Study guide COM 100
Popular in Intro to Human Communication
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Goran Notetaker on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COM 100 at Arizona State University taught by Roberto in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Communication in Communication Studies at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM TWO Chapters 59 Use the following list to help you study You should know how these terms are defined be able to differentiate between them compare and contrast them as well as apply their meanings in examples and scenarios Exams for our class will focus on BOTH lecture material and the book YOU MUST BRING WITH YOU TO CLASS ON EXAM DAY A 2 PENCIL AND A VALID ID PREFERABLY YOUR ASU ID STUDENTS WITHOUT ID WILL NOT BE PERMITTED TO TAKE THE EXAM CHAPTER FIVE 0 Know the definition of verbal communication 0 Know the definition of language and the characteristics of language ie socially constructed contextual instrumental etc Language 39 A ralegaiclecl system of symbols that allows as to translate messages into meaning Socially Constructed Instrumental It helps us DO things Concrete Language Abstract Language Regulatory it helps us control others and ourselves Interactional it creates identities and relationships 0 Know the different functions ie inform personal imaginative and components e g phonology semantics syntax of language and be able recognize examples of each Functions of Language Informative amp Hearistic communicates facts aids in the acquisition of knowledge Personal we use language to convey individuality and personality Imaginative we use language imaginatively as in literature humor Components of Language Phonology How sounds are organized Basic unit is the phoneme Phonetic differences can lead to confusion Syntax Rules that govern word order Not go I you to want do Blue sways sleep gregariously Semantics Meaning Eat shoots and leaves The shooting of the hunter was terrible Factors affecting meaning Denotative meaning Connotative meaning Pragmatics Language in use includes Speech Act Theory Conversational Rules Contextual Rules 0 Know and understand the individual in uences on verbal communication ie seX age etc Sedeender Men are From Apache Junction Women are from Scottsdale Close studies reveal few di erences in the communication styles of WomenMen Misperceptions arise from perception of one s own gendered communication amp media representations These perceptions are hard to change even if not true Age Word choice Nonverbal behaviors Pronunciation Cohort effect Cognitive development Regionality Word choice Pronunciation Syntax Nonverbal behaviors What do you call a carbonated beverage soda P0P soda pop Coke Something else FLUOPU Culture EthnicityRace Co language use verbal style self presentation interactional style nonverbal gestures and vocal qualities EducationOccupation Mutually in uencing jargon level and type of vocabulary 0 Know understand and be able to recognize how power in uences language including key terms such as androcentric heterocentric label stigma etc Power and words Androcentric Heterocentric Power and accent Associated W class media representations Power and identity Labelingidentifying Stigmatizing Cocultural theory Hierarchy eXists that privileges certain people This privilege allows these people to set communication norms The power of dominant groups is maintained through language Dominant communication practices impede those who don t conform CHAPTER SIX 0 Know the functions and importance of studying nonverbal communication Importance of Nonverbal Behavior Believed over verbal communication Ever present in face to face interaction Communicates feelings and attitudes It can enhance or inhibit understanding EXpresses what verbal cues can t or shouldn t More efficient than verbal communication Functions of Nonverbal Communication Communicate information Regulate Interaction Express and Manage Intimacy Social Control ServiceTask Functions 0 Know how nonverbal communication interacts with verbal communication ie contradicting complementing substituting etc In uence of Nonverbal Communication on Verbal Communication Reinforce a message Substitute for a message Complementing a message Contradict a message Illustrate a message 0 Understand the difference between nonverbal behavior and nonverbal communication and be able to recognize examples Nonverbal behavior becomes nonverbal communication when 1 used regularly by a social group 2 who interpret it as intentional 3 and a recognized agreed upon definition eXists Nonverbal Communication Defined All behaviors attributes and objects of humans other than words that communicate messages that have shared social meaning Does NOT include sign language written words or words transferred electronically Differs from verbal language in multiple ways 0 Know the Characteristics of nonverbal communication Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication NV in uences how people interpret a message especially related to moods emotions attitudes It is complex and ambiguous Nonverbal cues are continuous Interpreting NV communication requires consideration of context culture relationship individual Characteristics Key components of communication 0 Know what a nonverbal code is NV codes are Distinct organized means of expression Consist of symbols amp rules for their use