EXAM 2 GENETICS
EXAM 2 GENETICS BIOL 3000-005
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Toni Thomason on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3000-005 at Auburn University taught by Michael C. Wooten in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biological Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
all pictures are from our text book they are not of my creation Genetics exam 2 study guide Wooten 0 Be sure to look at and understand labs 10 11 12 0 As always check canvas for materials that could aid in your studying 0 Review notes starting at 91115 Definitions 0 Idiogram alignment of chromosomes based upon size and shape 0 Heterochromatin Tightly coiled dark staining Noncoding few active genes Determines chromosome structureprimarily occurs at centromeres and telomeres Remains densely coiled throughout cell cycle 0 Constitutive heterochromatin always centromeres and telomeres noncoding regions of chromosomes 0 Facultative heterochromatin potential to become whole chromosome X inactivation Barr Body example where whole chromosome is noncoding o Cvalue paradox genome size doesn t correlate to organism complexity o Gvalue number of genes doesn t correlate to complexity 0 Highly Repetitive HR NonCoding rapid reassociation simple sequence 5 10 bp in length comprise 5 10 of genome clustered around centromers and telomeres play a role in maintaining chromosome morphology o Moderately Repetitive DNA Sequence MR Comprises about 30 of the human genome Found mostly throughout the euchromatin Present at between 10 10quot5 copies per genome Average 300bp in size Also includes 39redundant39 genes for histones and RNAs and small proteins gene products present in cell in large numbers Some theory suggests that genome coding of RNA may be as important as proteins 0 Unique nucleotide sequence CODING 1000 150000 bp in length approximately 20000 genes in humans 1 5 of the total nucleotides 0 Gene sequence of nucleotides GENOTYPE carries genetic information Things to know and understand 0 Organization of genes in euchromatin o Flanking regions exons introns promotor TATA box termination etc o KNOW TRANSCRIPTIONTRANSLATION BY HEART 0 RNA processing and DNA gene expression DNA gene expression Regulatory Sequences PM Con MWw W t Sundtvomcnpooo M POM 0039 ccbou cutou um bou w 001 non non o 39 iced eqcbu tlfdv m m i IW N 45 0 s whom 3 Window 3909 00 W 0 lb Binding site for proteins Gene Upstream 5 flianllaing region Transcri ptiionall Ll nit I II 39 Regulatory quot m promolor BIDHS 7 7 I II II II I lilllll introns I Start GiC rich END Transcription CiElill il39iR L DEIGMA Geniotm GENES l mRIMiA mm tRN i Egg quot 39 quotth p asm ranslatioiy Prisein MIND A lli Pihemome 1 Proteins Basic Rules of Transcription 0 Transcription is a Selective Process 0 Only certain parts of DNA are transcribed 0 RNA is transcribed from ssDNA 0 Within a gene only one strand is normally transcribed 0 RNA messages are antiparallel and complementary to the DNA template strand 0 Transcription is always in the 5 3 direction 0 Transcription depends on RNA polymerase RNA Pol 0 RNA Pol is a complex multimeric enzyme complex 0 Promoters contain short sequences motifs critical in the binding of RNA Pol to the DNA strand Upstream Downstream Nontemplate strand llPromoter l RNAcoding region 1 r 395 391 539 3 DNA s b O 0 mph Transcriptcon Terminator Transc p on strand 3quot 9 termination site RNA transcript S 3 M Cb I39V39Il39l ol nor ulnt c1ta V IN M I cuquot39 us Iuquot S 071TTII1117 AAA aAA 3PPVUUUUpolyUsite DNA LJiliii39LLALLLLLLLL quot52 G GCnch area hairpin loop RNA splicing Spliceosome machinery Exon 1 Exon 2 r A x r 539 splice site Inquot 339 splice site r i f i N y was s39 y W 539 consensus Branch 339 consensus sequence point sequence I RM Malone n man mun hull quotK1quot Niwndm ALTERNATE EPLICING IDF hnRNA Thyroid Cells Brain 33quot5 In RNA 5 ex 1 512 E313 EK4 Traneiation 7 7 y 7 Traneiation I transsplicing I Ealeitonin CaleitoninQenerelated H rm ne IMJinIraiine Hamillaches Translation Start codons AUG auburn university is great Stop codons UAAUniv of Alabama awful UGA U of Georgia is awful UAG University of Alabama is gross 1 Written in a linear form stored in the mRNA 2 Coded as triplets codons 3 Unambiguous 1 codon 1 amino acid 4 Degenerate 1 amino acid AA can be coded for by more than one codon 5 Specific start and stop codons Start AUG Stop UAA UGA UAG 6 Commaless there are no pauses in the code 7 Nonoverlapping 8 universal Steps of Translation 1 Activation Correct amino acid covalently bonds to correct tRNA CHARGING 2 Initiation Small ribosomal subunit binds to the 5 end of mRNA along with initiation factors IF and Large ribosomal subunit 3 Elongation Sequential binding of aminoacyltRNA to the ribosome along with GTP and elongation factors EF 4 Termination The A site of the ribosome recognizes a STOP codon RNA charging Amlno add quot m5 Ribosomal Antleodon b mm uurnbuuAu Frehleme A peptide hee 1Equot erhine entitlei ef eedlehe it let e ntieedene ef 39t lidee needed fer treineleti en e ref ndeleetidlee heeded fer treneletieh Weuild this he the likelyquot number ef indeleetidee present in the treneeriieti eznell unit if this were e memrheli ein Eerie Why ee the fellewi ng nueleeti idle eequene Ll l in i ranNl U UFUACE quot UEUUECEA ie there e START eedeh preeent e ref cedene ereeeht le there e STEP eederi present Whet ie the entieeden eeduenee ef the lindi39eldluel thhlde Hew rrieny ermine eei de will he wedded ehdl whet i e the SEQ UEI HIEE Understand how proteins work GenegtmRNAgtpeptideAA gtProtein Know levels of protein structure Mutations Started with domestication Be familiar with each type of mutation and be able to give an example Not all mutations are point mutations How does Transposition work The TE is removed from the DNA sequence by Transposase Staggered cuts are mad in the target DNA by Transposase I 9 Ta39ga DNA I mm It TETransposase 39 IJ39Iil The TE inserts itself into another location in the DNA Host DNA 0 IRMAtom 39 Mu m noun Staggered cuts leave short NA 39 DNA repair mechanisms repair the 0 p39eces break restoring original copy of DNA 0 8quot r LWNWJ K Ownquot Replication of the ssDNA creates the anking DR Gene Regulation Levels of Regulation of Gene Expression 1 Transcriptional quotON OFF subject to Influenced by internal or external cellular environment Constitutive or Inducible 2 PostTranscriptional message stability the number of times an mRNA can be used prevents message degredation cap and tail addition 0 RNA Degradation 0 PonA tails 0 Cap removal 0 RNA Splicing 0 RNA Interference
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