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Review Notes Chapter 15 & 16

by: Brooke Hull

Review Notes Chapter 15 & 16 CHEM 1212

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Chemistry > CHEM 1212 > Review Notes Chapter 15 16
Brooke Hull
GPA 3.82
Elementary Inorganic Chemistry 2

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This a review for Test 2 in Elementary Inorganic Chemistry. This includes chapters 15&16
Elementary Inorganic Chemistry 2
Study Guide
Chemistry, chem1212, uga, Dr. Suggs
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This 59 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Hull on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1212 at University of Georgia taught by Suggs in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Elementary Inorganic Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/30/15
I INRGANIC CHEMISTRY TEST 2 By Brooke Hull 151 RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS concentration rate of reaction 2 change in change in time N205 gt 2N02 o2 N o A N 0 rate of reaction 2 change in Maria time Azt 5 mol mol mol rate 13910T13922T WT 0 0080 m 01 Nzosconsumed At 55min 40min 15min 39 Lmin ANO 1ANO A0 rate of reaction 2 Azt 5 2 At 2 2 NZ AN02 2mol of N02 formed 1mol of N2 05 consumed rate t 00080 mol N205 consumed per Lmin 0016 mol N02 formed per Lmin 2 l mol rate 2 M02 2 00080 mol N205 consumed per Lmin 2 2 021cmde 177101 N205c0nsumed 00040 mol Ozformed per Lmin mol mol mol M 03910703922T E 000080 101 At 540mm 390mm 150mm me Insfonfoneous roTe mol 02 39 rate when N205i5 034M AN205 L 00014 mol At 140min Lmin lysts dre produced in on intermedidte step dnd consumed in the next step h 53 EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION ON REACTION RATE N2 05 gt ZNOZ 02 rate of reaction aN205 where a means proportional to This medhs Tth The rdTe is depehdehT Oh NZOSCOHCGHTI39OTTOH 9 if iTs COhcehTrdTiOh is hdlved The rdTe is Therefore hdlved rate kAmBn Where The pOwer Of N205 in This Cdse will deTermihe The TOle effeCT Of COhcehTrdTiOh Chdhges NZOS Chdhges ih N205dOuOes The COhcehTrdTiOh buT in d rdTe ldw N2052 N205 would dUOdruple The COhcehTrdTiOh RATE EQUATIONS 1 N205g gt 2N02g 5 029 AN205 lAUVOZ A02 At 2 At 2 At Where llt the rate constant and changes for each reaction In an elementary reaction 11 bB gt xX the rate of reaction 2 kAmBn Where mampn can only be determined experimentally rate of reaction 2 kN2 05 The order of a reaction with respect to a reactant is the exponent of the reactant and the sum of the exponents is the overall reaction oraer UNITS OF K RdTe consrdnr lt reIdTes The proportiondliry of rdTe dnd concenrrd on dT or given Temperdrure dnd is given in uniTs for edch redCTion order ds follows 1 13 order E or S 1 called a per second 1 or L mol S 1 or or M 1 S 1 or inverse molarlty per second 2nOI order mols Ms l M OTh order 7 or mol L S 1 or or M S 1 or Molallty per second h I54 CONCENTRATION TIME RELATIONSHIPS INTEGRATE RATE LAWS Firer order 1nR t RIO kt Second order 1 1 m H t Zerorh Order 39 RO t 2 kt GRAPHICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING RATE ORDER ReacTion order Linear ploT 15 order LhAT vs T 2nol order AT vs T OTh order TAT vs T Using The linedr grdph of d reocTion