Occur in sets Can t isolate aspects of the codes 0 Be able to define and differentiate between the nonverbal codes ie kinesics proxemics haptics paralinguistics Chronemics olfactics artifacts etc as well as recognize examples of each Kinesics use of face amp the body The Body Gestures Posture Mood Immediacy amp Relaxation Movement The Face Expression Eye behavior The face is the most reliable source of nonverbal information used to identify others Paralinguistics vocal behavior Voice qualities Speed Pitch Rhythm Vocal Range Articulation Vocalizations Sounds we utter that don t have the structure of language Each person s voice is unique Your voice identifies you just like your fingerprints do People with attractive voices are seen as more powerful strong assertive honest likeable sensitive and warm People with unattractive voices are seen as lazy timid unqualified Chronemics time Use of time Value of time Timing and sequencing Proxemics use of space Space and intimacy Intimate distance O to 18 inches Personal distance 18 inches to 4 feet Social distance 4 to 12 feet Public distance 12 to 25 feet Haptics use of touch Professional or Functional Touch Socialpolite Touch Friendship Touch Loveintimate Touch Demand Touch The Truth About Touch The sense of touch is the first sense to develop in the human embryo Your skin is your largest organ Skin as decoder Appearance amp Artifacts People s looks communicate Definitions of attractiveness vary Artifacts clothes jewelry cars etc Olfactics smell Smells are tied to people emotions events Attraction What s the right amount of perfumecologne Olfactic Association Smell is more likely to trigger memory associations than are visual or verbal cues Olfactic associations often have a strong emotional component 0 Know the components of each nonverbal code 0 Know how power in uences nonverbal communication NV comm amp power are related NV artifacts etc of powerful often normative NV comm amp behavior can trigger prejudice amp discrimination People from different cultures eXhibit varying nonverbal behaviors CHAPTER SEVEN 0 Know and understand why it s important to listen Listening the process of receiving constructing meaning from and responding to spoken andor nonverbal message We spend most of our days listening Better listening skills improve Cognition Academic performance Personal relationships Professional performance Health 0 Know and differentiate between the four stages of listening Sensing Understanding Evaluate Respond 0 Know and differentiate between the listening styles ie content oriented action oriented people oriented etc Listening Styles attitudes beliefs and predispositions about the how where when who and what of the information reception and encoding process ActionOriented Listening Style Focus more on the content of a message Action response they want to do something with the info Requires informational listening skills ContentOriented Listening for the sheer content Preference often for debate or argument High level of critical thinking skills required Informational AND critical listening skills acquire info and evaluate content PeopleOriented Friendly open communication Seeks similarities rather than controlpersuasion Useful in informal settings Requires supportive listening skills TimeOriented Desire for bullet pointsnutshell No specific skills are necessary for this style Characterized by constantly checking your watch telling someone you have limited time etc Often not the most ejfective listening style though there are appropriate times 0 What are the social filters for listening ie seyd gender and age GenderSex Some scholars believe women are better listeners than men others find no diiferences women are more accommodating and focused on the speaker men focus on facts and handle distractions better men interrupt more than women Children have a diificult time listening and focusing and interpreting messages Teenagers have selective listening as they seek to become independent As we age listening gets better until a certain point older adults then struggle with hearing ability etc 0 Know the barriers to effective listening Physical barriers Noise hearing loss dialect diiferences Psychological barriers Boredom preoccupation conflicting objectives Poor listening habits 0 Know the types of people we are more likely to listen to Social hierarchy Social status Physical appearance Vocal cues 0 Know if and how we change our listening style depending on the context Listening in context Listening styles and behaviors need to change based on the situation like our identities Societal forces may a ect listening due to prejudice or discrimination or bullying Listening and community Soundscapes listening to the sounds in our environment 0 Know how to improve your listening skills Become aware most of us think we are good listeners when in reality we suck Identify poor habits interrupting daydreaming tuning out Strive for mindful listening focus concentration and compassion CHAPTER EIGHT 0 Know why it s important to understand cultural communication Increased opportunities for intercultural contact Enhanced business effectiveness Improved intergroup relations Enhanced self awareness 0 Know and understand the definition of and differences between intercultural communication and culture including characteristics Intercultural Communication Communication between people who are