Nutrition 120.001 Study Guide Test 2
Nutrition 120.001 Study Guide Test 2 Nutr 120-001
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alison Notetaker on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Nutr 120-001 at University of New Mexico taught by Not listed in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Nutrition for Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Nutri Chap tion Exam 2 Review ter 4 Human Physiology how our body functions Chemical bond holds atoms together Single bonds covalent Solution mix 2 compounds together Solvent primary component Solute lesser component lons electrically charged atoms gainlose one or more electrons Acid 06 Neutral 7 Basic 814 PH measure of acids amp bases Catabolism breaking down Anabolism building up Enzyme protein that catalyzes lactose Anatomy study of cellsbody structures Physiology how cells amp body work together Organ collection of tissues perform speci c function Organ system for similar purpose Cardiovascular circulate blood through body Respiratory exchange gases Lymphatic uid balance absorbs fat defend body against diseases Urinary lters unneeded substances from blood Muscular enable movement provide support amp protection Skeletal provide support movement protection Nervous transmit information amp responses Endocrine produce hormones lntegumentary hair skin nails GI tract muscular tube that food goes through Bioavailability absorbs nutrients how well the body uses them Mechanical digestion biting Chemical digestion lubricates food Mouth chemical amp mechanical digestion enzymes lipase amp amylase Epiglottis swallow muscle contractions peristalsis Esophagus tube connecting pharynx to stomach Gastroesophageal sphincter opening amp closing of stomach Stomach acts as gates break down food chyme holds 4 cups of food acidicmucus protection Peristalsismuscle contractions moving food Chyme mixture of gastric juice amp partially digested food Mucus lubricatesprotects stomach walls Pyloric Sphincter last part before small intestine Chap Small intestine most nutrients digested amp absorbed here Duodenum Jejunum most absorption here lleum villi ngerlike projections in SI that add surface area Segmentation mix chyme from stomach to small intestine Liver process amp store nutrients make cholesterol bile breakdown fat regulates blood Gallbladder stores bile that aids in fat digestion release bile prevent by eating healthy diet Pancreas produces amp secretes many digestive enzymes amp bicarbonate ions pancreatic lipase maltase sucrose Villi transport fat soluble compounds to chylomicrons Large intestine digest probiotic colon amp rectum where feces is stored water amp some mineral absorption where bacteria live GERD amp Heartburn acid re ux damages wall of lower esophagus to cause ulcers amp acid indigestion Peptic Ulcer bacteria H pylori digests lining of organ sharp abdomen pain Food allergy weird reaction epi pen Food intolerance biological Flatulence doesn t digest food correctly eaten by bacteria Belching air bubbles in stomach Celiac disease food intolerance to gluten Crohn s Disease messes with GI tract diarrhea constipation treat with antibiotics most common among those ages 1535 IBS abdominal pain intestine infection diarrhea constipation avoid caffeine amp teas twice as common in women Vomiting don t eat excessive amounts of food ConsUanonnotenoughfood ter 5 Plant use sun energy to combine with carbon oxygen hydrogen tofornicarbs Monosaccharide 1 unit of carb glucose Glucose primary energy source blood sugar dextrose Fructose fruit sugar laevulose Galactose milk sugar lactose Maltose 2 glucose Sucrose glucose fructose Lactose glucose galactose Sucrose made from sugar canebeets Nutritive sweeteners contribute energy to foods added sugars Alternative sweeteners added to food provide fewno calories sugar alcohols xylitol Nonnutritive sweeteners sweet synthetic compounds Saccharin FDA banned cyclamates 1970 Aspartame NutraSweet equal Phenylalanine amp Aspartic acid Diet Dr Pepper Sucralose Splenda chemically modi ed used in baking products Stevia plant in South America considered safe by FDA Rebiana inleaves Polysaccharides complex carbs greater than 10 monosaccharaides bonded together Starch storage form of carbs in plants Glycogen storage form of carbs in humansanimals Fiber cant digest soluble apples insoluble wheat Mouth salivary amylase digest starch Stomach acid inactivates salivary amylase Small intestine carb digestion amp absorption Liver absorbed monosaccharaides travel here Large intestine soluble ber fermented Rectum little dietary carbs excreted in feces lnsulin enhances production of fat glycogen protein Glucagon released when you eat Glycogenolysis release glucose to blood Lipolysis breakdown of fat for energy Glucose