Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide 80132 - BIOL 1030 - 001
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80132 - BIOL 1030 - 001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Geiger on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 80132 - BIOL 1030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Nora R Espinoza in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
CHAPTER 4 Plasma Membrane Seectivey permeable Some molecules can move across the concentration gradient while others cannot Small size of cells relates to the need to exchange materials across the plasma membrane Lipids can dissolve in lipid bilayer and move down concentration gradient from higher to lower concentration diffusion Phospholipid Polar Hydrophilic head Nonpolar hydrophobic tail Phospholipid Bilayer proteins embedded within Plasma Membrane Lipid Bilayer most molecules cannot pass LB 0 02 and C02 diffuse across LB Seectivey permeable What passes through Depends on electric polarity How it will interact with hydrophobic interior Depends on size CHAPTER 5 Bioluminescence Chemical energy converted into visible light I Passive transport diffusion across membrane DOWN CONCENTRATION GRADIENT from high to low with no energy investment Does not require energy because cells do not have to do work when molecules diffuse across membrane Water is most important substance to cross membrane by PT Diffusion of water across selectively permeable membrane osmosis Concentration gradient region where density increases or decreases along Diffusion tendency for particles to spread out Moves down concentration gradient from higher to lower concentration Osmosis Diffusion of water across SP membrane always a comparison of two compartments on either side of membrane Solute dissolves into solvent Soute is selectively permeable Resulting mixture is a solution Water clusters where there is more quotsaltinessquot in solute The levels of saltiness are called osmotic pressure Tonicity quotHow salty it isquot Ability of surrounding solution to cause a cell to gainlose water Depends on concentration of solutes relative to concentration of solutes inside ce lsotonic Causes no net movement of water into or out of cell H20 IN AND OUT Equal solute levels Anima cell Normal shaped Pant cell Turgid shape Hypotonic Causes cell to take up water H20 IN to follow salty Lower solute levels Anima cell Lysed shape Pant cell Flaccid shape Hypertonic Causes cell to lose water H20 OUT bc saltier outside cell Higher solute levels Anima cell Shriveled shape bc losing everything inside quotdrying outquot Pant cell Shriveled shape Osmoregulation How much water in cell In order for an animal to survive in hypotonic or hypertonic environment it must regulate solute concentration to prevent gaining too much water or losing to much water Faciitated Diffusion passage of substance through speci c transport protein across biological membrane down concentration gradient Rapid diffusion of water in and out of cells made possible by the protein channel aquaporin facilitates diffusion across membrane Transport Proteins facilitate diffusion Adding energy altering bonds shape change ll Active Transport Cell must expend energy to move a solute against concentration gradient from low to high Alows cell to maintain internal concentrations of molecules and ions that are different from external concentrations Cotransport sodium and glucose move into cell Sodium Potassium Pump moves ions against concentration gradient less concentrated to more concentrated REQUIRES ENERGY FROM CELL therefore active transport Energy from ATP moves sodium out of cell and potassium into cell POTASSIUM IS ALWAYS TRYING TO GET INTO THE CELL Exocytosis outside of cell export bulky materials ex proteins polysaccharides Transport vesicle moves to and fuses to plasma membrane contents of vesicle spill out when vesicle becomes part of plasma membrane Endocytosis inside of cell cell takes in large molecules quotpinches inquot 2 TYPES Phagocytosis quotcellular eatingquot Cell engulfs particle by wrapping pseudopodia around it and packaging it with vacuole Vacuole fuses with lysosome which digests contents of vacuole Protists take in food particles this way Pinocytosis cell needs a lot quickly drinking Targeted endocytosis ReceptorMediated Endocytosis Enables cell to acquire speci c solutes Receptor proteins pick up particular molecules from extracellular uid Cells use this to take in cholesterol from blood in humans Determines where plasma membrane will quotcupquot inward to form vesicle Ill Energy Capacity to cause change or perform work units kilocalories kcal To acquire fuel eating amp photosynthesis Fuelgt food gt atoms amp energygt bonds 1 Kinetic