BIOL 2170 Exam Two Study Guide
BIOL 2170 Exam Two Study Guide BIOL 2170
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by chelsea1023 on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2170 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Deborah Chadee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 433 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Life Science: Biomolecules, cells, and Inheritence in Biology at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Chapter Six Making Life Work Capturing and Using Energy Requirements of the cell 0 Able to transmit and encode information o Membrane to separate inside from out 0 Energy Adenosine Triphosphate ATP 0 currency of cells 0 Energy source 0 Cellular cash Metabolism 0 Building and breaking of carbon sources to obtain or release energy Energy is a system s ability to do work 0 Kinetic energy of motion 0 Potential energy while at rest First Law of Thermodynamics 0 Energy can t be created or destroyed it can only change form Second Law of Thermodynamics o Entropy randomness disorder is increasing in the universe Gibbs Free Energy 0 deHaG 0 Equal to the amount of energy released or used in a reaction 0 deltaG deltaH temperaturedeltaS 0 ATP hydrolysis has negative deltaG o If negative energy is released if positive energy is used Enzymes have active sites to bind to substrates Inhibitors can be competitive or noncompetitive Competitive enzyme binds to either the substrate or inhibitor Noncompetitive changes the rate of reaction decrease Negative and positive feedback help to maintain homeostasis Chapter Seven Cellular Respiration Harvesting Energy From Carbohydrates and Other Fuel Molecules Cellular Respiration o Breakdown carbs lipids and proteins 0 Release energy 0 Stages 0 Glycolysis takes place in cytoplasm o Acetyl CoA synthesis takes place in cytoplasm o Citric Acid Cycle takes place in mitochondria o Oxidative Phosphorylation takes place in mitochondria Reduction gain of electrons more negative charge Oxidation loss of electrons ess negative charge Glycolysis 0 Phase one consume 2 ATP 0 Phase two ceave 6 carbon sugar to two 3 carbon sugars 0 Phase three produce 4 ATP and 2 NADH o 2 ATP net gain of ATP 4 created but 2 were used in phase one o 2 NADH created Mitochondria 0 Space between membranes is the intermembrane space 0 Space inside inner membrane is mitochondrial matrix Acetyl CoA Synthesis o Converts one pyruvate into Acetyl CoA Citric Acid Cycle 0 Starts with Acetyl CoA ends with 2 ATP 6 NADH and 2 FADH2 Electron Transport Chain ETC 0 Three different ones 0 Last electron receptor is oxygen Fermentation 0 Uses glucose ADP and Pi to create ethanol ATP H20 and CO ethanol 0 Uses glucose ADP and Pi to create lactic acid ATP and H20 lactic acid Monosaccharides galactose fructose mannose Polysaccharides lactose maltose sucrose Chapter Eight Phtosvnthesis Photosynthesis building carbs from sunlight and C02 H20 is oxidized 02 comes from C02 Takes place in chloroplast Calvin Cycle 0 Uses C02 to create carbs Chlorophyll uses light absorption to transfer energy to a nearby chlorophyll There are two photosystems P51 and P52 P52 comes first 2 scheme named for its zshape Electron transport can be cyclic Reactive oxygen species antioxidants xanthophylls Photorespiration o Oxygenation Rubisco adds oxygen to RuBP 0 C02 oss C02 leaves 60 of light is unusable for photosynthesis not very efficient Chapter Nine Cell Communication Communication requires 0 Ligand signaling molecule 0 Bacterial cell 0 Receptor Also Essential 0 Signaling cell 0 Signaling molecule 0 Receptor cell 0 Receptor molecule Signaling cell releases signals receptors of responding cell binds the signaling molecule Receptor Activation ECFgt Signal Transduction cytoplasmgt Response cytoplasmgt Termination cytoplasm Types of Signaling o Endocrine signal moves through circulatory system 0 Paracrine Binds to signal from another cell close proximity o Autocrine binds to its own signal 0 Juxtacrine cells must be touching Ligand signaling molecule Ligandbinding site part of receptor where ligand binds There are cell surface receptors and intracellular receptors Receptors can be turned on and off Three types of cell surface receptors 0 G protein coupled receptors 0 Receptor kinases o Ligandgated ion channels Adrenaline signals can be amplified Cell signaling and cancer 0 Increased receptors 0 Altered signaling molecule 0 Ras mutations Integration of Signaling Pathways 0 Effects could be 0 Simple Complex 0 Dependent on cell type 0 Integrated Clicker Questions Energy ATP input is needed in which of the following processes a Catabolism b Anabolism Why does ADP have less potential energy than ATP a Because ATP has ribose as a sugar b Because ADP has only one phosphate group c Because ADP has only two phosphate groups d Because ATP has adenine in it You notice that a chemical reaction in your system is happening at a slow rate You want to speed up the reaction What do you do a Add more products b Change the deltaG for the reaction c Add an enzyme d Raise the activation energy How might an inhibitor inhibit an enzyme without binding to the active a Through competitive inhibition b Through noncompetitive inhibition c By lowering the activation energy d By changing the shape of the substrate Are electrons lost or gained in reduction a Lost b Gained What glycolysis product is transported into the mitochondria a ATP b NADP c Pyruvate d Glucose What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain