Human Geography GEOG 2050
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dr. Cristopher Deckow on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 2050 at Western Michigan University taught by David Lemberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see /class/216844/geog-2050-western-michigan-university in Geography at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Economic Gentrranhv Kevin Medrala Personal Study Guide Commodity A physical substance such as food grains and metals which is interchangeable with another product of the same type and which investors buy or sell usually through futures contracts The price of the commodity is subject to supply and demand Risk is actually the reason exchange trading of the basic agricultural products began For example a farmer risks the cost ofproducing a product ready for market at sometime in the future because he doesn39t know what the selling price will be Commodification Commodification or commoditization is the transformation ofgoods and services or things that may not normally be regarded as goods or services into a commodity Commercial Economy A commercial economy is an environment where the output is more than needed to cosume in order to survive and also get an input Social Polarization The results of segregation within a society such that the ends of the social spectrum consist oflarge social groupings which are very different from each other Famine Widespread food shortage leading to significant rise in regional death rates Blixet al 1971 Sudden sharp reduction in food supply resulting in widespread hunger Brown amp Eckholm 1974 Population Structures 7 Bee hive structure at population growth 7 Hexagonal declining population 7 Inverted Baby Bust sharp decline Examples 7 Japan Kite Shaped pop Pyramid 2050 forecast shows an even longer kite shape formation Index of Pop Growth 7 BR7DREmigration7lmmigration Human Hearth Areas 7 Southeast Asia 7 Europe 7 South Asia Why so densely populated 7 Physical environment degree of access to food and water 7 Economic and political factors stability 7 History Pconomic Genomnhv Kevin Medrala Criticism of the Malthusian Theory A great deal of criticism has been directed against the Malthusian theory on the ground that it advocated the practice ofvice as a restraint upon the tendency ofpopulation to increase more rapidly than food supply Such criticism is without just foundation Malthus did not advocate vice for the purpose of restricting population But he recognized that vice does as a matter of fact tend to restrict population There are however three principal lines of criticism which may justly be urged against Malthus First he underestimates the possibilities ofincreased food supply There is no ground for making the general assertion that as population increases from two to four food supply can increase only from two to three Under the operation of the law of diminishing returns and without changing the area ofland cultivated by the given population or changing its methods of cultivation while the labor supply increases from two to four the product could not increase from two to four but it might well increase more than from two to three But Europe during the past century has increased the area from which it draws its food supply and now depends in everiincreasing measure upon the Americas and Australia for subsistence Moreover the methods of cultivation of the soil have improved marvelously within the last century The population of England and Wales increased in the century following the publication of Malthus39 essay from nine millions to thirtyitwo and a half millions and this increase in population took place in the presence of an increasing standard of living Second there are other checks upon increase ofpopulation besides vice misery and moral restraint as defined by Malthus The desire of parents to keep their daughters with them as long as possible serves in some cases to defer marriages So too do customs which demand that the parents furnish a dowry The feminist movement the modern tendency to keep children longer in school and compulsory military service all act in the same direction Many other checks might be enumerated which do not fall under Malthus39 classification ofvice misery and moral restraint Third along with increase in numbers there is growth in national military and political strength This sometimes makes it possible for a country to exploit its weaker neighbors in an economic sense or to resist economic exploitation on the part of stronger neighbors To this extent an increase in population tends to improve the food supply Sustainable Development Economic development which ensures that the use of resources and the environment today does not compromise the needs of future generations 7 Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs It contains within it two key concepts the concept of quotneedsquot in particular the essential needs of the world39s poor to which overriding priority should be given and the idea of limitations imposed by the smte of technology and social organization on the environments ability to meet present and the future needs Brundtland Commission 1987 r S mtaz39naale development 239 aaxed an xadoimltaral development palitz39eal staazlz39g and deemum eeanamz39e growth and eeagxtemprateetz39an wbieb all relate to disaster VlJ redmtz39art Pconomic Genomnhv Kevin Medrala Conclusions to critiquesummary 7 Increase of global food trade 7 Increasing productivity of food production 7 Social changes slowing population growth rate 7 Technology promoting ef cient resource usage and sustainable development Negative Checks on Population Growth 7 Disease 7 War 7 Famine Positive Checks on Population Growth 7 Contraception 7 Delayed marriage 7 Inhibition ofpregnancy Problems with Immigration I t D 39 39 M39 39 Moving within a place or region Large proportion of people can make this intra7judicial move For eg People having to move out of Chernobyl to neighboring cities in the region because of the nuclear disaster Some problems 7 Importing a lot of fertility into the US may be an issue People aged between 10740 years old could easily increase the minority population 7 Social services can react badly to a large population in ux in the US
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