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by: Cassidy Schap

ADV319ExamNotes.pdf Adv 319

Cassidy Schap
GPA 3.78
Psychology of advertising
Angeline Close

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Psychology of advertising
Angeline Close
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassidy Schap on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Adv 319 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Angeline Close in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Psychology of advertising in Advertising at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 09/30/15
Psych of Adv Notes 1 Understanding CB Ch 1 Consumer Behavior The totality of consumers39 decisions with respect to the acquisition consumption and disposition of goods services time and ideas by human decisionmaking units over time 4 Domains of CB 0 Consumer s Culture 0 Psychological Core Internal Consumer Processes Ch 26 0 Decision Making Process 0 Consumer Behavior Outcomes and Issues Offering A product service activity experience or idea offered by a marketing organization to consumers CB involves more than Buying Acquisition The process by which a consumer comes to own an offering Usage The process by which a consumer uses an offering Disposition The process by which a consumer discards an offering Consumer s Culture External Consumer Processes Culture The typical or expected behaviors norms and ideas that characterize a group of people Reference Groups and other Social In uences 0 Reference Group A group of people consumers compare themselves with for information regarding behavior attitudes or values CB Outcomes and Issues CB Can Symbolize Who We Are 0 Symbols External signs that consumers use to express their identities Who Benefits from the Study of CB Marketing Managers 0 Marketing The activity set of institutions and processes for creating communicating delivering and exchanging offerings with value for individuals groups and society Ethicists and Advocacy Groups Public Policy Makers and Regulators Academics Consumers and Society Psych of Adv Notes 2 Motivation Ability and Opportunity Ch2 Motivation An inner state of arousal that provides energy to achieve a goal High Effort Behavior High Effort Information Processing and Decision Making 0 Motivated reasoning Processing information in a way that allows consumers to reach the conclusion that they want to reach biased Felt Involvement The psychological experience of a motivated consumer it is the self reported arousal or interest in an offering activity or decision 0 4 Types I Enduring involvement Long term interest in an activity offering or decision I Situational Involvement or temporary involvement temporary interest in an activity offering or decision often onset by situational circumstances I Cognitive involvement Interest in thinking about and learning about information pertinent to an activity offering or decisions I Affective Involvement Interest in expending emotional energy and evoking deep feelings about an offering activity or decision Response Involvement Interest in certain decisions and behaviors I Ex consumers may be highly involved in the process of deciding between certain brands What Effects Motivation 0 Personal Relevance Something that has a direct bearing on the self and has potentially significant consequences or implications on our lives Self Concept Our mental view of who we are Values Abstract enduring beliefs about what is rightwrong important or goodbad Needs An internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from an ideal desired physical or psychological state Organization of Needs Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Safety Social Egotistical Self Actualization 0 Lower level needs must be satisfied before higher level needs 0 This hierarchy is too simplistic Needs can also be organized between NonSocial and Social in regards to Functional Symbolic and Hedonic needs 0 Functional needs motivate the search for products that solve the consumptionrelated problems 0 Symbolic Needs relate to how we perceive ourselves how others perceive us how we relate to others and the esteem to which we are held by others 0 Hedonic Needs re ect our desires for sensory pleasure Psych of Adv Notes 3 Con iction of Needs 0 ApproachAvoidance Con ict Acquiring or consuming an offering that fulfills ONE need but fails to fulfill another 0 ApproachApproach Con ict Which offering to acquire when each can satisfy a different but important need 0 AvoidanceAvoidance Con ict Which offering to acquire when neither can satisfy an important but different need Needs vary crossculturally Goals A particular end state or outcome that a person would like to achieve More specific and Concrete than Needs 2 Subc categories of goals 0 Concrete or Abstract 0 Promotionfocused or Preventionfocused Goals and Emotion o Appraisal Theory theory of emotion that proposes that emotions are based on an individuals assessment of a situation or an outcome and its relevance to his or her goals Self Control and Goal Con ict 0 Self Control Process consumers use to regulate feelings thoughts and behavior in line with longterm goals 0 Ego Depletion Outcome