Motion think MP3 player creating sounds we hear a Thermal Random movement of atoms and molecules Transfer of thermal energy heat 2 Potential Result of location or structureStorage Ex Water behind a dam bike at top of hill think MP3 battery a Energy stored in chemical bonds of organic compounds b Chemical Potential energy available for release in chemical reaction MOST IMPORTANT TYPE OF ENERGY FOR LIVING ORGANISMS i Glucose is universal fuel for cells What are two important ways cells store potential energy 0 Chemical bonds in molecules 0 Ion concentration gradients across a membrane STRUCTURE FUNCTION Thermodynamics Study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter System matter under study Surroundings everything outside of the system the rest of the universe 0 Law 1 quotLaw of Energy Conservationquot energy in the universe is constant Energy can be transferred and transformed but cannot be created nor destroyed Every time energy is used or converted a portion is lost as heat 0 Energy unable to do work is converted to thermal energy and released as heat 0 Entropy measure of randomness The more randomly arranged a collection of matter is the more entropy it possesses If you gain order you lose entropy Vice Versa Larger molecule more bonds more organization gt less entropy GLUCOSE more organized less entropy WATER less organized more entropy Diffusion DECREASES organization and INCREASES entropy Unequal distribution more organized more potential energy 0 Equal distribution less organized less potential energy 0 EQUILIBRIUM IS DEATH 0 Law 2 Energy conversions increase the entropy disorder of the universe 0 Cellular Respiration The chemical energy stored in organic molecules is used to produce ATP which cell uses to perform work Chemical Reactions Either release or store energy Make and break chemical bonds When you rearrange matter you change bonds and positions of atoms Higher potential energy of molecules leads to heat released between reactant and product This is exergonic and spontaneous Energy moves outward Lower potential energy of molecules leads to heat stored from reactant to product This is endergonic and not spontaneous Energy moves inward Total energy inputtotal energy output Exergonic Reaction energy outward releases energy Ex cellular respiration o Endergonic Reaction energy inward requires net input of energy and yields products rich in potential energy Ex Photosynthesis Metabolism total of an organism s chemical reactions Metabolic Pathway series of chemical reactions that either builds complex molecule or breaks down complex molecule into simpler compounds EX quotslow burnquot of cellular respiration Energy Coupling the use of energy released from exergonic reactions to drive endergonic reactions Crucial in ALL cells ATP key to energy coupling ATP powers almost all forms of cellular work Adenosine Triphosphate Hydrolysis breakdown of ATP is exergonic releases energy Phosphorylation Phosphate transfer from ATP to another molecule ATP drives chemical transport and mechanical work of cells ATP renewable resource Cells reuse and regenerate ATP repeatedly Enzymes Molecules that function as biological catalysts increasing the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction Almost all are proteins Speed up the cell39s chemical reactions by lowering energy barriers LOWERS ENERGY OF ACTIVATION AND INCREASES RATE OF REACTION Ordered structures tend toward disorder Bedroom gets messier water ows downhill etc High energy systems tend to change toward more stable state of low energy FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME ACTIVITY 0 Enzyme and Substrate concentration 0 Total number of active sites on the enzymes 0 Amount of substrate present 0 Environmental Factors 0 Temperature and pH Optimal temperature highest rate of contact between reactants and enzyme s active site Heat to change body temperature from environment ECTOTHERMIC limits rate of reaction Use energy to keep body temperature at speci c level ENDOTHERMIC promotes rate of reaction 0 Enzymes wont work if shape is wrong WRONG TEMP OR pH PROTEIN WILL DENATURE lose shape Activation Energy Energy barrier needed to be overcome before a chemical reaction can begin Energy must be absorbed to contort or weaken bonds in reactant molecules so they can break and new bonds can form Amount of energy needed to move uphill to a higherenergy unstable state so the downhill part of a reaction can take place Enzymes help reactant overcome activation energy barrier A speci c enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction Think quotpuzzle piecequot it is speci c because of SHAPE The shape only matches speci c reactants Substrate speci c reactant an enzyme acts on Active