New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Macey Effertz


Macey Effertz
GPA 3.76

Jeffrey Kash

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Jeffrey Kash
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Political Science

This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Macey Effertz on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PS 110 at Western Kentucky University taught by Jeffrey Kash in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/216734/ps-110-western-kentucky-university in Political Science at Western Kentucky University.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/30/15
PS 110 Kash Notes and Review Questions for Exam 2 in American Government The Individual Citizen Beliefs Knowledge and Learning I Knowledge About Politics Chapter 6 A Levels of Knowledge Fairly Low Structural knowledge PolicyPersonnel knowledge Implications B Patterns of Knowledge Function of Socio Economic Status education occupation income C Sources of Knowledge Shift from newspapers to TV news less thorough complete or coherent II Beliefs About Politics Nonideological Chapter 6 Ideology consistent and interrelated values that conform to an underlying principle liberal vs conservative A Inconsistent pragmatic vs ideological B Moderate middle of the road III Learning Values Political SocializationChapter 6 A De nition intergenerational transmission of values about politics B Types of political socialization 1 Explicit 2 implicit C Agents of political socialization 1 Family 2 Schools 3 Peers reference groups 4 Media The Individual Citizen Forms and Rates of Participation I What is Political Participation in the U S A Conventional Forms most common Endorsed by Political System 1 Voting 2 Campaign Activity 3 Contacting Activity individualized 4 Communal Activity ad hoc B Unconventional Forms less frequent Tolerated by Political System eg marches demonstrations some forms of civil disobedience C Unacceptable Forms not political Suppressed by Political System eg riots bombings kidnapping tax avoidance draft resistance II How Much Participation in the US A Compared to Other Democracies B Across Types of Participation III Why Do Individuals Participate in the U S A Cross Sectional Explanations static 1 Education positive effect 2 Income positive effect 3 Age positive effect 4 Party Identi cation positive effect 5 Political Efficacy positive effects 6 Non factors controlling for others Race and Gender III B Longitudinal Explanations dynamic 1 Decline in Turnout 1880s 1920 s a Australian Ballot 1890s b Registration Laws 1900s c Women s Suffrage 1920 19th Amendment 2 Rise in Turnout 1920s 1960s a Rising Education levels b Rising Income levels c Aging Population 3 Recent Decline in Turnout 1960s Present mix of positive amp negative effects net effect is negative a Factors Increasing Turnout easier registration laws higher education 5quot Factors Depressing Turnout younger electorate weakened social involvement weakened partisanship decline in party mobilization IV Determinants of Voting Choice A Party Identi cation long term effect 1 standing decision effects 2 perceptual screening effects based on principle of cognitive dissonance 3 weakening of party id effects over time B Issue effects short term effect 1 level of knowledge problem retrospective vs prospective issues easy vs hard issues symbolic vs substance 2 confounding in uence of party id C Candidate Appeals short term effect personal attraction based on perceptions of competence amp morality Cross sectional explanations Taken at one point in time Such explanations describe political phenomena at a single point in time through a variety a of variables Snapshot explanation Longitudinal explanations Data are collected from respondents on more than one occasion to show changes overtime Party identi cation the psychological feeling of belonging to a particular political party which in uences voting behavior Australian ballot a government printed ballot as opposed to one distributed by political parties that allows people to vote in secret Retrospective issue voting Deciding how to vote based on past policy outcomes Prospective issue voting Deciding how to vote based on the basis of a candidates likely future policies Political Interest Groups I Defrning a Political Interest Group an organized group of people that seeks to advance its interest through government II Why Political Interest Groups Form disturbance theory groups form in response to changes that create threats or opportunities A The Collective Goodsquot Free Rider Problem 1 Distribution of Good is Nonexclusive 2 Provision of Good is Not Affected by Individual Effort 3 Therefore Joining is Irrational Costs gt Benefits B Ways Around the Free Rider Problem 1 Recruit Members with Selective Goods material price insurance information solidary social interactions expressive expressing a position e g unions trade associations NRA Sierra Club groups seek collective goods after group has formed for other reasons 2 Solicit a SponsorSubsidy Wealthy citizens can affect provision Nonpro t Foundations Corporations Government Agencies Existing Interest Groups III The Political Interest Group Environment signi cant changes over past 50 years A Number and Types of Groups Political Action Committees PACs electioneering component of grou number of PACs 608 gt3800 197 4 98 spending by PACs 80 gt480 million 197778 199798 economic groups business labor professional citizens39 groups noneconomic interests government groups state amp Local B Change in Composition of Groups rise in groups with political objectives quotnonconnected groups IV Functions of Political Interest Groups A Representation group views to government B Participation individual s by proxy C Education government group amp public D Agenda Building