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Ocean Systems

by: Else Barrows

Ocean Systems GEOS 3220

Else Barrows
GPA 3.78

Robb Gillespie

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About this Document

Robb Gillespie
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Else Barrows on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOS 3220 at Western Michigan University taught by Robb Gillespie in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/216969/geos-3220-western-michigan-university in Geoscience at Western Michigan University.


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Date Created: 09/30/15
W W 1 Tools involved with ocean bathymetry 0 Lowering a weight on a line 85 BC ngth of line was measure and depth was determined 0 Deepestwas near 2 km 0 Echo sounders June 1922 se by beaming sound waves and measuring time waves bounced back to ship 0 Multibeam Echo Sounders 0 Satellites are used to measure small variations in the elevation of surface water using radar beams 0 Useful because pull of gravity mries across Earth39s surface Great accuracy 2 Earth39s Hypsometric Curve 8 0 Vertical Axes Elevation and Depth in km 3 0 Horizontal Axes of Earth39s area at this elevation or higher 2 ed 0 0 on the vertical axis sea level 2 c 0 The lighter continental lithosphere oats in isostatic equilibrium above the 4 I level of the heavier lithosphere ofthe ocean basins The great density of the 8 0 seabed partly explains why more than half of Earth39s solid surface is at lease 20 40 60 80 l 0 3000 meters below sea level Continental crust is thicker than oceanic crust and continental lithosphere is less dense than oceanic lithosphere The less dense lithosphere containing the continents oats in isostatic equilibrium above the level ofthe denser lithosphere containing ocean basins 3 Continental Margin 0 Continental Margin submerged outer edge ofa continent pink underlain bythe continental crust which has a thicklow density 0 Three main divisions Shallow nearly at continental shelf close to shore extension of a continent 74 ofEarth39s ocean area 2 Steeply sloped continental slope seaward usually 20 km wide and 3700 meters dee 3 Apron of sediment called 39 39 with most of the sediments being W transported to the area ofturbidity currents 0 Active Margin continental margins near the edges of converging plates near where plates are slipping past one another earthquake and volcanic activity common Pacific type margins 0 39 39 continental margins facing the edges of diverging plates little volcanic or earthquake activity Atlantic type margins 0 Continental shelves are normally underlain by granitic continental crust 0 Sea level has dropped in the last 20000 years due to glaciation Submarine Canyons cut into the continental shelf and slope often terminating on the deepsea oor in a fanshaped wedge of sediment formed by erosion ear 7 W t39 elve at right anglP to quot 4 The largest feature on Earth is the MidOcean Ridge System 9 Mid O 10 Ab 0 Ocean Ridge System The MidOcean Ridge System is the largest feature on Earth The MidOcean Ridge System is always located in the middle of the ocean As the oceanic lithosphere plate gets older it cools gets denser and oats deeper Thus old ocean oor is deeper than young ocean oor This is due to plate tectonics heating cooling and isostacy Curving chains of volcanic islands and seamounts called island arcsform from oceanocean convergence and are almost always found parallel to the concave edges of trenches Trench deep feature that parallels island arcs due to plate tectonics slab pull Also at convergentocean continent boundaries Seamount volcanic projection that does not rise above surface of sea In the Hawaiian island chain the oldest island between Oahu Hawaii and Kauai is Kauai yssal HillsPlains Abyssal Hills small sedimentcovered extinct volcanoes or intrusions of once molten rock usually less than 200 meters high 0 Form due to sea oor spreading Abyssal Plains ats featureless expanses of sediment covered by ocean oor found on the periphery ofall oceans most common in Atlantic 0 Form due to smoothing effect oflayers of sediment Abyssal plains are generated from peripheral trenches trapping most of the sediments owing from the continents Plains are atter because of the smoothing effect of the layers of sediment Abyssal plains would be more likely to be adjacent from active continental margins 12 Resources 0 Natural resource is something that can get used to your benefit that occurs without outside help Renewable resources are naturally replaced by the growth of marine organisms or by natural physical processes EX Salt Nonrenewable resources are assets that will not be replaced EX oil gas solid mineral deposits and the coral reef 13 Petroleum 0 Petroleum is almost always associated with marine sediments suggesting that the organic substances from which it was formed were one marine Planktonic organisms masses of bacteria and softbodied benthic marine animals are most likely candidates Slow cooking and pressure under sediments in the ocean completed the chemical changes for oil Oil is less dense than surrounding sediments so it can migrate toward the surface from its source rock 14 Methane gas Hydrate o It is found in some continental slopes 200500 m below the sea oor 0 We use seismic re ection 15 Manganese nndules Mustnudules are Irregularlumpsthe 5122 ufputatues and same exceed 1 meter m diameter Theyare accumulated un deeprsea uurs Theyunynate rum hemmal reamunsthat uccur pamdes dune dummant sediment 1a Du39ferences Nenucsedlmentsaresmdtube shelf Nearthetupuftheuceanmearthe surraee Pelay sediments are lucatedmthe deep neean Terngenuuslsland Ex Delta n Cusmugenuusls spade ExAstermds nmng emu well 7 Indicauun ufphyslcalprucesses at the my e accumul u n Hydmgennus sedemenun he Nenucre a1m 15 names amp Salts a M ox D ch calnumcarbunate enmpensauen depthhstherate atwhmhcalcareuus semments are suppuedm the seabed equals the rate at whmhthuse sediments dissulve In easedsulublhtyufcalnumcarbunatelsculdwaterunderpressure dissulvesthe shellsmure rapidly ZDN2nuv Pelay Nenuesedemencsaremm Nenucsemmems are nnpasavemargms Pelaglcsedlmentsaremthemmdlequheucean 21 Ocean Sediments Snenustsuse deep sea dxdhng Deep sea dnllmgalluwsustu datethe uldest sednnenmn he neean andtu sLudythe hmury dune eann furthe last my m lmnyears We date Paleumagneucreversalsmthe sea uurby daungmebeuemmesc fusslls usmgwhat we knuw abuut evnluunn chruk soNLmEW


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