of decisionmaking efforts that results in mental resources being exhausted o Embodiment Connection between mind and body that in uences consumer selfcontrol and behavior Motivation and Perceived Risks The extent to which the consumer is uncertain about the consequences of an action 6 Types 0 Performance Risk Possibility offering will perform less than expected 0 Financial Risk Extent to which buying using or disposing of an offering is perceived to have the potential to create financial harm 0 Physical Safety Risk Extent to which buying using or disposing of an offering is perceived to have the potential to create physical harm or harm one s safety 0 Social Risk Extent to which buying using or disposing of an offering is perceived to have the potential to do harm to one s social standing 0 Psychological Risk Extent to which buying using or disposing of an offering is perceived to have the potential to harm one s sense of self and thus create negative emotions 0 Time Risk Extent to which buying using or disposing of an offering is perceived to have the potential to lead to a loss of time Psych of Adv Notes 4 Ability the resources consumers have to make an outcome happen 5 types Financial Resources Cognitive Resources Emotional Resources Physical Resources Opportunity The final factor affecting whether motivation results in action is consumers opportunity to engage in a behavior 3 Factors that Effect opportunity lack of time distraction and complexity Exposure Attention Perception and Comprehension Ch 3 1 Exposure When the consumer comes in physical contact with a stimulus Marketing Stimuli Information about offerings communicated either by the marketer such as ads or by nonmarketing sources such as WOM In uences of Exposure position of ad product distribution amp shelf placement 0 Selective exposure zipping and zapping 2 Attention How much mental activity a consumer devotes to a stimulus o 3 characteristics it is limited it is selective and it can be divided Focal paying attention and NonFocal passive attention Attention o Preattentive processing The nonconscious processing of stimuli in peripheral vision I Devoting enough attention to process some aspect but not aware of it o Hemispheric Lateralization o Preattentive Processing brand name liking and Choice Marketing Getting the Consumers Attention 0 Make the stimuli I Personally Relevant I Pleasant Have sexy models familiar music and Humor I Surprising using novelty unexpectedness and puzzles I Easy to Process Prominence The intensity of stimuli that causes them to stand out relative to the environment Concreteness The extent to which a stimulus is capable of being imagined not abstract a diamond is easier to picture than a democracy Fewer other distractions the better Contrast with Competing Stimuli Habituation The process by which a stimulus loses its attentiongetting abilities by virtue of its familiarity Psych of Adv Notes 5 3 Perception Determining the properties of stimuli using the 5 senses 2 Theories about Perceiving Stimuli 0 Absolute Threshold The minimal level of stimulus intensity needed to detect a stimulus 0 Differential thresholdjust noticeable difference nd The intensity difference needed between two stimuli before they are perceived to be different I Weber s Law The stronger the initial stimulus the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different Subliminal Perception The activation of sensory receptors by stimuli presented below the perceptual threshold How Consumer s Perceive Stimulus o Perceptual Organization The process by which stimuli are organized into meaningful units split into 4 principles I Figure and Ground The principle that people interpret stimuli in the context of a background I Closure The principle that individuals have a need to organize perceptions so that they form a meaningful whole I Grouping The tendency to group stimuli to form a unified picture or impression I Bias for a Whole The tendency to perceive more value in a whole than in the combined parts that make up a whole 4 Comprehension The process of extracting higherorder meaning from what we have perceived in the context of what we already know Source Identification The process of determining what the perceived stimulus actually is Message Comprehension 0 Objective Comprehension How much consumers accurately understand the message a sender intended to communicate o Subjective Comprehension What is understood from the message regardless of whether this understanding is accurate or intended o Miscomprehension I From low MOA I Cultural Differences low and high context cultures Ways Marketers enhance Comprehension 0 Increasing Perceptual Fluency or the ease with which information is processed Psych of Adv Notes 6 Memory and Knowledge Ch 4 Memory Consumer Memory The persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of information either consciously or unconsciously Retrieval The process of remembering or accessing what was previously stored in memory Types of Memory Sensory Memory Input from the five senses stored temporarily in memory Working Memory WM The portion of memory where incoming information is encoded or interpreted in the context of existing