demand government attention to group issues E Program Monitoring observe administration of laws affecting the group Political Parties 1 What is a Political Party Definition any group organized under a common label for the purpose of nominating and electing people to governmental office 11 Characteristics of the American Party System A Decentralized Authority three faces of parties 1 party as electorate self identi cation by voters 2 party as organization strong and active at state amp local levels 3 party as government more responsive to constituents than party leaders B Two Parties 1 Historical Pattern 1796 1824 Federalists amp Democrat Republicans power of national government business vs agricultural sectors 1828 1856 Democrats amp Whigs class based slavery 1860 1892 Republicans amp Democrats slavery national power close electoral contests 1896 1928 Republicans amp Democrats populism debtorlender classes 1932 Democrats amp Republicans social welfare national supremacy 2 Reasons for Two Party System a single member plurality district system b legal barriers to third parties c socialization of electorate d third party co optation by major parties C Substantive Composition of Parties 1 Diverse Nonideological Moderate 2 Reasons for Composition a priority of election function b characteristics of electorate c single member plurality district system spatial theory of elections III Functions of Parties in U S Political System A Contest Elections recruit candidates nominate candidates mobilize voters run campaigns B Propagate an Ideology offer and promote a vision of goals C Form and Run Governments organize government39s structures coordinate across government39s structures compensate for effects of checks and balances D Promote Accountability party identi cation as voting cue organized opposition encourages voting choice E Limit Intensity of Conflict two party system forces parties to compete for moderate voters spatial theory of elections IV Recent Trends in U S Party System A In the Electorate Dealignment party identi cation amp loyalty in decline split ticket voting increasing B As Organizations Long Term Weakening 1 StateLocal party machines lose patronage and welfare roles Australian ballot 2 National amp State lose control of nominations caucuses replaced by primaries types of primaries closed open 3 National recent revival soft money amptechnical assistance to candidates C In Government Long Term Decline with Recent Upturn 1 Voting Cohesion recent rise 2 Organizational Structures Strengthened D In the Party Environment 1 TV More Important Weakens Parties a TV shifts control over access to voters from party to candidate b Recent emergence of internet 2 More Interest Groups Weaken Parties undermines parties ability to build coalitions Questions Chapter 7 Questions 1 What is the difference between explicit and implicit political socialization 2 What are the four main agents of political socialization and how do they shape political beliefs 3 Explain the differences between the three different forms of political participation 4 What is the main way that citizens in the US participate in politics and how do we measure it 5 Explain how education and political efficacy have a positive effect on political participation 6 Explain how the Australian ballot registration laws and women s suffrage had a negative effect on voter turnout 7 Explain how party identification shapes voting choices 8 Explain why issue effects can confound party identi cation in shaping voting choices 9 In cross sectional studies of voting explain under what circumstances do the categories of race a gender explain very little of voter turnout 10Looking at the mix of factors that help to explain voter turnout explain why turnout has dropped in elections from the 1960s to the present Questions Chapter 10 Questions 1How does disturbance theory explain the formation of interest groups 2How does the collective goods dilemma lead to the conclusion that it is irrational for an individual to join an interest group 3 How do interest groups get around the collective goods dilemma to get people to join their groups 4How does a solidary good differ from an expressive good 5 What kind of sponsors provide money for the start up and maintenance of interest groups 6 What has happened to the number and composition of interest groups over the last 30 years 7How do interest groups help citizens participate and be represented in the US political system 8Explain how interest groups help to educate different participants in the US political system 9 Why do interest groups try to shape the governmental agenda and how do they do it 10How does the interest group function of program monitoring shape the behavior of actors inside and outside of government Questions Chapter 9 Questions 1 Identify and explain the three different faces of political parties 2Explain how the socialization of the electorate makes it dif th for third parties to participate in the US electoral system 3 Explain how third parties can be co opted by the two major political parties 4How does a single member plurality electoral system lead to the development of a two party system 5 Identify and explain the ve functions of political parties 6 How does split ticket voting support the idea that the public is dealigning from political parties 7 How has the increase in the use of primaries over caucuses affected political parties 8 How does the spatial theory of elections median voter hypothesis help to explain why the two US political parties are described as diverse nonideological and moderate 9Explain how the increased importance of television in elections affects political parties 10 Explain how the increased number of interest groups affects political parties


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.