oxygen Carbon Dioxide Water Energy Ketone bodies form as a result of incomplete fat breakdown poorly controlled diabetes fastingstarving low carb high protein Atkins Ketosis high blood ketone levels Average American 22 tsp 18 from re ned sugars 120330 empty calories a day Most simple sugar American s consume sodas Diabetes abnormal glucosefat Symptoms increase in blood glucose levels excessive thirst excessive urination Type 1 auto immune beat cells stop making insulin Type 2 most common insulin resistant cells Maintaining Blood Glucose Level 1 Elevated glucose 2 Pancreas releases insulin 3 Glucose enters cells may be converted into glycogen 4 Normal blood glucose 5 Dropping blood glucose To Prevent Diabetes 1 Maintain normal blood glucose 2 Maintain healthy body weight 3 Follow special diet 4 Regular physical activity Risks sedentary lifestyle obese Native American Asian African Pl ancestry Hypoglycemia abnormally low blood glucose normal fasting blood glucose lt 70 mg Reactive hypoglycemia drops after eating highly re ned carbs secrete excess insulin Lactose intolerance inadequate actase common among African Asian European Low ber liked to constipation quottoothbrush for your colonquot Glycemic Index classifying carbs rise in blood glucose Alcohol ethanol 2 simple carbon compounds beer wine vodka whiskey NM BAC 08 Alcohol production yeast microbe warm conditions simple sugar Alcohol rapidly absorbed in mouth esophagus stomach small intestine most absorbed liver metabolizes it Men more water more muscle larger liver to metabolize more gastric alcohol dehydrogenase men s BAC increases slower than women built up tolerance Alcohol amp brain acts as depressant effects on central nervous system effects of brain based on BAC Alcohol amp liver converted to fatty acids destroys liver cells results in scar tissue liver cirrhosis damage heart increased blood pressure cancer is increased in those who drink Moderate alcohol stimulates appetite Alcohol can interfere with body absorption suppresses production of antidiuretic hormone urine Health bene ts raise HDL cholesterol reduce blood levels of brinogen red wine amp beer Chapter 6 Lipids organic insoluble in water store energy absorb fat soluble vitamins keep you warm 3 types triglycerides phospholids sterols Enhance intestinal absorption rich avor smooth texture Fatty acids hydrocarbon chain with Methyl Short 24 Medium 612 Long 1424 Saturated Monosaturated Polyunsaturated oils sh nuts Essential fatty acids must be supplied by diet alpha linoleic linoleic omega 3 6 precursors of prostaglandins Trans fat double bond of unsaturated fat Hydrogenation adds H atoms to liquid vegetable oils Partial hydrogenation not all double bonds natural cis converts to unhealthy trans fat In 2013 FDA banned additional trans fats in products Triglycerides 3 fatty acids quotglycerol backbonequot 95 in our body amp food Sterols in rings make other compounds such as cholesterol bile steroid hormones such as estrogen and testosterone make more chemically complex time Plant sterols chemical structures for health bene ts Benecol not well absorbed by human intestinal tract compete with cholesterol for absorption Lipid digestion and absorption little digestion in stomach bile broken down into little pieces from triglyceride to monoglycerides to fatty acids Enterophepatic circulation salts absorbed into ileum and returned to the livernew bile Soluble bersplant sterols interfere with bile and cholesterol absorption AMDR fat 2035 less than 10 of saturated fat less than 300 milligrams of cholesterol Nutrition Facts total fats saturated fat trans fat cholesterol Cardiovascular disease heart disease CAD stroke Atherosclerosis lipid plaques build inside arteries Thrombus breaks away travels through blood Hypertension high blood pressure Lipoproteins transports lipids in blood major role in atherosclerosis HDL good cholesterol primarily protein LDLbad cholesterol Total cholesterol less than 200 mg LDL less than 100 mg HDL cholesterol 4060 mg triglycerides less than 150 mg C reactive protein produced by liver in ammation Saturated fats increase LDL amp HDL Trans fats increase LDL decrease HDL Cholesterol increase LDL Monounsaturated decrease LDL not HDL Polyunsaturated decrease LDL amp HDL Omega 3 fatty sh canola oil decrease Omega 6 animal fats vegetable oil increase Statins interfere with livers metabolism cholesterol Review Triglycerides contain 3 fatty acids omega 3 DHAEPA amp 6AA glycerol backbone classi ed by saturationchain length Phospholipids 2 fatty acids and glycerol make energy phosphorusnitrogen emulsi er Cholesterol used to make vitamin D steroid hormones Simple carbs monosaccharaides disaccharides Complex carbspolysaccharides bers
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