knowledge and kept available for more processing 0 Marketing Implications Imagery can I Improve amt of info that can be processed I Stimulate Future Choice I If Realistic can improve Customer Satisfaction Long Term Memory LTM The part of memory where information is permanently stored for later use 0 Episodic autobiographical memory Knowledge we have about ourselves and our personal past experiences Marketing Implications I Promote Empathy and Identification I Cue and Preserve Episodic Memories I Reinterpret past experiences 0 Semantic Memory General knowledge about something detached from specific episodes Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit Memory When consumers are consciously aware that they remember something Implicit Memory Memory without any conscious attempt at remembering something Enhancing Memory Recognition The process of identifying whether we have previously encountered a stimulus when reexposed to it Recall The ability to retrieve information from memory without being re exposed to it Elaboration Transferring information into longterm memory by processing it at deeper levels Knowledge what is learned and stored in memory and how it is organized Knowledge Content Schema The set of associations linked to a concept Associative network 0 Aspects of Associative Networks I Spreading of Activation The process by which retrieving a concept or association spreads to the retrieval of a related concept or association Psych of Adv Notes 7 I Priming The increased sensitivity to certain concepts and associations due to prior experience based on implicit memory 0 Specific Schema I Brand Image Specific type of schema that captures what a brand stands for and how favorably it is viewed I Brand Personality The set of associations included in a schema that re ect a brand39s personification Scripts A special type of schema that represents knowledge of a sequence of actions involved in performing an activity like personal howto s Marketing Implications of Knowledge and Schema 0 Creating Maintaining Changing Protecting Brand Images and Personalities 0 Creating Brand Extensions Using the brand name of a product with a welldeveloped image on a product in a different category Knowledge Structure Taxonomic Categories How consumers classify a group of objects in memory in an orderly often hierarchical way based on their similarity to one another 0 Prototype The best example of a cognitive mental category 0 Prototypicality When an object is representative of its category Knowledge Flexibility of Structure 0 GoalDerived Categories Things viewed as belonging in the same category because they serve the same goals 0 Construal Level Theory Theory describing the different levels of abstractness in the associations that a consumer has about concepts people products brands and activities and how the consumer39s psychological distance from these concepts in uences his or her behavior Retrieval of Knowledge Failures of Retrieval o Decay The weakening of memory strength over time o Interference When the strength of a memory deteriorates over time because of competing memories SerialPosition Effects 0 Primacy and Recency Effect The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first or last in a sequence Characteristics of Stimulus that effect retrieval 0 Salience o Prototypicality o Redundant Cues 0 Using more Retention Based mediums television What the Stimulus is linked to o Retrieval Cue A stimulus that facilitates the activation of memory Psych of Adv Notes 8 Attitudes Based on High Efforts and Low Efforts Ch 5 and 6 Attitude Relatively global amp enduring evaluation of an object issue person or action Importance of Attitudes Cognitive Function How attitudes in uence our thoughts Affective Function How attitudes in uence our feelings Connotative Function How attitudes in uence our behavior Characteristics of Attitudes Favorability The degree to which we like or dislike something Accessibility How easily an attitude can be remembered Confidence How strongly we hold an attitude 0 Persistence How long our attitude lasts Resistance How difficult it is to change an attitude Changing of Attitudes Centralroute Processing The attitude formation and change process when effort is high Peripheralroute Processing The attitude formation and change process when effort is low Cognitive Foundations of Attitudes Direct or Imagined Experience Reasoning by Analogy or Category Values Driven Attitudes Social Identitybased Attitude Analytical Processes of Attitude formation 0 Cognitive Response Thought we have in response to a communication I Counterarguments CA Thought that disagrees with the message I Support Argument SA Thought that agrees with the message I Source Derogation SD Thought that discounts or attacks the source of the message 0 Marketing Implications I Belief Discrepancy When a message is different from what consumers believe Changing of Attitudes o ExpectancyValue Model model that explains how attitudes form and change I Theory of Reasoned Action TORA A model that provides an explanation of how when and why attitudes predict behavior Psych of Adv Notes 9 Behavior is a function of behavioral intention which is determined