site substrate ts into a region of the enzyme called its active site Induced t may contort substrate bonds or place chemical groups in position to catalyze reaction Cofactors quotNonprotein helpersquot bind to active site and function in catalysis Coenzyme If cofactor is an organic molecule Catalytic Cycle 1 Enzyme has empty active site 2 Substrate enters active site which enfolds the substrate with an induced t 3 Substrate converted to products 4 Products are released ENZYME INHIBITION CAN REGULATE ENZYME ACTIVITY IN CELL all about control Concentration of enzyme Regulation of gene expression Cofactors lnorganic ions Nonprotein organic molecules photosynthesis and cellular respiration Cels regulate the synthesis of coenzymes 0 Competitive Inhibitor reduces enzyme s productivity by blocking substrate molecules from entering the active site Can be overcome by increasing concentration of substrate 0 NonCompetitive lnhibitor does not enter the active site Binds to another site on enzyme and changed the enzyme s shape so active site no longer ts substrate 0 Feedback lnhibition If a cell is producing more product than it needs product may act as inhibitor of one of the enzymes early in pathway Only weak interactions bind inhibitor and enzyme so this inhibition is reversible CHAPTER 6 Rede reaction electrons pass from one molecule to another Reduction gain of electrons Oxidation loss of electrons ALWAYS PAIRED TOGETHER one molecule donates electrons the other accepts electrons Occurs in CELLULAR RESPIRATION and PHOTOSYNTHESIS I Cellular Respiration the process that generates ATP for cellular work OPPOSITE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS C6H1206 602 gt 602 6H20 REDOX REACTION OCCURS IN 3 MAIN STAGES 1 Glycolysis breaks down glucose into two molecules of a threecarbon compound called pyruvate Universal energy harvesting process of life a Takes place in CYTOPLASM b Harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate c Substratelevel phosphorylation enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule directly to ADP forming ATP Oxidation of glucose to pyruvate releases energy INPUT 2 ATP glucose 4 ADP 4 P 2 NAD OUTPUT 4 energy carriers 2 ATP 2 NADH 2 ADP 2 pyruvate g Total made 4 Total net 2 Total harvested ATP 2 3 Pyruvate Oxidation a 1 glucose gt 2 pyruvate b Pyruvate gt Acetyl Coenzyme A c INPUT Strip CO2 add Coenzyme A d OUTPUT reduce NAD to NADH e For every glucose 2 pyruvate 2 acetyl groups 4 Citric Acid Cycle Pyruvate oxidized to twocarbon compound then completes breakdown of glucose to CO2 a Completes oxidation of organic molecules generates many NADH and FADH2 molecules b INPUT 2 ADP 2 carbon 2 acetyl coA 6 NAD 2 FAD c OUTPUT 6 NADH 2 ATP 2 FADH2 and 4 C02 d For each glucose 8 electron carriers 6NADH and 2FADH2 5 Oxidative Phosphorylation Electron transport and chemiosmosis NADH and FADH2 shuttle electrons in ETC into inner mitochondrial membrane ATP is generated here and uses energy released from NADH and FADH2 to oxygen to phosphorylate ADP a Most ATP production occurs here b Chemiosmosis potential energy of this concentration gradient used to make ATP Using an ion gradient Each molecule of glucose yields many molecules of ATP 02 consumed as sugar and broken down to CO2 and H20 Cell captures energy released in ATP Takes place in mitochondria of almost all eukaryotic cells RespirationBreathing Breathe air and eat food to supply cells with reactants for cellular respiration Redox Reactions Movement of elections from one molecule to another Oxidation Loss of elections from one substance one or more Reduction Addition of elections to another substance one or more thD NAD accepts elections and becomes reduced to NADH Eectron Transport Chain Many election carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during a series of redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP Fermentation enables cells to produce ATP without oxygen Harvesting chemical energy without needing oxygen INPUT GLUCOSE OUTPUT 2 LACTATE or TWO ALCOHOL AND 2COZ NET GAIN 2 ATP Lactic Acid Fermentation Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to lactate Alcohol Fermentation Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to ethyl alcohol Anaerobes Obligate anaerobes require anaerobic conditions poisoned by oxygen 0 Yeasts other bacteria Facultative anaerobes can make ATP by fermentation or oxidative phosphorylation depending on availability of 02 0 Muscle cells o If oxygen is available organism ill always use the more productive aerobic respiration CATABOLIC Destructive Think quotcats are destructive and tear up furniturequot FOOD peanuts cells use many kinds of organic molecules as fuel for cellular respiration ANABOLIC Molecules ATP NEEDED