Sedimentation&stratigraphy GEOS 4350
Popular in Course
Popular in Geoscience
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Else Barrows on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOS 4350 at Western Michigan University taught by David Barnes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/216973/geos-4350-western-michigan-university in Geoscience at Western Michigan University.
Reviews for Sedimentation&stratigraphy
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/30/15
Study Questions from Ch3 Nichols p2536 N D I 55J U 0quot gt1 9 0 O D ID ID I WNt I 4 U Carbonate rocks are the second most common sedimentary rock type in the geological record What is the primary origin of most carbonate sediment What are the most common skeletal fragment types that comprise carbonate allochemical grains What are the most common primary carbonate minerals Why What are the other carbonate allochemical grain types in addition to skeletal grains What general environmental conditions are indicated by these other carbonate grains What is the conceptual basis and explicit criteria for the Dunham classification scheme What is the signi cance of lime mud in a carbonate sedimentary rock Of sparry interparticle cement Of textures articles oriented in geometries that defy gravity for example indicating organic binding during deposition How does the assemblage of biogenic particles aid in the interpretation of depositional environment in carbonate dominated sedimentary successions Why is it important to recognize a component of primary volcanogenic material in a sedimentary success What are the most likely places in a plate tectonic context to find such a component Discriminate the main mineral components of mafic volcanic assemblages The main mineral components of higher silica content assemblages Describe the general type of eruptive processes common in primitivebasaltic eruptions versus recycledintermediatesilicic eruptions Compare and contrast volcanogenic and pyroclastic What are the textural terms used to distinguish volcanic eruptive fragmental material We did not talk much about the composition of normal marine waters Explain why halite might form very rapidly and in large volume under highly evaporative conditions in a highly restricted marine basin Compare and contrast the origin and occurrence of diagenetic versus primary biogenic chert Ancient organicrich sediment occurs in two fundamental modes indigenous and migrated Describe the origin and mechanisms responsible for each of these two modes of occurrence of ancient organic rich sediment Study Questions for Ch 5 Nichols pp6275 1 Describe the rigorous scienti c methodology know as sedimentary facies analysis Why is it important What is the objective 2 Sedimentary facies analysis typically incorporates information data pertaining to lithology fossil content trace fossils etc Of what value might these components of sedimentary facies analysis be and what are the terms applied to these aspects of a sedimentary rock unit for interpretive purposes 3 Compare and contrast sedimentary facies analysis and paleogeographic reconstruction 4 Which of the following phrases is kosher in terms of the sedimentary facies analysis a Crosslaminated finegrained Cruziana burrowed glauconitic sandstone facies b Lower shoreface Storm shelf facies 5 Compare and contrast quot 39 39 39 quot 39 39 and depositional systems 6 Think about the integration of sedimentary facies analysis with lithostratigraphy formations members etc More on this later Study Questions from Ch 6 and Ch 2 Nichols p 7688 and p 1024 1 Describe the various parts of the sedimentary cycle from source rock uplift to lithification see Fig 61 Describe the 4 main climate zones climate is de ned by temperature precipitation and wind patterns What factors control the global distribution of these climate belts Why are we interested in this in a sedstrat class What in uence does geomorphology more speci cally relief that is slope angle of the surface have on the production of sediment What would you think is the relative importance volumetric contribution of physical versus chemical weathering in the production of sediment Hint think about the difference between sediment production from a mountain like Mt St Helens before and after its eruption Your answer may be quite different if you consider modern earth surface conditions compared to early Paleozoic conditions preland plants and earlier in earth history What is the relationship between magmatic temperature stability and susceptibility to surface weathering of the main igneous rockforming minerals Equilibrium mineral assemblages are an important consideration for interpretation of the conditions during formation of igneous and metamorphic rocks Is this concept relevant to sedimentary rocks Why or why not or maybe with what considerations in mind What are the most important detrital particles in sandstone Why What are some important miscellaneous or accessory minerals in sandstone Your text presents a different sandstone classification compared to the Folk Andrews and Lewis version I provided for lab work The main difference is exclusion of the concept of wacke poorly sorted sandstone in Nichols Actually wackes are quite uncommon This concept might require more discussion Think about the rare sedimentary processes that might produce wackes Distinguish between a biogenic and an authigenic orthochemical component in a sandstone What are their origins and implications What is glauconite Ave you ever seen glauconite gt7 4 How do the terms availability chemical stability and mechanical durability relate to the occurrence of grain types in sandstone Why so much emphasis on sandstone petrology compared to mudrock petrology What is the origin of most clay minerals in sedimentary rocks 15 What are the names for the common clay mineral groups What compositional characteristics are in common amongst the clay mineral groups What are the distinct compositional and structural characteristics of the main clay mineral groups 16 What are the basic concepts related to xray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscope SEM analysis Why are these techniques especially appropriate for mudrock petrology 17 What is the depositional implication of a clay size rich sediment 18 Think abut the concept of terrigenous clastic sediment maturity What is the basic concept in terms of texture and mineralogy Does maturity mean much for sandstone For mudstone What are some obVious limitations to the concept of maturity An interesting treatment of The trouble With sedimentary rocks can be found at Lynn Fichter s WWW site httn39 c mre imn J geollabFichterSede Also you might look through httpc mre imn J geollabFichterSedeo39 39 39 quot39 html 1 I ll htm Vocabulary l Hydrolysis Solution Oxidation 2 3 relief 4 climate arid humid temperate 5 in situ 6 regolith 7 indurate 8 Goldich weathering stability series O HHHHHHHHH poucxuAmNHO39 l9 Arenite detrital stable heavy minerals unstable heavy minerals lithic or rock fragments mud silt clay size clay mineral fissility suspension transport cohesion occulation in clay sized particles textural and mineralogical maturit
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'