by the person s attitude towards the act and subjective norms Normative In uence How other people in uence our behavior through social pressure I Theory of Planned Behavior TPB An extension of the TORA model that predicts behaviors over which consumers perceive they have control How Attitudes are In uenced Credibility Extent to which the source is trustworthy expert or has status 0 Sleeper Effect Consumers forget the source of a message more quickly than they forget the message Company Reputation Evaluation of the Message Argument Quality 0 Strong Argument A presentation that features the best or central merits of an offering in a convincing manner Value of Information 0 Onesided message A marketing message that presents only positive information o Twosided message A marketing message that presents both positive and negative information Comparative Messages 0 Def A message that makes direct comparisons with competitors The Affective Emotional Foundations of Attitudes Affective Response When consumers generate feelings and images in response to a message Emotional Appeal A message designed to elicit an emotional response How Affective Attitudes are In uenced The Source 0 Attractiveness A source characteristic that evokes favorable attitudes if a source is physically attractive likable familiar or similar to ourselves 0 Match Up Hypothesis Idea that the source must be appropriate for the product service The Message 0 Emotional Appeals and Emotional Contagion I Emotional Contagion A message designed to induce consumers to vicariously experience a depicted emotion I Fear Appeals A message that stresses negative consequences Terror Management Theory TMT A theory which deals with how we cope with the threat of death by defending our world view of values and beliefs Attitude Toward the Ad Def Whether the consumer likes or dislikes the ad Psych of Adv Notes 10 Utilitarian Dimension When an ad provides information Hedonic Dimension When an ad creates positive or negative feelings Low Effort Attitude opposed to High Effort Ch 6 0 Peripheral route to persuasion Aspects other than key message arguments that are used to in uence attitudes Peripheral cues Easily processed aspects of a message such as music an attractive source picture or humor Thinslice judgments Evaluations made after very brief observations Cognitive Bases When Efforts are low Simple inferences Beliefs based on peripheral cues Heuristics Simple rules of thumb that are used to make judgments Frequency heuristic Belief based simply on the number of supporting arguments or amount of repetition Truth effect When consumers believe a statement simply because it has been repeated a number of times Selfreferencing Relating a message to one39s own experience or selfimage Mystery ad An ad in which the brand is not identified until the end of the message Incidental learning Learning that occurs from repetition rather than from conscious processing Mere exposure effect When familiarity leads to a consumer39s liking an object Wearout becoming bored with a stimulus Classical and Evaluative Conditioning 0 Classical Conditioning Producing a response to a stimulus by repeatedly pairing it with another stimulus that automatically produces this response Evaluative Conditioning A special case of classical conditioning producing an affective response by repeatedly pairing a neutral conditioned stimulus with an emotionallycharged unconditioned stimulus DualMediation Hypothesis Explains how attitudes toward the ad in uence brand attitudes Emotional Content in Ads Transformational Advertising Ads that try to increase emotional involvement with the product or service Drama Ads with characters a plot and a story Notes TOC Consumer Behavior CB and Broad Themes Page 1 Motivation Ability Opportunity Page 2 O O 0 Motivation Page 2 I Motivation motivated reasoning what e ects it Involvement Page 2 I Felt involvement 4 types response involvement Needs Page 23 I Hierarchy of needs Need Types Need Con iction Goals Page 3 I Goal types and con icts Appraisal Theory Risk Page 3 I Types of perceived risk Ability Page 4 I 5 types Opportunity Page 4 I 3 factors lack of time distraction and complexity Exposure Attention Perception and Comprehension Page 4 O O O 0 Exposure Page 4 I Marketing stimuli in uences of exposure Attention Page 4 I Focal and nonfocal getting the consumer s attention prominence amp concreteness habituation Perception Page 5 I Theories perceiving stimuli perceptual organization absolute and di ferential threshold Weber s Law Comprehension Page 5 I Types of comprehension source identification perceptual uency Memory and Knowledge Page 6 O 0 Memory Info Page 6 I Types of memory implicitexplicit enhancing memory WM LT M Knowledge Info Page 67 I Content Schema Scripts Associative Networks I Structure Taxonomic Categories exibility of Structure Attitudes Based on High and Low Efforts Page 8 O O Attitude Info Page 89 I Importance characteristics in uence foundation I TORA TPB Matchup Hypothesis TMT Low Effort Attitude Specifics Page 10 I Use of Periphery thinslice judgments classicevaluative conditioning emotional content in ads


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