a Glucose b Oxygen c ATP d ADP What would happen if complexes V of the electron transport chain pumped protons in the opposite direction a No ATP would be synthesized b Too much ATP would be synthesized c There would be too many electrons in the mitochondrial matrix d None of the above Why is the absorption of light much more efficient in the plant itself as opposed to an isolated chlorophyll molecule in the lab a Because the plant produces accessory proteins b Because an artificial light source is used in the lab c Because in the plant the energy is transferred to another chlorophyll d Because the lab has a higher electron supply Which molecule is oxidized in the photosynthetic reaction a C02 b H20 c C6H 1206 d Sunlight How does the plant cell protect itself from highenergy electrons a Increases the amount of NADP b Decreases the production of ATP c Shunt the electrons into cyclic electron transport d Increase the amount of electrons donated to ferredoxin What is the initial carbon input in the Calvin Cycle a C6H 1206 b Triose phosphate c C02 d Rubisco To have communication between cells you must have a a Receptor b Signaling molecule c Responding cell d All of the above Why doesn t paracrine signaling activate the cell that s producing the signaling molecule a b c d The concentration of the signaling molecule is not high enough The cells are too far The cell does not have the proper receptor The cells receptors are mutated You strip off any proteins on the cell surface by using a protease enzyme that cleaves proteins Now when you add a specific signaling molecule the cell still responds Why is that a b c d The signaling molecule doesn t need a receptor The signaling molecule is polar and can diffuse in The receptor is on the interior of the cell The signaling molecule goes right to the nucleus How would the signal of a G protein coupled receptor without ligand be affected if you made an enzyme that converted GDP to GTP constitutively a b c d It wouldn t be affected there is no ligand thus no signal It wouldn t be affected the ligand would be unable to bind due to the conformational change The G protein would be active but unable to signal due to lack of ligand The G protein would be active and signaling despite the lack of ligand Which type of receptor needs an accessory protein to signal a b c 0 G protein coupled receptor Receptor kinase Ligand gated ion channel None of the above In your experimental system you create a cell that has a mutation in its receptor When you overexpress the cell s signaling molecule nothing happens What is this cell defective in a Endocrine signaling b Juxtacrine signaling c Paracrine signaling d Autocrine signaling Chapter Six Launchpad Quiz True or False an uncatalyzed reaction has a higher AG than the same reaction when catalyzed by an enzyme a true b false Suppose you use a match to ignite a sheet of paper from your notebook and allow the fire to continue until the burning stops If you could measure all the energy in the resulting combustion products and all the energy in the heat released including whatever increase in disorder has occurred would you predict this amount to be more than less than or the same amount as the amount of potential energy in the starting sheet of paper You should ignore the activation energy provided by the match to light the paper a more energy than the paper b less energy than the paper c the same energy as the paper True or False an anabolic reaction decreases entropy within the system because the reaction results in a more ordered macromolecule a true b false Which one of the following statements describes the relationship between Bgalactosidase and B thiogalactoside a They are synonyms for the same molecule b Bgalactosidase cleaves Bthiogalactoside c Bgalactosidase is a precursor for synthesizing Bthiogalactoside d Bthiogalactoside is a precursor for synthesizing Bgalactosidase e Bgalactosidase binds to Bthiogalactoside but is unable to cleave it Lactose is composed of joined by a linkage a glucose and galactose glycosidic b two glucoses peptide c glucose and fructose glycosidic d two amino acids peptide e two galactoses glycosidic Animals such as humans would be classified as a photoautotrophs b photoheterotrophs c chemoautotrophs d chemoheterotrophs ATP is chemically related most closely to which of the following a glucose b testosterone c phospholipid d thymine nucleotide e tryptophan amino acid True or False a cellular reaction with a AG of 85 kcalmol could be effectively coupled to the hydrolysis of a single molecule of ATP a true b false Autotrophs typically obtain their carbon from a C6H 1206 b ATP c C02 d CH4 e CHBOH Which of the following statements is NOT one of the laws of thermodynamics a All cells arise from preexisting cells b The amount of energy in the universe is constant c The energy available to do work decreases as energy is transferred from one form to another d None of the statements in these choices is a law of thermodynamics The energy of activation of a reaction is a the net change in free energy b the difference in energy between substrate and product c the energy input needed to reach the transition state d the difference in energy between the transition state and the product e equivalent to the AG of ATP hydrolysis True or False a given enzyme in a pathway can be activated by one molecule or inhibited by a different molecule a true b false Which of the following reactions is most likely to