you con deTermihe The order by looking dT The x dhd y volue Types ploTTed Then k oonsTth con be deTermihed Through linedr regression model of The besT TiT line where k slope of The line GRAPHS Linguine 2 e33 calminpa Zia Elma Erik Tim I Timid Tim rint wzur39d Eiir Rea t m Fimta nj ar r1 Sewndnrder EEEEti n i HALF LIFE TU2 9 where The bigger This value is The longer The regCTiOh Takes and The slower The regcTiOh is l l Rt 2 or RO 2 stating that the change in concentrations between these times is a proportion of 12 and where R0is the initial concentration and Rtis the final concentration of the reaction h 1 In a ktl or 1n2 kt 2 2 0693 we rearrange and get the more Simple t1 T for a rst order half llfe reactlon 2 Ro for 0th order t1 E 2k for 2nd order t Wino I55 A MICROSCOPIC VIEW OF REACTION RATES 772quot1 Collision lheow of reOCTIOh roles l The reOClihg molecules musl COlliole wilh eOCh o rher 2 The reOClihg molecules musl COlliole wilh suffiCieh r energy To ihi riole The process of breokihg onol forming bonds 3 The moleCUIes musl collide in on orienlolion lhol COh leool lo reorrongemehl of lhe oloms Ohol lhe formo rion of IoroolUCls h COLLIsION THEORY CONCENTRATION AND REACTION RATE N0g 039 gt N02g 029 rate kN003 The COhcehTrOTiOhs Of The respeCTive reOCTOhTs NO and O3 The rOITe Of The reOCTiOh Therefore will be TOIsTer wiTh IOIrger COhcehTrOTiOhs Of These reOCTOIhTs and slower wiTh smOIIIer COhcehTrOTiOhs We can use ChOIrTs TO reIOITe These COhcehTrOTiOhs OhOI rOITes OhOI OIeTermihe The lt COhsTOhT h EXAMPLE Consider The reecTion GT hand WheT is The reTe low rate kN0202 how plug in The Reactaht Hate err concenTreTions of The respecTive reecTehTs and c 39 tfam TEEWEETWEE 39f The reTe GT TheT concenTroTion and you can mauLT ND solve for The k consTohT for The rchTIOh H 193 malfll s COLLISION THEORY TEMPERATURE AND REACTION RATE As TemperaTure increases The average energy of The molecules in The samples increases as does The fracTian of molecules ThaT have higher energy kinetic energy h COLLISION THEORY ACTIVATION ENERGY E0 OCTIVOTiOh energy The 0mOUhT Of energy required TO surmOUhT The berrier Of energy TO reOOT This is represehTed in energy diogroms IEXLTH ENERGY DIAGRAMS The energy of The sysTem regches iTs mgximum GIT The TrgnsiTion sTgTe AT This poinT enough energy has been concenTrgTed in gpproprieTe bonds bonds in The regchnTs can now break and The new bonds can form To cregTe producTs Here or regcTion an reTurn T0 or regchnT fgvored sysTem or become producT favored CATALYSTS AN D ACTIVATION ENERGY This is energy diagram shows how corolysfs speed up gcfivgrion energy a m 1v v III r J a39MJ du u r gt gt r u arar 44quot V L K r r A a r wwmnrr gt COLLISION TH EO RY ACTIVATION ENERGY AND TEMPERATURE HeOTing O sgmple increOses The frOCTion Of molecules wiTh enough energy TO surmounT The OOTIVOTIOh energy IOOTrier COLLISION THEORY EFFECT OF MOLECULAR ORIENTATION ON REACTION RATE This is expressed in The Arrhenius eoUdTion k rate constant 2 A Ie RTIwhere the bracketed portion is the fraction of molecules with the minimum energy required for the reaction to occur and A is the frequency factor This equoTion odn be used To oolouldTe E0 from The TemperdTure dependence of The rdTe oonsTdnT T odn dlso be used To