Study Guide Psychology 101
Study Guide Psychology 101 PSYC 101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Roselyn Stoyer on Friday March 18, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 101 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Levine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
Psychology 101 Study Guide Ch. 3. Sensation and Perception* ESP: parapsychology; paranormal psychology 100s of studies: No good evidence No replication (or scientists tricked) Jumping to conclusions Our brain wants to jump to conclusions which is a sense of adaptiveness Perception is BIASED, beyond just what you attend to Experience/expectations/schemas Perception Bottom up processing sensation, input side Also known as datadriven processing Perception begins with the stimulus itself. Processing is carried out in one direction from the retina to the visual cortex, with each successive stage in the visual pathway carrying out ever more complex analysis of the input. Top down processing brain, creates vision Refers to the use of contextual information in pattern recognition For example, understanding difficult handwriting is easier when reading complete sentences than when reading single and isolated words. This is because the meaning of the surrounding words provide a context to aid understanding Organization, depth, constancies, illusions Your brain is doing a lot of below awareness: “filling in” PERCEPTION IS BIASED Depth perception Binocular cues two eyes Binocular cues help you judge how far things are due to the fact that you have 2 eyes. Retinal disparity: you have two eyes, and what hits your eyes is different The different perspectives of each separate eye Monocular cues one eye Depth perception in one eye **BRAIN TRICKS YOU; YOU SEE WHAT YOU EXPECT AND KNOW “Selective” attention and not encoding everything Biased perception and interpretation Ex.) Escaped panda; people say they saw it because their eyes and brain sees and think what they want Biased memories: memory construction CH 4: LEARNING – behavioral perspective, learning behavior “Behaviorism” 1. Classical Conditioning 2. Operant Conditioning 3. Biological & Cognitive Learning 1. Classical Conditioning Pavlov watch video Unconditional stimulus (UCS) stimulus in a reflex that automatically elicits an unconditioned response Unconditional Response response in a reflex that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulus Neutral Stimulus (NS) Conditional Stimulus (CS) comes to elicit a new response in classical conditioning Conditional Response (CR) response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus in classical conditioning EX) Dorm Shower toilet flush neutral UCS hot water UCR negative response CS toilet flush UR negative response EX) Car accidentdriving neutral UCS crash UCR negative response CS Driving after accident UR negative response *look at D2L for examples and walk through Extinction when condition is “unlearned” Stimulus Generalization going from initial stimulus to new stimulus, and conditioning/learning is still affective Stimulus Discrimination going from initial stimulus to new stimulus and conditioning/learning is not effective/ lose learning 2. Operant Conditioning 1 Learning based on consequences P T S Reinforcement behavior INCREASES in the future (is strengthened) because of a consequence; more likely to occur Punishment behavior DECREASES in the future (is weakened) because of a consequence; less likely to occur 2 Positive (+) P Added/presented (that caused the behavior to increase or decrease) DOES NOT MEAN T GOOD & INCREASING S Negative () Removed/avoided (that caused the behavior to increase or decrease) DOES NOT MEAN BAD & DECREASING *** know B.F. Skinner and associate him with Operant Conditioning Known as father of Operant Conditioning Conducted experiments in which different animals were placed in a box He coined three responses that follow behavior Neutral Operants Reinforcers Punishers Shaping baby steps toward behavior you want; you give rewards to achieve the behavior Continuous VS. Partial Partial usually better *** many conditions have both classical conditioning and operant conditioning EX) toilet flush in shower Classical – wincing avoiding something bad voluntary Operant moving out of the way (negative reinforcement) decisions EX) dog and can opener Classical salivating response getting food Operant coming to kitchen (positive reinforcement) NEED TO DO 1. Look at target behavior If increasing reinforcement If decreasing punishment 2. What OTHER THING caused target behavior to increase or decrease (something that was presented or removed) If changed because of something presented positive (+) If changed because of something removed negative () Immediate VS. Delayed Rewards Immediate reward right after Delayed reward longer down the road Sometimes a larger reward is earned Relates to “selfcontrol” Can we wait for larger reward? Ex.) marshmallow/candy study with kids 3. Biology, Cognition , and Learning Learned taste aversion: classical condition *** Eat something and get sick hours later not immediate Classical condition occurs because now you can’t eat or drink that; you get sick before when seeing it or smelling it again Ex.) give coyote sheep laced with something, coyote gets sick and doesn’t go after or eat sheep again. Farmer wins Cognitions/expectations In play when aversion is learned; your brain can cause aversion for certain tastes and smells Latent learningCognitive Observational learning not behaviorist but cognitive Modeling when you model behavior and subject then projects behavior from being presented that behavior Media violence and Aggression Be open minded Mirror reality what’s on tv and reality is what causes us to act as we do Logic of commercials big influence Science well established Correlational studies Experiments Complex Small effect but large societal problem – from watching tv/media/youtube Not just increased aggression but desensitization Less upset, less sympathy, less caring Punishment VS. Discipline VS. Spanking Punishment causes behavior in future to decrease Discipline what parents do to correct behavior Spanking type of discipline Science shows: Positive (+) reinforcement of “good” behaviors Never spank Discipline Resilience and anecdotal evidence Kids that were spanked VS. Kids not spanked But no studies showing longterm positive effects and many showing problems Spanking Issues Spanking can appear to work in the moment but 1.) It models violent behavior so it increase violent and aggressive behavior in kids 2.) It can interfere with a child’s positive feelings about their parents classically conditioned negative emotion 3.) Kids get older and bigger 4.) It doesn’t teach the lessen as well “don’t get caught” VS. “this is wrong” Its more learned at controlling them VS. kids learning to control themselves 5.) Parents can sometimes get too angry & “lose it”
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