be exergonic a the synthesis of a phospholipid from glycerol and fatty acids b the replication of DNA from free nucleotides c the formation of cellulose from individual glucose molecules d the digestion of protein from food into amino acids The assembly of glucose into polysaccharides is a an anabolic process b a catabolic process Which one of the following is an example of potential energy a a moving muscle b light c heat d an electrochemical gradient e wind Chapter Seven Launchpad Questions Complete oxidation of glucose to C02 involves two different mechanisms for synthesizing ATP oxidative phosphorylation and substratelevel phosphorylation Which is true of substratelevel phosphorylation a An enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to ADP from an organic molecule to form ATP b Most of the ATP generated in cellular respiration is generated by substratelevel phosphorylation c ATP is generated indirectly through the transfer of highenergy electrons from electron carriers to an electron transport chain d ATP is generated by release of energy from the electron carriers NADH and FADH2 The citric acid cycle begins when acetylCoA combines with to form a pyruvate citrate b malate oxaloacetate c oxaloacetate malate d oxaloacetate citrate e citrate cisaconitate In eukaryotic cells the oxidation of pyruvate occurs in a the cytoplasm b the nucleus c the matrix of the mitochondria d the endoplasmic reticulum e vacuoles How many reactions in glycolysis directly generate ATP a 1 b 2 c 3 d 4 e 5 What happens to pyruvate during the process of fermentation a It is oxidized to ethanol b It is reduced to ethanol c It is converted to acetyl CoA d It is oxidized to lactic acid e It gets converted to pyruvic acid Each round of the citric acid cycle begins when the 4carbon molecule oxaloacetate is converted to the 6carbon molecule citrate As the cycle progresses two carbons are eliminated to regenerate the oxaloacetate The added carbon is supplied by and the two eliminated carbons are released as a ATP acetylCoA b C02 pyruvate c acetylCoA C02 d C02 NADH e C02 acetylCoA Glycogen stored in muscles can be mobilized to supply metabolic energy by hydrolyzing individual glucose subunits from the polymer What other organ has a major function of storing glycogen a liver b brain c stomach d large intestine The approximate yield of ATP from the full oxidation of a molecule of glucose is a 2 b 6 c 12 d 32 e 64 True or False fats are not an animal s primary source of energy because some tissue types like brain tissue use glucose exclusively a true b false Certain complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain pump protons Which of the following best describes the movement of protons in this situation a across the outer mitochondrial membrane from the cytoplasm to the intermembrane space b across the outer mitochondrial membrane from the intermembrane space to the cytoplasm c across the inner mitochondrial membrane from the intermembrane space to the matrix d across the inner mitochondrial membrane from the matrix to the intermembrane space Which regulatory mechanism is important in keeping glycolysis and the citric acid cycle in relative balance to each other a Citrate inhibits phosphofructokinase 1 b ADP upregulates phosphofructokinase 1 c ATP inhibits phosphofructokinase 1 d AMP inhibits phosphofructokinase 1 PFKl is by ATP and by ADP a activated activated b activated inhibited c inhibited activated d inhibited inhibited The pH in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria should be compared to the matrix due to the a lower higher concentration of H in the intermembrane space b higher higher concentration of H in the intermembrane space c higher lower concentration of H in the intermembrane space d lower lower concentration of H in the intermembrane space Which one of the following is a monosaccharide and not a disaccharide a lactose b fructose c sucrose d maltose e None of these sugars is a monosaccharide In human cells such as muscle tissue the product of anaerobic respiration is a b c d e acetic acid pyruvate lactic acid FADH2 ethanol Chapter Eight Learning Curve In plants and algae a b c d e 02 H20 C02 NADPH H is the source of the electrons needed for photosynthesis Which of the following compounds is consumed by carboxylation a b c d e ATP NADPH ATP and NADPH RuBP 3PGA ATP production requires a b c 039 light electrons protons light and protons 6 light electrons and protons Reactive oxygen species are detoxified in order to a b c d e recover electrons minimize damage to membranes enhance linear electron transport enhance cyclic electron transport All answer options are correct Prokaryotes account for roughly half of terrestrial photosynthesis 8 b False True The products of the Calvin cycle are 3carbon sugars 8 b True False The Z scheme refers to a b c d e the path of electrons between PSII and cytochrome b6f the energy inputs associated with electron transport the use of H20 as an electron source electron transport proton translocation Photorespiration occurs because a b c d e rubisco is a selective catalyst there is more 02 than C02 in the atmosphere rubisco is a slow catalyst there is more 02 than C02 and rubisco is a slow catalyst there is more 02 than C02 and rubisco is a selective catalyst In plants and algae which of the following is a byproduct of photosynthesis a C6H 1206 b C02 c 02 d H e H20 In the Calvin cycle NADPH is a oxidized b reduced c phosphorylated d oxidized and reduced