oolouIdTe The rdTe oonsTdnT for or given TemperdTure when EO dnd A dre known gt 3 lf r l F DERIVATIONS OF ARRHENIUS EQUATION There ore mony olerivoTions of The Arrhenius eouoTion depending on whoT you ore Trying To solve for The mosT useful ore below lnk lnA Ink 2 lnA where y mx b and m or is the Slope We con olso reIoTe Two TemperoTures using These eouoTions Ink1 lnA and Ink2 lnA 1 2 1 we get lnkjL lnkz 1n 1 T2 T1 gt 3 I Alf 1 F EFFECTS OF CATALYSTS ON REACTION RATES CaTaIysTs creaTe a differehT paThway far The reaCTahTs To Take They appear in The firsT aha asT sTep of a reacTiah ReacTiah ihTermeaiaTes are a species formed in The reacTiah during one sTep and consumed aT a IaTer Time NO2TQ 8029 gt NOTQ 8039 2 NOg 02g gt 2 N02Q N02g is The caTaIysT aha NOg is The ihTermeaiaTe 156 REACTION MECHANISMS 0 step 1 3139 N0g lt gt Br2N0g step 2Br2N0g N0g gt ZBrN0g overall reaction Brz g 2N0g gt ZBrN0g Each sTep is called an elementary sTep and has ifs own ocTiveTion energy and reTe consfenf MOLECULARHY OF ELEMENTARY STEPS When i molecule is The only reocTonT we coll This unimoleculor When 2 molecules ore involved we coll This bimoleculor When 3 molecules ore involved we coll This Termolecular 39 u I V r quotu quot39 v 3i rJ 39quot quot1 quot quot39 d NV r HT V gt A39 1 1 419 I 7 f R ATE EQ u An 0 N3 Fo R ELEMENTARY STEPS The rdte edUdtion for ndy elementdn step is defined by the redction stiocniometn A9 product unimoleculdr rate kA AB9 product bimoleculdr rate kA B AA9 product bimoleculdr rate kA2 2AB9 product termoleculdr rate kA2B REACTION MECHANISMS AND RATE EQUATIONS 39 rate kN205 f0quot 2N2059 gt 4N029 029 When a reaCTiah is haT elemehTaw we cahhaT aeTermihe The raTe law from sTaichiameTric ahalysis IhsTeaa we musT aalt aT The sTeps The reacTiah goes Through and find The raTe aeTermihihg sTep OfTeh The raTe of The reaCTiah is The same as The raTe of The slow raTe sTep Elementary Step 1A B gt X M Slow Elementary Step 2 M A gt Yfast 2A B gt X Y rate 2 k1 A B where lt1is The lt cahsTahT far sTep T This is because a reacTiah can 0th go as fasT as iT s slawesT sTep h EXAMPLE 2N029 11729 gt 2FN029 rate kN02F2 Based on The rale law This reaclian cannal lallte place in one slep we can explain ll wilh The Two elemenlan sleps which occur E11N029 11729 gt FN029 1179 510W E2N02g FCg gt FN02gfast 2N02g F2g gt 2FN029 A ra re aelermining s rep musl canlain ba rh reaclan rs REACTION MECHANISMS INVOLVING AN EQUILIBRIUM STEP Consider 25029 029 25039 tht is the rdte of redotion for formotion ratef k502202 tht is the rote of redction for decomposition rated 2 k5032 The rdte of formdtion is the forword motion of this redotion dnd rdte of decomposition is the oooltwords motion of this redotion How do these reldte rate f 2 rate of equilibrium or KC rated K products C reactants 50312 0 KC SOZIZIOZI PRESSURE AT EQUILIBRIUM Kp KART or rearrange for KC 2 K10 RD A An of moles of gaseous products of moles of gaseous reactants Consider H2603 aq cgt H20l 602 g Whot is KID C02 KC H2C03 Why Becduse in KC problems we neglect liquids dnd solids ond in KIO problems we neglect liquids solids dnd ddueous solutions we only concentrote on the doses begets Kp 2 C02 ICE TABLES ICE sTanas far lniTial Change and Equilibrium and relaTes cancenTraTian Consider