culturally di erent Culture Patterns of perception values behaviors shared by a group of people E g national ethnic racial gender age etc Heterogeneous diverse Intercultural communication exists on a continuum Cultural Values Are Deeply held Sometimes subconscious Oughtness 0 What are the three types of border dwellers Be able to differentiate between the different types of border dwellers when given specific examples Living a life between cultures Negotiating contradictory cultural patterns Three types of border dwellers 1 Border dwellers through travel Voluntary vs involuntary Short term vs long term Culture Shock Disorientation and discomfort due to lack of familiar environmental cues Host culture welcoming or hostile 2 Border dwellers through Socialization Ethnicracial co cultural groups Other minority groups religious sexual orientation etc Daily negotiation of cultural norms 3 Border dwellers through Relationships Intimate intercultural relationships Interethnic and interracial romantic relationships face greater challenges than religion nationality and economic class Challenges of Living On the Border Constantly negotiating cultural norms Encapsulated marginal people feel trapped by having to shift cultures Constructive marginal people thrive while recognizing challenges 0 Understand the difference between individualism and collectivism and what cultures are individualistic v collectivist Individualism Primary responsibility is to self Autonomy and Independence highly valued Task accomplishment valued over relational harmony Collectivism Primary responsibility to group Interdependence highly valued Relationship harmony highly valued 0 Know the definition of preferred personality the view of human nature power distance and long term and short term orientation Preferred Personality better to do or to be or both US 3uropean Latinoa View of Human Nature people fundamentally good evil both How do incarceration rates re ect a culture s view 1 Humans control nature Controlled environment 2 Nature controls humans Accept nature s way 3 Humans in Harmony with nature Humans and nature are one Power Distance degree of acceptance for unequal distribution of power US Longterm vs Shortterm Orientation Attitude toward virtue vs truth Short term concerned w l fundamental truth usually monotheistic Long term focused on virtue as well as thrift perseverance tenacity usually polytheistic 0 What are dialectics Dialectics tension felt between 2 contradictory but connected needs AutonomyConnection ExpressivenessPrivacy ChangePredictability EMPHASIZES PROCESS HOLD TWO OR MORE CONTRADICTORY IDEAS AT THE SAME TIME 6 Intercultural Communication Dialectics 1 Culture Individual 2 Personal Contextual 3 Differences Similarities 4 Static Dynamic 5 HistoryPast Present juture 6 Privilege Disadvantage Individual Intercultural Communication and Society Social Political and Historical Forces 911 slavery Intercultural Communication and Power Whose cultural values will be respected and followed 0 How can you improve your intercultural communication 3 suggestions Increase your motivation Decreases con ict Increase your knowledge of self and others History background and values communicates interest Learning perspective and attitude Avoid Stereotypes Can become rigid Can lead to prejudice Can be selffulfilling react according to how wethey are treated CHAPTER NINE 0 Know and understand the definition of close or intimate relationships know their defining characteristics Close or Intimate Relationships include Some level of mutual influence Unique communication Repeated interaction Emotional attachment Need fulfillment Irreplacability 0 What is the importance of close relationships Offer a sense of belonging Alleviate loneliness Central to physical and psychological health 0 Know attraction theory and the three primary forces ie proximity interpersonal and similarity Attraction theory eXplains the 3 primary forces that draw people together Proximity Interpersonal Attractiveness Matching Hypothesis Physical Social Task Similarity 0 What are the dimensions of social penetration theory ie breadth depth frequency valence and what is the focus of the theory Know how the theory is similar to an onion The Social Penetration Perspective on Self Disclosure Self disclosure is the primary vehicle used to develop relationships Self disclosure makes people vulnerable The onion analogy superficial layer social or personal layer intimate or core layer Dimensions of SelfDisclosure Breadth range of topics Depth intimacy level Frequency number of times 0 Know the basic premises of uncertainty reduction theory and predicted outcome value theory Uncertainty Reduction Theory 39 Argues that early interaction serves to reduce our uncertainty about one another so we can determine what type of person each is which increases attraction 39 Relationship development is facilitated or derailed by attempts to reduce uncertainty Predicted Outcome Value Theory 39 Argues we seeks to reduce uncertainty to determine whether continuing to interact with another person is of value Thus based on our interactions we predict whether future interactions will be positive ie valuable or negative 0 What is the difference between stage models of relational development and trajectory models Know Knapp s Stage Model and its stages and the turning point approach and be able to recognize examples of each