TO DRIVE BIOSYNTHESIS food molecules provide raw materials for biosynthesis Building the big 4 macromolecules Body uses energy from food to make macromolecules CHAPTER 7 Two ways to acquire fuel food eating and photosynthesis Photosynthesis WORLD DEPENDS ON THIS TO CAPTURE THE ENERGY OF THE SUN Process in which plants use solar energy to convert C02 and H20 to sugars and other organic molecules and release 02 as byproduct REDOX PROCESS Meaning carbon reduced and water oxidized 6COZ 6HZOgt C6H1206 602 ENDERGONIC FALSE Plants do majority of photosynthesis Single celled organisms like protist and cyanobacteria do Fues the biosphere Locks energy into chemical bonds of carbohydrates brings carbon into the system 0 Oxygen cellular resp amp ozone shield against UV rays 0 Building materials amp biofuels Autotrophs quotSelffeeders Make their own food Capture energy Algae protist Cyanobacteria Diatoms Green Plants Ultimate source of organic molecules for almost all other organisms Photoautotrophs quotPhotosynthesizersquot Use the energy of light produce the biosphere s food supply Heterotrophs Cannot make own food but consume plants or animals or decompose organic material Produce raw materials and organic fuel necessary to maintain life quotHeteroquot means other They look to other organisms to consume for food Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts in plant cells Chlorophyll lightabsorbing pigment in plants that converts solar energy to chemical energy Amajor absorbs mainly blueviolet and red light re ects green light appears bluegreen Puts the energy to work in light reactions Bmajor absorbs blue and orange light re ects appears olive green Broadens the range of light a plant can use by conveying absorbed energy to chlorophyll Carotenoidsminor yellow and orange think quotcarrotquot Photoprotection Mesophyll green tissue in interior of the leaf Stomata Tiny pores where C02 enters and 02 exits quotStomaquotnostrils of leaf means mouth Mouth is where C02 and 02 enter and exit our bodies Stroma Thick uid enclosed in an inner compartment inside of two membranes within the chloroplast Calvin Cycle substrates and enzymes Thylakoids Interconnected membranous sacs inside stroma which enclose thylakoid space ETC Little sacs where protein gradient is built 0 Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Where Cells Which cells Mesophyll cells How do we input Light through leaves 0 Chlorophyll inside thylakoid Thylakoid inside chloroplasts Chloroplasts inside mesophyll cells TWO STAGES Photosynthesis means light and quotputting togetherquot which refers to the light reactions and the sugar construction through the Calvin Cvcle 1 Light Reactions inside thylakoids converts light energy to chemical energy and releases oxygen GENERATES ATP AND NADPH Wavelength distance between the crest of a wave Electromagnetic Spectrum Visible light 42 ROYGBV full range of electromagnetic wavelengths from very short wavelength very high energy gamma rays to very long wavelength very low energy radio waves Photon Discrete packets of energy Fixed quantity of energy The shorter the wavelength of light the greater the energy of its photons INPUT Light H20 NADP OUTPUT Oxygen 2 Calvin Cycle inside stroma of chloroplast series of reactions that assembles sugar molecules using carbon dioxide and products of light reactions PRODUCES SUGAR Carbon Fixation Incorporation of carbon from C02 into organic compounds Reduces carbon compounds to sugars INPUT C02 ATP NADPH OUTPUT 3carbon sugar glyceraldehyde 3phosphate Photosystem number of lightharvesting complexes surrounding a reactioncenter complex Contains various pigment molecules bound to proteins Capture solar energy Absorption spectrum TWO TYPES In order of discovery bc photosystem II happens rst Connected by an ETC generating ATP and NADPH Photosystem I Photosystem II Greenhouse Effect Warming of the Earth due to accumulation of C02 in the atmosphere which absorbs infrared radiation and reradiates some of it back toward Earth Global Climate Change Increase in temp and change in weather patterns across the planet due mostly to increase in C02 in atmosphere from burning of fossil fuels Increase in temp is called global warming Energy ow through ecosystem begins as electromagnetic radiation light then is lost as heat Ultimately from the Sun Three actions when light interacts with molecules 1 Re ects light seen as color bounces off 2 Transmits light seen as color passes through 3 Absorbs light Grabbingholding onto a Only useful action because only action where actual holding onto light b If you see color it is not absorbed You see color that is re ected ABSORBTION IS KEY TO CAPTURING ENERGY
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