IPCl5g lt2 PClgg C12 9 If you place 025 males of PCI5 in a 250mL flask AfTer equilibrium There are Ol 5 males of PCI3 is found in The flask WhaT is The KC far The reacTian Recall M or malariTy is males of saluTe per L of saluTian IniTial Ol OM OM OM ConcenTraTion Change in O60lvl 06OIvl 06OIvl ConcenTraTion Equilibrium 040M 060M 060M ConcenTraTion EXAM P L E Suppose 0086 moles of bromine Br2 is placed in a l2c gt L flask and healed lo l756K a lemperalure al which The halogeh aissooiales lo aloms 39 8729 ltgt 2379 If Br2 is 37 dissocialea al This lemperalure calculale KC Br2 Br2g 23rg C 3m 2 006825Ivl OM KC 00003878 0002525Ivl 2 0002525Ivl 39 m0 Or 38e 4 006579M 0005051 lvl 39 on hl WW u u m h J apr gt gt r e e 11 V L K r r A a 39Hw39mnrr gtgt a u l U B Rl u M WITH TH E a u AD RATI c E Q U ATI O N If 1 male of A and 2 males of B are placed ith a l L flask and allowed la reacl whal are The cancehlraliahs of A B and C al euilibrium when K 57 A B ZC 612 AllB 2x2 39 KC 1 X2 X 57 571 X2 X 4X2 then 572 X 2X X2 4X2 then 57X2 171X 114 4X2 then 53X2 171X 114 0 bib2 4ac 171i1712 453114 2a 253 Consider which is more logical 09413 because you have To mulliply if by 2 oKC 2285 or 09413 Now use The auaaralic equaliah x DETERMINE FAVORABILITY oF A REACTION T be qua tien t or Q 0161191 th es the fa vorabilizfy Ufa reaction 139 6 product fa vored 0r rea ctan t fa vored CCDd Q A Bb When QgtK broduoTs need To be Turned inio redonnTs To redoh equilibrium When QltK redonnis need To be Turned inio broduoTs To redoh equilibrium So QgtK is broduoTs fdvored dnd QltK is redCTdnT fdvored When QK you odn deTermine The fdvordbiliiy by oombdring K To 1 Kgti ii is broduoi fdvored Klti ii is redoidni fdvored Formula Sheet CHEM1212 Test 2 First order 1nRL RJO Second order kt L L RL R L Zeroth Order RLr RLkt Half Life 0693 t 1 T rst order only 3 f0r0th ordertl 2k 2 for 2nd order t1 1 5 kR0 l 2 Arrhenius n quantity 2 amount 3 n half lives Cl lnA k 2 rate consant whereymxb k2 1k 1k1 n2 n1 nk 1 3kJ R8314 10 Kmol WWW IZIZ W 50c WMWYO ugh LCumIS U 33 I mM w MPH 0dgsappfazmmce 0rtmcf mff mma ow of mm mm 1Egg7302g 3 1 4 E0 quotf 4E0 2 quot39 3 76quot Q 2HOHJ 3 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01 f 011 C osom 0010 quotZSYIOT 0 010 004 0 Lu MW 00l 0 O 010 6034047 mm is m 0va mm rmommw Lgcamn mm am 2 UWWWWM Wm omw M F39th WCM mhMI I 1 anfo Wm mmm er lowth 5H quotIE 1me Sham mm MR Win 9V WMQWLk i39S Swami mt NU L Loxw q 4 W 7 mha m 02 3 0 1 h N03 W 50340quot 2 39 quot 1mm CE mH MMJEIOJ m M mm M mum Mi 39 W cm emue k 99 mm Mag me now i quotrm H 1L AEMJ Man 1 m at WNW m miff UM MK 2 mm git me 395 H zSWO r r KENUEQEOZ aw K DOW IA 901 115 L wm IS m WW 39Mwm H e f N013 QUIQ39M 3 02A ow SDM 3 rM 3 1 4 M751 Dix V 13W lZS MK 11 00831 E WO SO WHO S MS W gl o Lij pm maquot 21 hammf m i 39 WW 393 4 C08 d 2 4t M7 1 N Nb mm M JwwM5 A 0011695 gtt xtoquot5 45021 S t 50 01 mackg m 5D XWgMJ amok 1 MNUNS lUwOMMr 2 4E Lad macK 56 TP fed 2 NUC3Jt 02 4 zwzwp E30 e C WK me my MM f 51 merM 51mm 3 M 1 w MW mum391 H o u 3 LMW s uuwu l HXWS kquot MW SZH D S 39me 1gquot MM avw 2 game Ll g H MD 1 WWW UNUW O 1 w i 392 WW kCW31DzS 3M wequot SOKW K l 2 mm gym L a f Ab 1 t 1 3mm Mame52 Wf m a Z w I I at E 12 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