e None of the answer options is correct Cyclic electron transport enhances ATP production because a proton translocation decreases b electrons are transferred from ferredoxin to plastoquinone c cyclic electron transport is more energyefficient than linear electron transport d ADP production increases e PSI pumps more protons The occurrence of photorespiration C02 and ATP a oxidizes produces b produces produces c reduces produces d consumes consumes e produces consumes Eukaryotes conduct all of the photosynthesis that occurs in the ocean a True b False Which of the following are Rubisco substrates a RuBP b 02 c d e C02 C02 02 and RuBP C02 and RuBP PSII and PSI differ in a b c d e H production and electron donors and acceptors H production and electron donors H production electron donors and acceptors plants and algae Over evolutionary time photosynthesis has effectively poisoned itself by producing an oxygenic atmosphere because a b c d e rubisco is an oxygenase and 02 is a strong oxidant rubisco is an oxygenase 02 is a strong oxidant rubisco is a carboxylase rubisco is an oxygenase and 02 is a strong reductant Organisms with only one photosystem cannot a b c d e produce 02 reduce H20 oxidize H25 reduce NADP reduce C02 The Calvin cycle includes 15 enzymes most of which are involved in a b c d e RuBP regeneration RuBP carboxylation reduction starch synthesis ATP synthesis Which of the following is at the highest energy level a A reaction center chlorophyll that has received the energy from a bluelight photon b A reaction center chlorophyll that has received the energy from a redlight photon c A reaction center chlorophyll that has received the energy from a greenlight photon Which of the following lowers the efficiency of plants39 conversion of sunlight into chemical energy a UV light and 02 b 02 and heat dissipation c UV light 02 and heat dissipation d UV light e UV light and heat dissipation During photosynthesis in plants and algae is oxidized and is reduced a C02 H20 b 02 C02 c NADPH ATP d H20 02 e H20 C02 For every six C02 molecules fixed how many triose phosphates are exported from the chloroplast a 2 b 10 c 6 d 12 e 1 Antennae accompany reaction centers promoting a heat loss b H transfer c energy transfer d fluorescence e electron transfer The Calvin cycle is a relatively constant process the rate of which is independent of factors such as temperature and nitrogen concentration a True b False Chapter Nine Learning Curve Many pathologies are the result of a problem with cell signaling Which of the following pathologies best exemplifies this fact a Cancer caused by a truncated receptor that is now stuck in the activated form b Cystic fibrosis where there is a mutation in a channel protein resulting in a buildup of mucus c Congestive heart failure caused by chronic high blood pressure due to excessive sodium intake d Familial hypercholesterolemia high cholesterol in the blood caused by a decrease in the number of receptors for cholesterol Why don39t steroid hormones bind to transmembrane cellsurface receptors a Steroid hormones are not signaling molecules b Steroid hormones are nonpolar and will cross the cell39s plasma membrane binding to receptors inside the cell c Steroid hormones don39t require receptors because they bind directly to the cell39s DNA d Steroid hormones are nonpolar and therefore cannot bind to receptors Which one of the following initiates signal termination a the shut down of transcription b the release of signal molecules from their receptors c the shut down of translation d the reduction of signal amplification What does a ligandgated channel do a It binds small nonpolar signaling molecules b It activates a G protein c It allows for the movement of ions across the plasma membrane d It triggers the activity of a phosphatase Based on the data provided in the two graphs shown in Fig 95 which method of culturing resulted in the greatest number of fibroblast cells on day 6 a fibroblasts cultured with plasma b fibroblasts cultured with platelet proteins c fibroblasts cultured with serum d The same results are obtained whether the fibroblasts are cultured with serum or with platelet proteins Which of the following signaling molecules would you expect to travel the longest distance in the human body a PDGF b testosterone c Delta d neurotransmitters e Notch What is the likely cellular response to ligand binding to a steroid receptor located in the nucleus a activation of a kinase b alteration in ion transport c a change in gene expression d initiation of a signaltransduction pathway Cell signaling between two nerve cells is an example of paracrine signaling because a a signaling molecule neurotransmitter is released b the cells are in close proximity c a receptor is activated d the responding cell releases more signaling molecule neurotransmitter To what does the term ligand refer a a signaling molecule b the extracellular domain of a receptor protein c a type of gated channel d the proteins activated as part of a signal transduction pathway Notch and Delta are both transmembrane proteins involved in cell communication in the developing nervous system of vertebrate animals What makes Notch different from Delta a b c 039 Notch is a receptor and Delta is a signaling molecule Notch is a signaling molecule and Delta is a receptor Notch is required at higher density than Delta to alter cell fate All of the above statements are correct
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