Stage Models Assume that relationships occur as couples engage in specific types of interaction that occur as they move through progressive stages of relationships development Relational Trajectory Models Assume that couples follow varied paths to relational development Knapp s Stage Model Five stages leading to commitment Initiating Initial encounters Greeting rituals and opening lines Social politeness and impression management Experimenting Small talk breadth over depth Establishing similarities and differences Determining whether to pursue a closer relationship Intensifying In depth disclosure and emotional eXpression Verbal statements of commitment Using future tense and we instead of I Integrating Coupling occurs both within and outside the dyad Social networks often merge Attitudes and preferences often merge Bonding Public commitment via social ritual Relationship often becomes institutionalized Significant barriers to breakup are erected Turning Point Model Turning points are major events that significantly affect a relationship In contrast to stage approaches the turning point approach is nonlinear 0 Studies suggest that around 50 60 of close relationships follow a nonlinear developmental path Originally included 14 turning points 0 Know the three types of dialectics that affect relationship development and be able to recognize examples of them e g autonomyconnection expressivenessprivacy changepredictability Dialectics tension felt between 2 contradictory but connected needs AutonomyConnection ExpressivenessPrivacy O ChangePredictability 0 What is relationship maintenance and what behaviors does it include regardless of relationship type Maintaining Friendships Friends engage in relatively short interactions but these conversations are seen as important Friends are most satisfied with each other when they possess similar levels of communication skill Friends tend to use these maintenance strategies Assurances Openness positivity listening Spending time together sharing activities and engaging in ongoing interaction Maintaining Romantic Relationships The ability to engage in effective everyday interaction is vital to relationship maintenance Those include both strategic and non strategic strategies Maintenance strategies include Positivity openness assurance humor Social networks sharing tasks joint activities 0 Know how relationships end ie Knapp s Coming Apart Stage Model and its stages versus sudden death Why Relationships End ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIPS Fatal attractions Lack of autonomy similarity supportiveness Infidelity FRIENDSHIPS Lack of proximity lack of communication skills Deception boredom 0 Rule breaking Knapp s Stage Model of Dissolution Based on the idea that communication quantity and quality decreases as partners disengage Five stages leading to dissolution Differentiating Function to maintain individual identity and autonomy Circumscribing Function to avoid in depth disclosure Stagnating Function to achieve psychological separation Avoiding Function to achieve physical separation sometimes as a testing ground Terminating Function to break up while minimizing negative affect and negative consequences SUDDEN DEATH Sometimes relationships do not gradually unwind through stages of relational dissolution but instead are characterized by sudden death In one study about 25 of people reported that their relationship ended because of a single critical event 0 Have a basic understanding of the five relationship problems discussed Aversive communication behaviors 44 of people report being annoyed by their relational partners on a given day Participants report that 87 annoying eXperiences with romantic partners occur per week Aversive communication gt Defensiveness gt more aversive communication gt ETC Deception Studies of dating partners have found 875 lied in the previous 2 weeks 92 admitting lying in another study 39 Truth bias Most lies are about third parties Lying also is devastating in friendships Jealousy Emotions associated with jealousy Anger sadness worry embarrassment disappointment Jealousy occurs when one perceives a threat to the relationship Men and women may differ in how they eXpress and manage jealousy How couples communicate about jealousy is more important than the feelings Handled poorly discussions about jealous can set the stage for interpersonal violence Interpersonal Violence Two types of interpersonal violence in romantic relationships 39 Situational couple violence 39 Batterin g The communication patters of couples who engage in situational couple violence include 39 Poor problem solving skills 39 Insulting and threatening the partner 0 Using fewer de escalation attempts 39 Males attributing hostility to partners and responding negatively to their in uence attempts Sexual Coercion Refers to the act of using pressure drugs or alcohol to have sexual contact with another People who give in to may do so because of 39 Concern for the relationship 39 Difficulty resisting pressure 39 Personal safety concerns How do you know if you are being coerced 39 If the other party attempts to make you feel you owe them seX 39 If the other party argues that since you have had seX before you can t say no now 39 If the other party argues that seX is how you prove or show that you care for himher or the relationship
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