ocean and the atmosphere while the movement of matter between compartments is called ux Carbon uxes because of respiration photosynthesis decomposition and burning 0 All the matter in living organisms made up mostly of carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen in organic molecules is either incorporated into the enemy that consumes it or left behind in the environment 0 The energy obtained by each organism is 1 used for maintenance of the organisms 2 used for growth and reproduction 3 lost as heat or excreted waste from the organism Explain that transfer of energy is not efficient and the effect of this on the length of food chains be able to give a rule of thumb for how much energy is transferred to the next trophic level 0 While energy is transferred very inefficiently up a food chain chemical toxins in the eaten organisms are incorporated into the consumer Consumers eat many prey and retain all the toxins in those prey accumulating higher toxin concentrations with each trophic position a phenomenon called biomagnification Explain the distinction between NPP and GPP 0 quantify all the primary production which is organic matter formed from inorganic matter by primary producers to find the total or gross primary production GPP 0 The remainder is the net primary production NPP the amount of energy resources left for the consumers in the ecosystem to acquire through herbivory Describe the global pathways for cycling of nitrogen and carbon between living organisms atmosphere oceans and continental crust 813 gt Abiotic factors such as temperature and rainfall vary based mainly on latitude and elevation As these abiotic factors change the composition of plant and animal communities also changes gt Plants can be endemic or generalists o endemic plants are found only on speci c regions of the Earth These are found in Isolated land masses such as Australia Hawaii and MadagascarSome of these plants are endangered due to human activity 0 generalists are found on many regions gt different ecosystems exist at the same latitude due in part to abiotic factors such as jet streams the Gulf Stream and ocean currents If you were to hike up a mountain the changes you would see in the vegetation would parallel those as you move to higher latitudes 814 proximate cause how the action occurs ultimate causewhy the action occurs
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